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Professor A. V W Jackson,
Mr Henry T Finck
Professor Robert M. Brown, Honorable FOLK MUSIC
Dr C F Lan, worthy Dr Alfred
Dr. Edwin West Allen
Dr. Albert Warren Ferris
Professor A. V. W. Jackson: Dr Lous FOOD, PRESERVATION OF
Mr Herbert Treadwell Wade. FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION Professor Charles P. Warren.
Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade.
(Neo-Lat., from Gk. EvTepov, enteron, intestine). Inflammation of the bowels, and especially of their muscular and serous coat, accompanied by pain, colic (q.v.), and diarrhoea (q.v.), or dysentery (q.v.). Enteritis in children (see CHOLERA INFANTUM) is often fatal. It attacks the entire digestive tract, generally being a gastroenteritis. Abstinence from food, washing the colon with large enemata of water, and sterilization of drinking water are essential in the treatment of these cases. In adults enteritis is benefited by mild purgation, followed by opiates and fasting. If the colon is attacked, the term used is colitis, properly a subdivision of enteritis. Typhlitis is an inflammation of and about the cæcum (q.v.), and appendicitis (sec VERMIFORM APPENDIX) is an inflammation of the appendix. These are dangerous and frequently fatal. Rest, opiates, and poultices or ice may ameliorate some cases. Operation is generally necessary in appendicitis. In all cases the diag nosis and treatment must be left to the physician.
In the Lower Animals. Inflammation of the bowels, among the heavier breeds of horses, generally results from some error of diet, such as a long fast, followed by a large, hastily devoured meal, indigestible or easily fermentable food, or large drafts of water at improper times. When thus produced, it is frequently preceded by stomach staggers or colic, affects chiefly the mucous coat of the large intestines, and often runs its course in from 8 to 12 hours. With increasing fever and restlessness, the pulse soon rises to 70 or upward, and in this respect, unlike colic, continues throughout considerably above the natural standard of 40 beats per minute. The pain is great, but the animal, instead of recklessly throwing himself about as in colic, arises and lies down cautiously. When standing, the horse frequently turns his head backward and looks at his flanks. Respiration is quickened, the bowels are torpid. Cold sweats, stupor, and occasionally delirium, precede death. When connected with, or occurring as a sequel to, influenza, laminitis, and other complaints, the small intestines are as much affected as the large, and the peritoneal as well as the mucous coat of the bowels. This form is more common in the lighter breeds. When the patient is seen early, while the pulse is still clear and distinct and not above 60, and the
legs and ears are warm, bloodletting is useful, as it relieves the overloaded vessels, and prevents that exudation of blood which speedily exudes into the interior of the bowels in cases of hemor rhagic enteritis. This disease should be treated as follows: In a pint of oil, or an infusion of two drams of aloes in hot water, give a scruple of calomel and an ounce of laudanum, and repeat the calomel and laudanum every hour in gruel until the bowels are opened, or until five or six doses are given. Encourage the action of the bowels by using, every half hour, soap-andwater clysters, to which add laudanum so long as pain and straining continue. If the animal is nauseated and stupid, with a cold skin, weak, quick pulse, bleeding and reducing remedies are very injurious; and the only hope lies in following up one dose of the calomel and aloes with small doses of laudanum and sweet spirit of nitre, or other stimulants, repeated every 40 minutes. In all stages woolen cloths wrung out of hot water and applied to the belly encourage the action of the bowels and relieve the pain.
Enteritis in cattle is produced by coarse, wet pasture, acrid or poisonous plants, bad water, and overdriving. The symptoms are fever and thirst, a quick but rather weak pulse, restless twitching up of the hind limbs, tenderness of the belly, torpidity of the bowels, and cessation of rumination. Calves generally die in three or four days, other cattle in a week or nine days. Bleed early, open the bowels with a pint of oil and a dram of calomel, which may be repeated in 8 or 10 hours if no effect is produced. Give, every hour, 15 drops of Fleming's tincture of aconite in water, until six or seven doses are given. Allow only sloppy and laxative food, such as molasses, gruel, or a thin bran mash; employ clysters and hot cloths to the belly and use two-ounce doses of laudanum if the pain is great. Enteritis in sheep mostly occurs in cold, exposed localities, and where flocks are subjected to great privations or improper feeding.
