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great number of other towns and villages in Scotland. 1781. The proteftant affociation at Glasgow made a fubfcription of feveral hundred pounds, toward defraying his lordfhip's expences. It has been fuggefted, that government did not wish to convict his lordship for fear of offending too many of the Scots.

The garrison and inhabitants of Gibraltar, having received no fupplies of provifion from Great Britain fince the beginning of the preceding year, nor from the Barbary shores, nor the most diftant coafts of Africa, were reduced to extreme diftrefs. The governor, ever fince October, made a reduction of a quarter of a pound from each man's daily allowance of bread, Their meat was reduced to a pound and a half in the week, and at length was scarcely eatable. The inhabitants had to pay for bad fhip biscuit, full of worms, a fhilling a pound; the fame for flour in no better condition; eighteen pence for falt, the fweepings of fhips bottoms and storehoufes; half a crown for old Irish falt butter; and the fame for the worft brown fugar. When the arrival of the veffels from the Mediterranean opened a market for fresh provisions, turkies fold for 31. 12s. a piece; fucking pigs at two guineas; ducks at half a guinea; and small hens at nine fhillings. A guinea was refused for a calf's pluck; and one pound seven fhillings for an oxhead. The intereft and honor of Great Britain were deeply engaged in the timely relief of that fortress. It was accordingly one of the first objects of government in the commencement of the year; and the grand fleet under the conduct of adms. Darby, Digby, and Sir J. Lockhart Rofs, was fitted out early for this fervice: but only 28 fail of the line could be fpared. The French

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1781. had, at the fame time, a fleet little inferior either in


number or force, nearly ready for sea at Brest.

Mar, The British fleet failed with the great East and Weft India convoys: but met with a delay on the coaft of Ireland, in waiting for the victuallers from Corke, which were to proceed with them to Gibraltar. The East and West India convoys having proceeded on their respective voyages, the British fleet with 97 tranfports, store ships and victuallers, arrived off Cadiz before the middle of April April. Don Cordova with the Spanish fleet, had put 12. into the harbour; and adm. Darby having explored the

fame, forwarded the convoy to Gibraltar, with fome
men of war and frigates to cover them, while he cruifed
with the main body of the fleet off the Streights mouth
to watch the enemy. The Spaniards had been for fome
time employed in conftructing a number of
gun and
bomb boats. The gun boats carried each a long 26
pounder, which threw fhot further than any fhip's guns
could reach. This force was rendered ftill more dan-
gerous by the addition of the bomb boats upon a fimilar
conftruction. With these they cannonaded and bom-
barded the British fhips every morning, till the wind, at
its ftated hour, began to fpring up, when they fled and
were pursued in vain. But they failed in their grand
object, and no material damage was done to any part of
the fhipping.

Nothing could be more grievous to Spain than this
relief. She feems to have fet her heart so entirely on the
recovery of Gibraltar, as not to have had another object
in the war.
The whole naval and military force of the
kingdom, and its refources of every fort, appear to
have been directed mainly to that fingle point. These


various powers were called into action, and the unfortu- 1781. nate town, with its miferable inhabitants, were the victims of her indignation. One hundred and seventy pieces of cannon, of the heaviest metal, and eighty mortars, difgorged their tremendous torrents of fire all at once upon that narrow fpot. This dreadful cannonade and bombardment was continued night and day, for a confiderable time, without intermiffion. Nothing could be more fplendidly magnificent, or dreadfully fublime, than the view and report of this tremendous scene, to those who obferved them from the neighbouring hills of Barbary and Spain during the night; especially in the beginning, when the cannonade of the enemy being returned by gen. Elliot, with ftill fuperior power and greater fiercenefs, the whole rock feemed to vomit out fire, and all diftinction of parts was loft in flame and smoke. The artillery officers and engineers in the garrifon computed, that during more than three weeks from the first attack, the Spaniards continued regularly to expend, at least, a thousand barrels of gunpowder, of a hundred weight each, and to fire from four to five thousand shot and fhells, in every 24 hours upon the fortrefs. After discharging 75,000 shot, and 25,000 fhells in this course of firing, it was lowered to about 600 of both in the 24 hours.

When admiral Rodney returned from New York to St. Lucie toward the clofe of the last year, the reports of the dismantled ftate of St. Vincent through the hurricane, induced him and gen. Vaughan to undertake an expedition for the recovery of that island: but after landing a number of troops with the marines, on the 16th of December, and continuing a day on the island, the


1781. French were found in fuch force, and their works in fuch condition, that the commanders were obliged to reimbark the troops without venturing upon an attack.


Not much more than a month after this attempt, the commanders, in confequence of inftructions from Great Britain, directed their views to the reduction of the Dutch ifland St. Euftatia. This ifland, though barren and contemptible in itself, had long been the feat of a lucrative and prodigious commerce; and might be confidered as the grand free port of the Weft Indies and America, and as a general market and magazine to all nations. Its richest harvests however, were during the seasons of warfare among its neighbours, owing to its neutrality and fituation with its unbounded and unclogged freedom of trade. The island is a natural fortification; and has but one landing place, which may be easily rendered impracticable to an enemy. The inhabitants, though not very numerous, included a portion of the natives of almost all trading countries.

The British fleet and army appeared before and fur3. rounded St. Euftatia with a great force, Rodney and Vaughan fent a peremptory fummons to the governor, to furrender the inland and its dependencies within an hour; accompanied with a threat, that if any resistance was made he must abide the confequences, Mr. de Graaff, totally ignorant of the rupture between Great Britain and Holland, could scarcely believe the officer, who delivered the fummons, to be serious. But he returned for answer, that being utterly incapable of making any defence, he muft of neceffity furrender, only recommending the town and inhabitants to the clemency of the British commanders. The wealth of the place excited

excited the astonishment of the conquerors. The whole 1781. ifland feemed to be one vaft magazine. All the ftorehoufes were filled with various commodities; and the very beach was covered with hogfheads of fugar and tobacco, The value was eftimated confiderably above three millions sterling. But this was only a part; for above 150 veffels of all denominations, many of them richly laden, were captured in the bay, exclufive of a Dutch frigate of 38 guns, and five smaller.

The neighbouring fmall ifles of St. Martin and Saba were reduced in the fame manner; and Rodney being informed, that a fleet of about 30 large fhips, richly laden with fugar and other West India commodities, had failed from Euftatia for Holland just before his arrival, under convoy of a flag fhip of 60 guns, he dispatched the Monarch and Panther with the Sybil frigate, in purfuit of them. These foon overtook the convoy; and the Dutch admiral, refufing to ftrike his colours, and all remonftrances proving ineffectual, a fhort engagement took place between his fhip the Mars and the Monarch. He died bravely in defence of his fhip; when the inftantly ftruck, and the whole convoy was taken.

This is one of the fevereft blows that Holland could have received. The Dutch West India company, with the magistracy and citizens of Amfterdam, are great fufferers upon the occafion. But the greatest weight of the calamity feems to have fallen on the British merchants, who confiding in the neutrality of the place, and in fome acts of parliament made to encourage their bringing their property from the islands lately taken by the French, had accumulated a great quantity of West

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