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“ ject which we touch always with deli-1" ever high it was, did not depend upon

cacy, and almost with dread. It is “ them. It arose from causes over which “ one of such vital importance, one in they had no controul ; from deficient " which a false step, or an erroneous doc-" seasons, and from the state of the con“ trine, may do such incalculable mis- “ tinent, with which all intercourse was

chief, that we fear ever to pronounce “ prevented. But allowing, for the sake

any decisive opiniou. What suggestions of arguntent, that they did make large "we throw out; we throw out with diffi-" fortunes, that must have been a public “ denue and hesitation, convinced of our “ benefit, inasmuch as the increase of “ being more in want of information, than “ their capital would naturally lead them * able to communicate any.' But there " to extend the agriculture of the coun" are some facts upon which there can “ try, to improve bad land, and bring se be no doubt, and upon them we may “ the waste into produce. The answer " safely reason--and in reasoning upon to the first question involves in it an " them, we are quite sure that we shall “ answer to the second.-Upon the third "not deserve, in the words of Mr.Burke, " we very willingly observe, that we are "to be classed amongst “ those wicked for the people having this necessary of “ writers of the newspapers, who would " life as cheap as possible; but we would " inflame the poor against their friends, “ not purchase an unexampled cheapness " guardians, patrons, and protectors." -- “ to-day, with the certainty, or even the "Upon this' subject,more than any other, “ risk, of having dearness to-morrow. By " there are prejudices so strong as almost " the return of last Saturday's Gazette, " to resist the evidence of the strongest we find that the average price of wheat

facts, and thiese prejudices are infinite- was 31. 3s. 4d. the quarter, or 75. 11d. " ly aggravated by the number of idle " the bushel : Barley, 11. 11s, 6d. ; and " tales spread about by the industry of “ Oats, 11, 3s. 9d. This cheapness arises faction, and greedily devoured by the “ from two causes the admitting the

malignant credulity of mankind. When free importation of corn, and the con"grain is dear, the prejudice is against "sequent necessity under which the

monopolizers; when it is cheap, then “ British farmer has been of bringing his " the cry is, to give the utmost license“ grain to market. The generality of "and encouragement to importation, “ mankind, looking only at the present “ in order that it may become cheaper “ result, will rejoice, and we are not sur

stíll, and thus, as we have heard it " prised at it, and feel disposed to look

said, to be revenged on the farmer. “ with an evil eye upon any thing that " But revenge ought not to be exercised" would disturb it. 'Forbearance, and

against the farmer. Revenge on the the want of all interference would “ farmer would soon be accompanied

greater disturber than any " with a much wider vengeance upon

“ other cause.

For let but the sys" theavengers--they would themselves be-" tem of encouraging the free impor

come at no remote period the victims of " tation of corn be continued, and the " their vengeance. Evil's however at a dis- vengeance which the ignorant would "tance we are too apt neither to see nor “ inflict upon the British farmer would " care for. “ Have not farmers (is the “ be complete. He would not enter the "common cry,) been making immense " lists of competition with the foreign " fortunes for the last twenty years ?

grower, for he would not cultivate " Have they not been living upon the “grain at all. But the British farmer

distresses of the people? And ought ought not to be so dealt with, nor

not the latter to have the advantage " ought the food of the people of Eng" which the late harvests and peace have “ land to depend upon foreign coun"given them, to have bread at as cheap “ tries. There is not a more obvious " a rate as possible?” We answer each" principle than this, that men will not " of these questions-That the farmers" apply their industry and their capital " have been making immense fortunes to the growing or manufacturing an " for the last twenty years, is an asser- “ article which they cannot sell at a “tion which it is as easy to make, as we price higher than it cost them in grow• believe it would be difficult to prove. ing or manufacturing it; a price that "But if they had, how would that bear" shall enable them if not to lay something upon the subject? The price, bów-" by, at least to maintain them. Wbeat

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o and Barley at the last prices. quoted ensue, where can you look to ? . To.. w in the Gazette, are at a less price than “ the British farmer ? No--you have " the expence to which the farmer would turned


back upon him. But there " be put by growing them, including is another thing to be considered, grain “ wages to labourers, keep for horses,may be cheap, and yet be less within

repair of waggons, cost of the seed, “ the compass of some than when it " and rent to the landlord. Of course

dcarer. If agriculture be dis " then he will direct his industry and couraged, the farmer will not want so “ capital to other channels; he will not “ many labouters, the ploughman, the grow grain ; he will not make land

thresher, and the reaper, will not be “ hitherto barren, productive in corn;

" wantedand thus will those per“ he will not bring the wastes and heaths" “ starve amidst cheapuess." “ into cultivation. There will compara

" But it has been said, let the farmer look • tively be no English corn grown. to liis landlord, who having raised his

