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the produce, in the names of W. B. Kennaway, Thomas Smith, A. Tozer, and G. Gifford.

Debtors likewise receive ten shillings yearly from the Chamber of Exeter, on the Monday fortnight following St. Michael's day; ten shillings a-year from the Church, at the disposal of the Keeper; and sixpence a-year from the Lay-Vicars of the Church, the day their Court is held at Woodberry.

There is no memorial in the Prisons at Exeter of the following donations, mentioned in Richard Izacke's Alphabetical Register, &c. printed in 1736. Such valuable registers of per sons' last wills, grants, &c. in other cities, would prevent the misapplication of many charities.

Reynold Hayne, in 1354, bequeathed all his lands and tenements lying in the suburbs of the said City, to the Cathedral Church of St. Peter there, for the relief of those imprisoned in the Common Gaol. This legacy appears to be lost.

William Paramore, by will, 22d February, 1570, bequeathed to the needy prisoners in the King's Gaol in Exeter, in the South Gate there, and in the Counters, to every of them, ten shillings for ever, yearly, to be paid out of his lands in the Cook Row in Exeter.

This is regularly paid to the prisoners in the south Gate,

Thomas Bridgeman, by will, 3d April, 1641, gave to the said City the sum of sixty pounds, to be continued as a perpetual stock; whereof the interest of forty pounds to be bestowed upon the prisoners in the Upper Prison; and the interest of the other twenty pounds to be bestowed upon the prisoners in the Lower Prison; and this likewise to continue for ever. This legacy appears to be lost.

Edward Young, D. D. 6th June, 1663, by will, gave twenty shillings a-year to the prisoners of the Castle, to be distributed by the Dean of Exeter, for the time being, on the 29th of May.

Transports in this Gaol have not the King's allowance of 2s. 6d. per week. Here is no bath, nor

Oven.

The Gaol is but seldom visited. The Act for Preservation of Health is not exhibited: but the Prohibitory Clauses against Spirituous

Liquors are written on paper, and stuck up. No rules and orders. It is not in the power of repairing to make this a good Prison; but it is to be hoped this opulent City will follow the example of the County, and build, ere long, a new one in its stead.

EXETER. The COUNTY PRISON for DEBTORS. -- Gaoler, Richard Rice. Salary, £25. Garnish, prohibited by the Prison Rules, yet generally exacted by the prisoners.

Chaplain, none; nor any religious attentions whatever, notwithstanding the great number of persons here confined. Surgeon, none.-Number of debtors, September 13, 1806, nineteen.-Allowance, at my first visits, none; but now, two shillings per week, in cases of extreme poverty, upon application made to the magistrates.

REMARKS:—This Prison, called the Sheriff's Ward, is in the parish of Saint Thomas the Apostle. The boundary-wall is of mud, with a thatch coping; except a small part of brick which fronts the street. It incloses about an acre of ground; and from the Turnkey's lodge to the Prison is a walk of 60 yards, shaded by a double row of large elms, and well supplied with water. For master's-side debtors there are seven rooms, with beds and bedding furnished by the Keeper, for which they pay as per Table: one of the rooms has seven beds, and two slept in each bed. Common-side debtors have six rooms, and each pays 6d. a-week; but neither bedding nor straw. Two were sick in bed; another had the jaundice, and a fourth in the last stage of a consumption, at my Visit in 1803, without any medical assistance. At the left entrance of the Prison is a room 19 feet by 18, which still retains the name of “Church;" the reading-desk remains, and on the walls are portions of Scripture; but it is now the common day-room.. On the right of the passage is a room called the Pin-hole, with a fire-place and glazed-window, where debtors dress their provisions; and adjoining to it is the Strongroom, which has a fire-place and small glazed window, a barrack bedstead, but no bedding, nor even straw, to sleep upon. This is the only free ward in the Prison. The building is

very old; the rooms dirty, and swarming with bugs. It is a fortunate circumstance, in so crowded a prison, that the court is spacious and airy. Here are Rules and Or ders, signed by the under-sheriff only; but no attention is paid to them. There are constant broils between the Keeper and his guests, and it is difficult to determine where the fault most lies. The Gaoler says, no magistrate ever comes there with out being sent for; and any one visiting this Prison must see the necessity of Rules and Orders, both, for prisoners, and keepers, being fixed by the Legislature. The Gaoler adds, that his salary heing so small, his whole dependance is on the hire of his beds, and prison fees. It is difficult to conceive the extreme wretchedness and misery this Gaol exhibits. The debtors (for the most part mechanicks and labourers) seem to be more unfortunate than criminal, and have an abundant claim to pity and relief. No employment, nor roonis to work in, if it were procured. One prisoner (Anne Fisher, who had been committed for contempt, Nov. 13, 1791) I saw here in 1903; but at my last visit she was discharged. J. NEILD.