EN TEROHEPATITIS. See BLACKHEAD. ENTFÜHRUNG AUS DEM SERAIL, DIE, ent-fu'rung ous dem så-ri' or så-ril' (I Seraglio). An opera by Mozart (q.v.), first produced in Vienna, July 13, 1782; in the United States, October, 1862 (New York).
EN THYMEME (Gk. ¿vovunua, enthumima, argument, from év@vueiobai, enthymeisthai, to ponder, from év, en, in + Ovμós, thymos, mind). A term used by Aristotle to denote a syllogism
"from probabilities and signs"; now a technical name in logie for a syllogism with one of its premises or its conclusion unexpressed For instance, "The steamship Rio Janeiro could not have been built in water tight compartments, for it sank in 15 minutes the suppressed prem. ise being, "No steamship built in water-tight compartments sinks in 15 minutes" Almost all ordinary argumentation is conducted in enthy memes See DEDUCTION; Louic
ENTIRETY (from entire, OF., Fr. entier, It. intero, from Lat. integer, whole, from is, not +tangere, to touch), IFNANCY RY, The form of joint estate which subsists between husband and wife Like the ordinary joint estate, it arises upon a conveyance or devise to the two persons together who are to hold the premises, and, like that also, it is attended with the right of survivorship, as incident to the estate, the interest of the one dying first passing to the other and not to the heirs of the decedent. But the circumstance that the joint tenants are here husband and wife, and have therefore identical interests in the property, has differentiated the tenancy by entirety in some important respects from joint tenancy proper. The joint tenant may ordinarily convey his interest separately from his cotenants, thereby dissolving the joint estate and destroying the right of survivorship. But this is not permitted in the case of a tenancy of the entirety; neither can the estate be partitioned during the existence of the marriage relation, though it is dissolved by a divorce and the parties thereupon converted into joint tenants or tenants in common, usually the latter.
The estate is one which is much favored by the law, and it has accordingly been generally held that it is not affected by statutes abolishing joint tenancies, or creating a presumption in favor of tenancies in common; nor yet by the more recent legislation known as the mar ried women's acts, whereby a wife is rendered capable of holding and conveying real estate free from the control of her husband. But in a few States the contrary view has been taken, and in a few others the tenancy by entirety has never been recognized. In most of the United States, however, the estate still exists without material change in the characteristics which it had at the common law, See HUSBAND AND WIFE, and the authorities there referred to,
ENTOMB ́MENT, THE. A frequent subject of paintings, representing the burial of Christ. One of the most celebrated is that by Raphael, painted in 1507, for the church of San Francesco, Perugia, and now in the Palazzo Borghese, Rome. The finest representation of the subject is by Titian in the Louvre (1523). It shows the body of Christ suspended in a cloth, borne to the sepulchre by Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea. St. John supports one arm, and to the left are the Virgin and the Magdalen. It is a consummate masterpiece, not only in technique (the composition, color, and chiaro scuro being especially effective), but as a sublime and profound expression of religious feeling. Another example by Titian (1559) is now in the Madrid Gallery. Tintoretto also painted two masterly pictures on the subject—one in the Parma Gallery, the other in San Francesco della Vigna, Venice. Caravaggio's celebrated "Entombment" (see CARAVAGGIO for reproduetion is in the Vatican Gallery. Other wellknown representations of the subject are by the Italian masters Gaudenzio Ferrari (Turin),
Annibale Carracci (Louvre), Garafalo (Palazzo Borghese, Rome), and the sculptor Donatello South Kensington Museum, London); and by t'e Flemish painters Rogier van der Weyden it ffizi, Florence), Quentin Matsys (Antwerp), and Van Dyck (Antwerp). ENTOMIS, ên'tô mis. A genus of minute fossil ostracods with subovate or fabiform shell, the valves of which are characterized by a deep submedian vertical furrow extending to the hinge line. The genus ranges from the Ordovician to the Carboniferous period, but its remains are most profuse in the Devonian strata. The species Entomis servato striata composes certain beds of the Upper Devonian of middle Europe, Nee OSTRACODA.
