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Mr. Adams, on Thursday, March the 28th.-Zealand 1782. the fame on the 4th of April:-Overyffel on the 5th: -Groningen on the 9th :-Utrecht on the 10th :-and Guilderland on the 17th of April. On Friday the 19th, it was refolved by the deputies of the States General, that Mr. Adams be admitted and acknowledged. The next day he waited on Mr. Boreel who prefided that week, and presented to him a letter from congrefs, dated Jan. 1, 1781, containing a credence. On Monday the April 22d it was refolved, "That the faid Mr. Adams is agreeable to their high mightineffes; that he shall be acknowledged in quality of minifter plenipotentiary; and that there fhall be granted to him an audience, or affigned commiffioners, when he fhall demand it.”

22.

"Do not you think that the Dutchmen have behaved bravely at laft? It is a great deal for them, after fo long a neglect of all enterprife, and fuch a fettled devotion to gain, to aspire at being the second power in Europe to acknowledge American independence, which they have done with great eclat. They never did any thing with more good will. They think it with reafon one of the brightest periods of their hiftory. It was the naval battle of Dogger's Bank which raised their courage. When they found that the fingers of their marine warriors had not forgotten to fight, they began to think that they might venture upon a political manœuvre *.

The Dutch are chagrined with the intelligence from Baffora, contained in the London Gazette of April the 13th, and are apprehensive that their fettlements of Sadras, Hulicat and Bimlipatam, with fome other places to the northward of Madras, and Chinfura in Bengal, * A letter from the Hague.

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VOL. IV.

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1782. together with Negapatam their principal fettlement on the coaft of Coromandel, are actually in the poffeffion of the British. They had fome weeks before heard of the fuccefsful expedition, which had been carried on against Padang, and their other factories on the west coast of Sumatra. But they conclude from the British publications, that the French had recovered Demarara and Iffequibo for them about the end of January *. The fame Gazette mentions, that Hyder Ally had been fo repeatedly and totally defeated, as to be obliged to retreat to his own territories.

What follows will afford you peculiar pleasure, as favoring the rights of conscience, and militating against ecclefiaftic tyranny.

A circular letter was fent the last year through all the different districts of Bohemia, with the following notice

"That his Imperial majefty was refolved to grant to all the proteftants in his hereditary dominions, liberty of confcience; and that all the natives of his hereditary dominions, who had become voluntary exiles on account of religion, might return in the fullest conviction, that they never fhould be difturbed in future on the score of religion." The emperor has likewife caufed an edict of the 28th of laft November, to be published at Bruffels, abfolving the religious orders in the Low Countries from all foreign independence whatsoever. On the 19th of January, the following notification appeared in the Vienna Gazette-" Notice is hereby given to all thofe who have hitherto kept out of their country on account of the religion they profefs, that his majesty pardons them, on condition that they return in the course

They furrendered to the French by capitulation, Feb. 3, 1782.

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of the year 1782, promifing that they fhall enjoy the 1782 fame benefits as those who, on account of religion, had quitted the place of their birth, and taken up their abode in other provinces belonging to his faid majefty." His majesty has moreover abolished several religious orders, His edict for the abolition of various convents has taken place at Prague, Brunn, Olmutz, &c. and the nuns and friars are freed from their vows. The poffeffions of the already abolished monasteries exceed what could be imagined. It is faid to be the intention of his majesty, to appropriate all the money he may obtain by the abolitions to charitable uses.

The emperor has caufed a refcript to be circulated throughout his dominions, containing the reafons and principles which have induced him to disclaim all fubordination to the pope in fecular affairs. They are in fhort thefe" That it is the higheft abfurdity to pretend that the fucceffors of the apoftles had a divine right to more authority than they themselves ever exerted: nor is any man ignorant, that our Lord Jefus Chrift only charged them with functions entirely fpiritual: 1ft, With the preaching of the gospel. 2dly, With the care of the propagation of it. 3dly, With the administration of the facraments, (that is, of those which are spiritual.) 4thly, With the care of the church." They are the fame principles as were published by father Paul in his Rights of fovereigns and fubjects: or to ascend to a much higher authority, in the Books of the New Testament, by the Supreme Head of the christian church, who declared, mỳ kingdom is not of this world.

The measures adopted and perfifted in by the emperor, occafioned great commotions at Rome.

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THE HISTORY OF THE

1782. pope had several conferences on the fubject with his cardinals, in which, notwithstanding his great age, he determined on a journey to Vienna. This was notified to his moft dear fon in Jefus Chrift, Jofeph, illustrious apoftolic king of Hungary, alfo of Bohemia, king elect of the Romans, in a brief addressed to him, and given at Rome by Pope Pius VI. on the fifteenth of December 1781, and of his pontificate the 7th year. Jofeph in his answer told his moft holy father, that he should receive him with all the respect and attention due to his exalted station; but that the journey would be fuperfluous, as he was abfolutely determined in his judgment. The journey was however undertaken; and the fovereign Roman pontiff arrived at Vienna March the 22d, where he remained till April the 22d, when he fet out on his return to Rome, fully convinced that his moft dear fon had fent him a true answer.

Feb.

23.

LETTER VIII.

Roxbury, May 23, 1782.

THE

HE acts of congrefs demand our first attention. On the 23d of February, they refolved to authorize the commander in chief to agree to the exchange of earl Cornwallis, by compofition, provided that the

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honorable Henry Laurens efq; fhall be liberated and pro- 1782. per affurances obtained, that all accounts for the fupport of the convention prifoners, and all other prifoners of war, fhall be speedily fettled and discharged.

The success which had attended the operation of the allied forces in Virginia, and other favorable appearances confpiring, the French court turned their attention toward the procuring from congrefs the appointment of thofe American commiffioners for negotiating a peace, and with those instructions, that would be perfectly agreeable to them. Sundry communications from their minister plenipotentiary were laid before that august body of delegates from the United States, which were referred to the secretary for foreign affairs, who on the 8th of February delivered in a report, part of which was agreed to, and the remainder referred to a committee. Mr. John Adams was fo far from being approved of by Monf. de Vergennes, as the fole negotiator in that im-. portant business, that the French minifter labored to have him wholly excluded; and complained heavily of his stiffness and tenacioufnefs. Letters had paffed between them upon the fubject of the refolve for fixing the paper money at forty for one, which Vergennes confidered as an act of bankruptcy. Mr. Adams perfifted in defending the proceeding with fo much refolution, that the French minifter at length informed him, that the king enjoined filence for the future on the subject. The measures which had been purfued in Holland by Mr. Adams, were also difpleafing, as they traverfed the policy of the French court. Letters were at length fent to the French plenipotentiary at Philadelphia, expreffing the opinion of his court, that they shouldR 3

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