Mr. URBAN,

YOU

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June 10. YOUR last, p. 380, contains some animadversious, by F. T. on certain passages of my "Dormant and Extinct Baronage,' in relation to the claim of Sir Cecil Bishop to the Barony of Zouche of Haryngworth; I therefore request you will do me the favour of allotting room to a few remarks in answer to that anonymous personage.

F. T. asserts, that "had I read through the printed Case of Sir Cecil, I should have found, as the first signature to it, the name of Mr. Adani, the most celebrated Pedigree Counsel in the kingdom. Now, Mr. Urban, this is the very first time I ever heard (and I dare say the learned gentleman himself never heard it before) that Mr. Adam was the first Pedigree Counsel in the kingdom. That Mr. Adam possesses legal knowledge equal to any Counsel whomsoever, I do not dispute; for certain I am, that, with the most profound abilities, he combines the manners of a gentleman, superior to most of his contemporaries, and most assuredly above those of his panegyrist. Yet, GENT. MAG. June, 1808.

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in compliment to his high name and authority, I will not give up the assertion I have made in the Dermant and Extinct Baronage," that Sir Cecil Bishop is not the only male representative of the last Lord Zouche now known to exist, for that Mr. Edward Long is one, and nearer in descent. Indeed, were I to give up this position, Mr. Adam, I am sure, would be surprised; and F. T. would laugh in his sleeve, to think that he had done me out of my opinion.

Had the assertion in Sir Cecil's Case been "that he was the only Male Heir in the eye of the Law," instead of "the only Male Representative," then F. T. might have had some foundation for the arrogance of the flimsy boast. But I rest upon the words themselves; and ask, if Mr. Edward Long was not a Representative of the Lord Zouche, for what reason was his name at all introduced into Sir Cecil's pedigree?—I do not think that Mr. Adam, or any other learned Counsel, would have advised an irrelevant. name, for the purpose of surplusage; but most probably the sagacious Herald who prepared the same, imagined that the more names that were mentioned, the more his profundity of research and knowledge must be conspicuous. The fact however is, and undeniable, that every person descended from the two daughters and coheirs of the last Lord Zouche must have an interest in the Barony, though the interest of some one may be more immediate, and that of others remote, yet reversional or contingent. Mr. Edward Long is not my hero, further than to support the truth of my position against F. T. the Hector of Mr. Robert Long's family; which position, if any of your Readers, Mr. Urban, have by them Sir Cecil Bishop's printed Sase, or my "Dormant and Extinct Baronage," I am confident they will readily allow....

With regard to the absence of the Parish Register of the birth of William the son of Zouche Tate, and of Bartholomew the eldest son and heir of the said William Tate, I here maintain, that I think it singular and extraordinary that a person should have papers drawn up for an express purpose of such high importance as the claim to the Zouche Barony, and yet should have them deficient in such points as were the most essential and necessary, if such points

had

bad really occurred "modo legitimo." I have (if I recollect right) read, that, a few years since, upon a trial for a considerable estate, a tomb-stone with an appropriate inscription was produced in Court to identify the descent of the plaintiff; but that the tomb-stone which had been prepared for the purpose, buried and then dug up again, turned out at last to be a fabrication, and was detected by the character of the legend not being duly typical to the æra at which it purported to have been erected. Indeed, had F. T. ever travelled the counties of Buckingham and Northampton, and made enquiry, he might have heard a current report which concurs with what he states I mean to insinuate, though I do not assert, in the passage alluded to.

I have only to add, that I perceive the chief object of F. T. is not so much to vindicate the cause of Sir Cecil Bishop, as to attack me for having presumed to take up a topick, and make a publication upon a subject which it is said ought only to be executed by those to whom "the study of genealogy professionally belongs;" one of whom, as I am informed, has been for 20 years past making collections for such a work, but has never yet favoured the publick with a specimen of his labours, and possibly never may, as he confesses his errors on revision so continually stare him in the face, that they strike him with awe and astonishment,

This letter, Mr. Urban, has been extended to a greater length than I at first intended, by reason that I wish F. T. to be fully informed I do not mean to enter into any literary warfare with him or any other person; and as such, not to intrude in future upon your columns, which I am sure can be appropriated much better to the information and entertainment of your numerous readers. Yours, &c. T. C. BANKS.

