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Near the end of April he obferved, that the efficient 1782. operating force of the northern army could be no more than 7,553 rank and file; and that he should be uncandid, was he not to acknowledge, that he did not expect it would be increased by recruits in the courfe of the campaign to more than 10,000 fit for duty in the field. He estimated the royal force in New York, including their established corps of provincials at 9,000, and their militia refugees and independent companies at 4000, in all 13,000; befide about 3,300 at Charlestown, and about 700 at Savannah.

The bank of North America opened at Philadelphia on the 7th of January. Through the establishment of it, Mr. Morris, the financier, was enabled to fupport credit, and to keep things in motion till the 23d of April April. Without that he must have stopped; for the 23. public money was exhausted, and he had not at that hour received one farthing from any ftate in the union. There was too much caufe for complaining of a dif graceful languor in most of the governments; and which has its origin in selfish views, party spirit or worse motives. The ftates were half a million of dollars in debt on this year's taxes, which had been raised by anticipa→ tion on that system of credit which Mr. Morris had created. On the 14th of May he thus expreffed himself May in a letter to gov. Hancock-" On the 1ft of January 14 1782, with a heavy arrearage for 1781, unpaid on the face of the requifitions of congrefs, I had to provide for a three months expenditure, when no man would trust the public for a fingle dollar: your legislature knew the ftate of public credit as well as I did. Inftead of providing money for the 1ft of April, they have made no


1782. effort for that purpose which can take effect before the ift of June. Now then let us fuppofe every ftate in the union to be as negligent, and many of them are much more fo, what can gentlemen promise themselves. I apprehend the moft terrible confequences. I beg you to press an immediate payment of money, the neceffity of which it is not eafy to conceive, nor prudent to declare." The French king allotted in December laft fix millions of livres to the assistance of the United States, and the financier was allowed to draw for 500,000 tournais monthly. This was but half he asked for; and he hopes that the other fix millions may be granted, as that arrangement had been made before the arrival of the marquis de la Fayette. The most peremptory declarations however attended that grant, that it was all the United States were to have. Previous to the receipt of the news of the grant, the financier had been obliged to hazard drafts for 500,000 livres, and to order Dr. Franklin to refell the goods bought in Holland, if he had no other means of paying the bills. He requefted the minister of France, and the secretary of foreign affairs, and the fecretary at war, to keep the grant from congrefs, and all other perfons, as much as poffible, through fear that if it came to the knowledge of the feveral legiflatures, they who had not paffed their tax bills, would no longer think it neceffary to pass them, and instead of exerting themselves, would hang their hopes on foreign aid.

The affairs of South Carolina and Georgia fhall now be related.

General Greene's army took its position on col. Sanders's plantation at Round O, on the 7th of last De


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cember. On the 14th, the general wrote to the Ame- 1782. rican board of war-" We cannot advance upon the enemy for want of ammunition, though we have been in readiness more than ten days. I have not a quire of paper in the world, nor are there two in the army. We broil most of our meat, for want of camp kettles." On



the 4th of January, he congratulated the army on the Jan. arrival of major general St. Clair and the reinforcement under his command. Within a week after, the army moved down to Jacksonborough (about 35 miles from Charlestown) fo to Stono, and then on the 16th to col. Skerving's, on the eaft fide of the Edifto, about 5 miles from Jackfonborough. Greene left it when the movement commenced, and croffing the Edifto, proceeded to join the light troops under cols. Lee and Laurens. He informed the fecretary at war from his head quarters near Charlestown on the 23d-" I would order the returns you require, but we really have not paper to make them on, not having had for months past even paper to make provision returns, or to record the neceffary returns of the army." The next day he wrote-" Since we have been in the lower country, through the difficulty of transportation we were four weeks without ammunition, while there was a plenty of this article at Charlotte. We lay within a few miles of the enemy with not fix rounds a man. Had they got knowledge and availed themselves of our fituation, they might have ruined us. The ftates here are become fo tardy, as to regard representations little more than idle dreams, or an eastern tale. We may write till we are blind; and the local policy of the ftates, in perfect fecurity, will counteract our wifhes." The following extracts from


1782. his letters will be the most acceptable medium of conveying his fentiments-" Jan. 28th. I was well informed you had let in fome prejudices to my disadvantage, fuch as my being more influenced by men than measures, and that in the field I had neither activity nor enterprise. However mortifying these things were, my pride would not permit me to undeceive you; and such was my fituation at that time, that it would have been dificult, if not impracticable, had I attempted it. My military conduct must speak for itself. I have only to obferve, that I have not been at liberty to follow my own genius till lately, and here I have had more embarraffments than is proper to disclose to the world. Let it fuffice to fay, that this part of the United States has had a narrow escape. I was feven months in the field without taking my clothes off one night." [He only took them off to change his linen.] "Feb. 6th. You can have little idea of the confufion and disorder, which prevail among the fouthern ftates. The scenes change fo faft, and the operation of law is so feeble, that it is almost impoffible to give any regular tone, to any kind of business. Stores are fubject to fuch wafte, and fuch abuses prevail upon the lines of communication, as well as posts, that it is next to impoffible to keep the public from being impofed upon. Our difficulties are so numerous, and our wants fo preffing, that I have not a moment's relief from the most painful anxieties."-" Feb. 8th. The little money Mr. Morris has received from Europe, it is well known, was granted by the king of France, for the fpecial purpose of paying the army." "Feb. 18th. Lieut. col. Lee retires for a time for the recovery of his health. I am more indebted to this





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officer than any other, for the advantages gained over 1782. the enemy in the operations of laft campaign, and should be wanting in gratitude, not to acknowledge the importance of his fervices, a detail of which is his best panegyric." "" March 11th. A great part of our 11. troops are in a deplorable fituation for want of clothing. We have 300 men without arms; and more than 1000 are fo naked, that they can only be put on duty in cases of a defperate nature. We have been all the winter in want of arms and clothing; and yet both upon the road, though neither could reach us, from the want of means for transporting our ftores by land through an April extensive and exhausted country."-" April 13th. The 13. want of clothing, pay and better fubfiftence, and being altogether without fpirits, has given a murmuring and discontented tone to the army, and the face of mutiny discovers itself. I feel much for this department. No part of Saxony, during the laft war, I believe, ever felt the ravaging hand of war with greater severity, than it has been felt here. Our number is greatly inferior at present to the enemy: foon and most of the North Caro lina brigade leaves us.' [It has been computed, that fourteen hundred widows were made by the ravaging hand of war, in the fingle diftrict of Ninety Six.]"April 22. Discontent is daily increafing, and the spirit of mutiny very prevalent. It seems to have originated in the Pennsylvania line; and the parties have endeavoured to fpread the contagion through the army with appearances of fuccefs. I have been able to prove the fact but on one person, whom I ordered to be fhot this day. He was a fergeant and had much influence in the line. I wish this example may deter them from the


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