“Very well,” we hear some say, “and “ rent in proportion to the encreasing price • what is that to us, provided we still " of grain, ought now to be lowered to the “ have abundant supplies open to us." “ levelat what it was before such increase. “ But softly! it is a great deal to them “ There is much reason in this, and it will a great deal indeed! In the first

operate no doubt upon the landlord, It “ place, the foreign grower, when he “ he find that he cannot get a high rent “ finds that he has nothing to fear from paid, but that he can get a lower one, “the rivalship of the British farmer, will “ of course he will prefer the latter. The «« raise his price. This is obvious" cessation of the Property Tax will be “ When he knows you must depend upon “ another relief; But these of themselves him for the commodity, he will increase will not be sufficient. We take our stand 56 his terms. There is not a plainer upon this ground, which cannot be sha.“ commercial principle than this.. Here" ken; that the Britislı fariner should have “ then is the first inroad upon the cheap- an interest in cultivating grain, Has “ ness which you flattered yourself would he that interest at the present prices? be so permanent. But you must not “ No. Wbat is the remedy? Clearly that forget another circumstance---that the foreign grouer should bear some

peace cannot be perpetual, and that of the burthens that he does; that he “ wars must take place.-Nay, that fo- "hould pay a duty upon importation ;

reign powers may be more likely to go " that this duty should make the price " to war with us, thinking that they " of foreign corn equal to a price which “ bave the means in their hands, (we. “ the English farnier ought to get for Brio, “ depending upon them entirely for "tish corn. Mr. Burke thought a farmer grain) of compelling us to accept terms ouglit to make 12 per ceutupon his " and to make concessions. We put a capital after paying his rent; Later

case-Poland will be annexed io, or “ writers and witnesses exammed by Par“ under the controul of Russia.

Liainent, think 10 per cent. “ from Poland we derive the largest "much less than is made in almost all “ continental supplies of foreign coro. "other trades. At the present price of

Should we go to war with Russia, she" grain the farmer so far from making

might shut all her ports, Russian as “ this interest upon his capital inust les“ well as Polish, and prevent the expor-sen that capital by cultivating. What tation of grain.--What should we do " the price should be per quarter to “ then? We might procure it from other enable him to pay his real and gain su parts, from the - Barbary States and ionoh

upon his capital, we presiune " from America. But would not the "not to state from our own knowledge,

price be much increased upon us, those " Some of the witnesses examined by the « Powers always keeping in mind that “ House of Lords derlare that rideat

we must depend upon them? Well, ought to be 41. llis. a quarter, or 12s. " but this is not all-you have formed " a bushel to produce this efleti. Others your

calculations and your hopes upon "tix it at 41. or 10s, the bushel; none “ the certainty of the harvest never fail-" lower. At 31. 15s, or s. 1d. per

ing upon the Continent, of there being " bushel, (see the reports of the House " always fine and productive seasons. If" of Lords, all declare the farmer could " the harrest should fail and a scarcity But be able to pay bis rent and get

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“10 per cent. upon his capital. The from causes, over which the farmers had "present average price, according to no controul, that is to say, in part, at * Saturday's Gazette, is 7s. 11d. the least, from the war. It is not true, “ bushel. We have thus fulfilled our | (though it has nothing to do with the “intention of collecting a few facts, point at issue) that the farmers were " which we have endeavoured to piace wholly innocent here; for, they were no" in a prominent point of view, offering toriously amongst the foremost to uphold “ such reasons as they are suggested to Pirt in making war and in carrying on “our minds. We are quite sure that war, against the Republicans of France. " we speak without partiality or prejudice That has been accomplished, which they * ourselves; We are neither farmers por tendered their lives and fortunes to ac"merchants, neither growers of home nor complish. The republic of France has “ importers of foreign corn. Our chief been destroyed; the Bourbons have been “ anxiety is to remove, if possible, some restored; liberty has been nearly put out “ prejudices, knowing that he best pro- in that country; and, really, if our far“ motes the interests of tlre poorer classes mers were to suffer in consequence of * and of British agriculture, who encou- what has taken place, they certainly would * ragės and promotes the interests of the come in for their full share of meriting **** British farmer. “If the price of the that suffering. Now we come to the sub“ corn,” says an eminent writer, should ject:-The argument is this ; that, unnot compensate the priee of growing it, less com is dear, the English farmer can“ the most serious evil, the very destruc- not grow it, because it would not bring ** tion of agriculture itself, is to be apprehim enough to enable him to pay wages s hended." Now, though this article is of labour, keep of horses, repair of wagwritten with great ability, and with even gons, cost of seed, and rent to the landgreater craft than ability, it will require, lord.Now, how fallacious is this ! Is I trust, not a great deal to be said, to not the corn, which the horses eat, shew that its tendency is to deceive the and which is sown for seed cheap, if people, and to entice them, by a fallacious corn be cheap at market? Are not the statement, into an acquiescence in a mea- wages of labourers, the prices of wheelsure for making corn dear; that being wrights, and the rent of land cheap, if the undisguised object of the writer.- the corn be cheap at market? Why, then, Before I proceed to the main points, let should not the English farmer be as able me notice the insinuation, that objections to grow cheap corn as dear corn ? And 'to a Corn Bill have been owing to the what becomes of all the terrific statement " industry of faction.What then, is about dependence upon foreign nations, OLD GÉORGE ROSE become 'the about the extortioning of the foreign farleader of faction? He, who wrote a mer, about scarcity, about the ruin of pamphlet to convince the people of Eng- the labourer, and the like? Is it not noland, that, if they did not quietly pay torious, that wheat used to be 5s, a the war-taxes, the French Republicans bushel in England ? Nay, is it not notowould deprive them of the blessed com- rious, that it used to be 25. a bushel ? forts of religion? He has, indeed, been How did the farmer live in those days? very industrious upon this occasion: but was the labourer starved in those days ? has his been the industry of faction ?" On the contrary, is it not notorious, that Have the petitions of " the loyalof the paupers have increased with the high Soutbampton, Portsmouth, Winchester, prices ? Will any man have the eonfidence. and hundreds of other cities and towns, to deny this ? And if this cannot be de proceeded from " the industry of faction?" nied, what reason is there to be alarmed Oh, no! this will never do. The pro- at the prospect of continued cheapness ? moters of the measure cannot now raise a What reason is there to suppose, that the cry against the Jacobins. That humbńg farmer will be unable to raise cheap corn, is over for ever.-Who told this writer, secing that his labourers, his smith, his that any boxiy erer said, that revenge wheelwright, his collar-maker, hiş seed, against the farmer was the object of the bis rent, will all keep pace with the price opposers of the measure? This is pure of his corn ? If these items amount to a invention. It is an invented fact, whereon hundred pounds a year when wheat is 40s, to build a faliacious argument.--But, we. a quarter, and to two hundred pounds a are told here, that the high prices arose year when wheat is 80s. a quarter, is not