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Mr. URBAN, May 16. HE peculiar difficulties to which the younger Clergy in the Dio cese of St. David's are exposed, from the want of a proper professional education, have long been deeply regretted by the friends of the EstaBlished Religion. In consideration of the distance of the Diocese from the Universities; of the expences of residence incumbent on the most frugal œconomist; of the gradual dis

continuance of the donations formerly granted by the Chapter of St. David's towards the maintenance of students from the Diocese at the University; the total want of all appro priated fellowships, scholarships, and even exhibitions, to the assistance of natives of the Diocese; and the general poverty of the Curates, which offers so inadequate a compensation for the advantages acquired, and the expences incurred, at the University,

the Bishops have dispensed with the usual academical education of candidates for orders, and have been contented to require a preparatory resi dence of four years at some licensed grammar-school under their own jurisdiction. Here the ability of the Masters, and the application of the Students, have been equally ineffec tual: the attention of the one has been distracted by other avocations, and principally directed to his younger and more numerous pupils; while the others have been constrained by nes cessity to devote their time to the service of the Master and the instruction of the boys, rather than to their own immediate studies. The consequence is obvious; clerical education has been very imperfectly provided; theological knowledge very moderately acquired; the young Curate has entered on his ministry with preparation much inferior to those of his adversaries whether infidel or hes retic; the followers of the Methodist and Baptist itinerant have increased; and the cause of the Establishment has very visibly declined.

These circumstances occupied the early attention of the Society insti tuted in the year 1804 for promoting Christian Knowledge and Church Union in the Diocese of St. David's; of which Society one express object is to facilitate the means of education to young men intended for the Ministry of the Church of England in this Diocese, and educated in the Diocese. They accordingly appropri ated a certain portion of their funds to the purpose of clerical education; from which they offered small honorary prizes to such boys as should ac quit themselves most creditably in a certain specific examination, and granted an exhibition of ten pounds a year for the maintenance of a scholar for four years, after the age of 19 years complete, at Yshadmeirie, a school long established, and ably conducted.

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conducted. The increasing funds of the Society were in July 1806 sufficient for the maintenance of four such exhibitions, when it was proposed to build lodging rooms for them at Yshadmeiric. This design was from local difficulties abandoned; and, in its stead, the plan of a more extensive establishment was adopted, which not aspiring to the dignities, the privileges, the emoluments, or the other pre-eminent benefits of an University, night rise above the elementary knowledge of a school, and might engage the undivided attention of a master and three assistants, who should direct the students in a regular course of professional studies, and deliver to them distinct courses of lectures: 1. On Theology, on Christian Morals, and on the Duties of the Cle rical Profession;

petent salary to the masters, and to provide for the maintenance of the students, very considerable, sums of money will be required. While, however, the Society pledge themselves to a most economical expenditure of the benefactions which they may receive, they confidently look forward to the liberal patronage of the pub lick, in the cause of learning, charity, and religion; more especially do they solicit the assistance of the learned and benevolent Clergy of the United Kingdom, whose acquirements may best teach them to appreciate the value, and remedy the want, of a professional education. They also anticipate a zealous encouragement of their endeavours from all who partake of the patrimony of the Church within the Diocese, whether incum bents, sinecure rectors, or impropri2. On Languages, Hebrew, Greek, ators; and while they remember the known attachment of the Welsh to and Latin; 3. On Elocution, and the Study of the prosperity of their native land, the English and Welsh Languages; they presume on the contribution of 4.. On Church History, on Church the many who, in every part of the Establishments, with especial refer United Dominions, pursue the path to honour and to fortune; and while ence to our own Church, and on the existing Laws relative to the Church. they contemplate the spirit of im For the seat of this intended semi-provement which reigns throughout nary, Llanddewi Brefi, in Cardigan- the Principality, they cannot but inshire, has been selected; because it dulge the hope that the interests of is part of a manor belonging to the the rising Clergy of the Diocese of Bishop of St. David's, who is willing St. David's will not pass without reto concur in granting to the Society gard or without relief. ground for the necessary buildings, garden, &c. and because stone and timber, fuel and water, may easily be procured in the neighbouring mountains, Llanddewi Brefi also recommends itself as a place of education for the

Ministry by the healthiness of its si

tuation, by its exclusion from popu. lous society, by its centrical position with respect to the Diocese, by its containing a spacious Church capable of accommodating a numerous congregation, and lastly, by its being the site of an antient cathedral and seat of learning, the dissolution of which, and of St. Mary's College at St. David's, and of a similar foundation at Abergwili, at the Reformation, without the endowment of any equivalent establishment, so very materially contributes to the necessity of the proposed institution.