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, AMERICAN. An organization for the investigation of the character and habits of insects, founded at Philadelphia in 1859, incorporated in 1862, and known until 1867 as the Entomological Society of Philadelphia. The results of its investigations are published in its Proceedings and Transactions, beginning in 1861, and also in the Entomological News, the latter issued monthly with the cooperation of the entomological sec tion of the Academy of Natural Sewners of Philadelphia. It owns a valuable entomological collection and library. Membership in 1914 was
from Gk. évreuer, entomon, insect, from er, en, in + ropŃ, tomé, a cutting, from regreir, temnein, to cut +λoyia, logia, account, from Aryer, legein, to say). That part of the science of zoology which treats of insects, See Instet.
EN TOMOPH'ILOUS PLANT (from Gk. Erropor, entomon, insect + silor, philos, dear, from chair, philein, to love). A plant whose pollen is carried from one flower to another by means of inserta A contrasting phrase 18 "anemophilous plant," meaning one whome pollen is carried about by the wind. See POL
ENTOMOPHTHORALES, ♪n'tô möf'thô-rå′lêz (Neo Lat., from Gk. Propor, entomon, insect + géopa, phthora, destruction). A group of parasitic fungi fatal to insects, the common house fly often being destroyed by them. ine spore in germination sends out a tube that penetrates the body of the inseet, which finally be comes filled with the mycelium of the fungus, The dead bodies of flies may be seen adhering to a windowpane often surrounded by a halo of aporea,
EN TOMOS TRACA (Neo Lat. nom. pl., from Ok, értekor, entomon, insect ostrakom, shell). One of the two subclasses of crustaceans (qv.). Many of them are minute and exist in great numbers both in fresh and salt water, particularly in stagnant or nearly stagnant fresh water, affording to many kinds of fishes their principal food They differ much in general form the number of organs of locomotion is also various -in some, few, in some, more than 100--usually adapted for swimming only and attached to the posterior as well as to the anterior segments; but there never is a fine like expansion of the tail, as in some of the malacostracous crustaceans. The body is diviREble into two parts, a head and a trunk, but the latter shows no differentiation into thorax and abdomen. The antenna are generally well de veloped and are often used, especially the second pair, as organs of locomotion. Some of the kn
tomostraca have mouths fitted for mastication and some for suction. Not a few are parasitic. The heart has the form of a long vessel. The organs of respiration are in certain species attached to some of the organs of locomotion, in the form of hairs, often grouped into beards, combs, or tufts; or bladelike expansions of the anterior legs are subservient to the purpose of respiration; in others no special organs of res piration are known to exist. The nervous system, like that of most arthropoda (q.v.), consists of a brain or supra-esophageal ganglion and a more or less elongated double ventral cord connected with it by a commissure on each side of the esophagus and provided with six or seven pairs of ganglia. In most entomostracans, however, the nervous system is more concentrated, sometimes to such an extent that it consists of a single ganglionic mass, through which the œsophagus passes. The eyes are of two distinct sorts; nearly all the species have a median unpaired eye, sometimes well developed and sometimes greatly reduced. Many forms also have a pair of lateral eyes, which are sometimes stalked. The name Entomostraca has been given to these creatures in consequence of most of the species having shells of many pieces, rather horny than calcareous, and very delicate, generally almost membranous and transparent. many the shell consists of two valves, including more or less of the body, capable of being completely closed, but which, at the pleasure of the animal, can also be opened so as to permit the antennæ and feet to be stretched out.
The Entomostraca comprise many thousand species, which are readily grouped in four great orders, according to the arrangement and structure of the shell and appendages: PHYLLOPODA ; (STRACODA; COPEPODA; CIRRIPEDIA (qq.v.). EN'TOPHYTE. See ENDOPHYTE.
EN'TOZO'A (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Gk. Evrós, entos, within+ov, zoon, animal), or ENDOPARASITES. Parasitic animals living within the tissues or organs of other animals. term "entozoa" or "enterozoa" was formerly extensively used, especially for the internal parasites of man. In recent years the name has fallen into disuse, because it did not include a natural assemblage of forms, but animals of several different types. The opposite term is “ectozoa" or "epizoa"-the former designating parasites resident upon or within the skin, and the latter the same with more particular reference to crustaceous parasites of fishes. See PAR ASITE; FLATWORM; TAPEWORM; Fluke; GUINEA WORM; ROUNDWORM: ETC.