To accomplish this design of the Society, to defray the expences of constructing the requisite apartments, to secure the permanence of a com

LETTER III.

ON THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
OF THE SMALL-POX AND COW-POCK. 5

Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis.

IT

VIRG. Æn. v. 127. T must be admitted that the preceding letters afford strong evidence of the advantages of the Cowpock; for, however some might have doubted the utility of the discovery of Jenner, the more recent discoveries of Dr. Moseley and Dr. Rowley are calculated to silence every objection as to the subsequent benefits which have resulted from the pri mary discovery; nevertheless, in order to acquire the means of accurate decision, candour claims attention to the arguments which the opponents are entitled to state.

In this class, John Birch, esq. appears to be one of the most prominent agents in support of the old regime of the Small-pox; insomuch, that one profound argument alone

promul

Promulgated by him is deemed suffi cient to overturn the whole fabrick of Vaccination, and to establish decisively the superior merits of the Smallpox, which cannot be given more cogently than in his own words *:

"That in the populous part of the Metropolis, where the abundance of children exceed the means of providing food and raiment for them; this pestilential disease is considered as a merciful provision on the, part of Providence, to lessen the burthen of a poor man's family."

It may, indeed, be suggested by some, that a charge on Providence of creating children for the purpose of destroying them by a painful and horrible disease, is scarcely reconcileable to the attributes of divine goodness. The mode recommended By Malthus of preventing the population of poor children, by deny ing the poor man the consolation of an helpmate, appears somewhat more humane, though less likely to be adopted, if that be humanity which debars the poor from the only enjoyment which they can possess in common with the rich. It might also be doubted as to its utility in promoting national prosperity, as some have represented the poor as the greatest blessing in every country, under an idea that whoever earns more by labour, either by sea or by land, than he consumes for his subsistence, contributes in that proportion to national wealth, the source of national prosperity, as well as of the comforts and luxuries of life; and that, were not the poor allowed to breed in future, and the remainder or spawn of those living to be killed off, the rich would become the poor; or, in other words, be compelled to do that for themselves which the poor had heretofore done for them. This trans

mutation, however, like Moseley's Pasiphaes, and Rowley's Minotaurs, would be attended with singular advantages to the higher ranks, or those who were before privileged to enjoy the luxuries of life without personal labour, by rendering them industrious and useful members of the community; and certainly happier, by preventing indolence, and all the miseries of ennui, or of having nothing to do, for Le travail du corps delivre depeines de l'esprit; et c'est ce qui rend les pauvres heureuses |.

On the first revolution, or metamorphosis, there might be some difficulty in finding employments appropriate to their qualifications and former habits, but in many stations the changes would be easy and soon familiar; as might be exemplified by the following transmutations. the ladies of fashion, who are incessantly engaged in routs and crowded parties, would be at home as bar-maids in hotels and other crowded places, whilst Miss in her teens night prepare whip-syllabubs and other trifles.

Thus

Men of rank, who have been addicted to the turf, would of course become jockeys, post-boys, grooms, and rough riders. Those in the Upper House of Parliament might gam a subsistence by making Court Almanacks and Pension-lists.

The members of the Lower House would prove excellent auctioneers, from experience in the sale of boroughs; as well as fashionable tailors, from having acquired the art of turning old cloaths, and making them fit like new ones,

The learned professions would variously find means of support. The lawyers, from their knowledge in catching sprats and gudgeons, would turn into fishermen. Physicians,

* Serious Reasons for uniformly opposing Vaccination. Lond. 1807, ed. 2, p. 28. Malthus on Population; who says, "If a child is born into a world already possessed, if he cannot get subsistence from his parents, on whom he has a just demand, and if the society do not want his labour, he has no claim of right to the smallest portion of food;, and in fact has no business to be where he is."

Colquhoun on Indigence.

Considering that it has been a prevailing opinion, "that the lower orders of the people are the bees that collect the honey, upon which the whole hive must be subsisted" (Crit. Rev.) it seems strange that there should appear in many a prominent disposition to lessen the number of the labouring poor. Would it not prove more beneficial to a nation, were the system of the Areoi of Otaheite adopted, as described by Capt. Cook ? If I recollect rightly, they were a privileged order of rank, who were sanctioned by custom to associate with certain privileged ladies, whose offspring were killed soon after the birth, to prevent the too great increase of this high order. If any mother had sufficient tenderness to save the life of her child, she was degraded from her former rank.

Rochefoucault,

amorg

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