ENTRECASTEAUX, Ix'tr'-ka'st', JOSEPH ANTOINE BRUNI, CHEVALIER D' (1739-93). French navigator, born at Aix (Provence). entered the navy at the age of 15 and three years later won the grade of ensign for valor displayed during the battle of Minorca (1756). In 1786 he became commander of the East India Station, and in 1787 he was appointed Governor of Mauritius and the Isle of Bourbon. He later explored New Caledonia (1791-92), where he was sent in search of the missing expedition of La Pérouse, and discovered several groups of islands. He died at sea, off the north coast of New Guinea, July 20, 1793. His name is perpetuated in the Entrecasteaux Archipelago; Entrecasteaux Point, on the southwestern coast of Australia; and in Entrecasteaux Channel, between Tasmania and Bruni Island. Consult Voyage d'Entrecasteàux á la recherche
de La Pérouse (1808), and also Hulot's D'Entrecasteaux (Paris, 1894).
ENTRE DOURO E MINHO, AN'tre dōi-ro à me'nyo ('between Douro and Minho'), or MINHO. A province of Portugal, bounded by Spain, from which it is separated by the Minho on the north, the Portuguese Province of Trazos-Montes on the east, the river Douro on the south, and the Atlantic on the west (Map: Portugal, A 2). Area, 2808 square miles. The surface is broken and mountainous, with some snow-capped peaks in the eastern part. numerous streams afford irrigation facilities, and the soil is well cultivated. For adminis trative purposes the province is divided into the three districts of Vianna do Castello, Braga, and Porto (Oporto). It is the most densely populated province of Portugal. Pop., 1890, 1,091,936; 1900, 1,170,361; 1911, 1,289,066.
ENTRE MINHO E DOURO. Form of name preferred by the Portuguese for ENTRE DOURO E MINHO (q.v.), or MINHO.
ENTREMONT, COMTE D'. See L'HOPITAL.
ENTRE RIOS, an'trâ re'ôs ('between rivers'). A province of Argentina, bounded by the Province of Corrientes on the north, Uruguay River on the east, and the Paraná on the south and west (Map: America, S., H 4). Area, 28.792 square miles. The country is generally flat, well wooded, and well watered. Cattle raising and agriculture are the principal occupations of the inhabitants. The province is amply provided with transportation facilities through its railways and navigable waterways. The chief exports are animal products. Pop., 1892, 367,000; 1912 (official estimate), 429,348. Capital,
EN TRESOL, Fr. pron. äN'tr'-sol' (Fr. entre, between + sol, ground). A low story between two main stories of a building (generally between the ground floor and the main story), or inserted in the upper portion of a high story, when certain rooms are of greater height than the others upon the same floor. It is sometimes called the mezzanine floor. See MEZZANINE.
ENTROCHITE. See BEADS, ST. CUTHBERT's. ENTRO/PION, or ENTROPIUM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. évтponía, entropia, érтporn, entrope, introversion, from év, en, in + Tрérеw, trepein, to turn). Inversion of the margin of the eyelid, consequent either on loss of substance (“cicatricial entropion") or on spasmodic contraction of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle which closes the eyelids ("spasmodic entropion"). The latter form occurs chiefly in old persons, in whom the skin of the eyelid is relaxed and the eyeball sunken. The symptoms are due to the irritation of the cornea by the eyelashes, which are inverted and rub against it. (See TRICHIASIS.) Removal of the lashes may relieve temporarily, but unless the cause can be removed operation is necessary.
ENTROPY. See ENERGETICS; THERMODY
ENTRY. The entrance into a mine. The term usually refers to a level or sloping entrance into a coal mine and is rarely used in connection with metal mines,
ENTRY, RIGHT OF. In the common law, the right to consummate an inchoate or incomplete title to land by taking possession thereof. This right is in legal theory coextensive with the right of possession, but it carries with it the implication that such possession is wrongfully