the farmer as able to raise the forty shil) you are laudably enthusiastic. But the ling wheat as the eighty shilling wheat ? real tendency of your exertions is to proHow came this writer to be so indiscreet tect and promote the taxing system, and as to mention horse feed and seed amongst thereby to enable the Government to keep the outgoings of the farmer ? These must up, during peace, a standing army and all be at a low price, if his market corn is at those means of patronage, heretofore una low price. They consist of the same known in England, and the keeping up sort of corn that he has to sell. How, of which tends to the total extinguishment in the name of common sense, then, should of even the great country gentlemen, the he have to complain of the amount of little ones having all been swallowed up these outgoings, and, at the same time, long ago.---Stand here, I pray you, and complain of the cheapness of his, corn? reflect before you proceed another inch. But, the truth is, that the absurdity of -You perceive clearly, that the writer, these positions arises from a very ma- whom I have quoted, under pretence of terial omission in the enumeration of the protecting the farmer and promoting agrifarmer's outgoings ; to wit ; the TAXES ! culture, aims at keeping up the tures, that which, direct and indirect, amount to is to say, an immense military establishmore, aye, to double as much, as his la- ment and patronage, which it is your inbour, horse feed, seed, implenients, and terest, and the farmer's interest, and the rent, all put together. The direct taxes country's interest, to see reduced to noare upon his land, his property, his horses, thing, seeing, that we not want no his house, his windows, his gig, his dogs, standing army any more than our forea his man servant, and to these must be fathers did. I have read a long letter added his poor rates. He pays about 175. of Mr. WESTERN to shew, that it is just a bushel tax out of every 20s, which he and necessary to pass a Bill to protect the lavs out in salt; and, in a large farm farmer. The reasonings of that


able kouse, the salt tax amounts to about 101. letter are unanswerable, if we admit, that a year. He pays more in tax upon malt the taxing system must remain in full vithan his barley, of which the malt is made, gour, which the author seems to admit, amounts to. He pays a tax upon the and which I wonder that he should have soap and candles, and tea and sugar and admitted. It is clearly shewn, that the wine and spirits used in bis house. He English farmer will not grow corn, unless pays a tax on the leather and iron used in he is put upon as good a footing, at least, his implements and, his harness. And, as the French farmer. But, then, it is be it observed and remembered, that he not sbewn, that this cannot be accompays a tax upon the beer, the gin, the tea, plished without a Corn Bill; and yet, the sugar, the salt, the soap, the candles, this ought to be shewn, and clearly shewn, the shoes, the tobacco, used by his la- by those, who, in open liostility to the bourers. For every quart of beer drank common feeling of mankind, propose such by the ploughman, at a public house, the a measure.-The farmer, and the profarmer pays about 4d in tax. The brewer sperity of agriculture, do not depend upon and mulsier first pay it; the publican the price of corn alone : there are the pays it to them; the labourer pays it to hides, the skins, the wool, and the flax, the publican; the farmer pays it to the All very great articles of produce. These labourer; and, as the farmer must be re-are, in great part, wrought into articles of paid, ke: must, of course, charge it in dress by onr manufacturers, and thus they The price of the next corn that he sells. are exported. Make the corn dcar; make .-llere, then, is the real cause of the the food of the manufacturertwice as dear. necessity of high prices. It is the GO- as the food of the manufacturer in France, VERNMENT, and not the FARMER, America, and elsewhere, and who will who stands in peed of high priced corn. purchase the dear manufactures ?-But, --Oh! ye Cokes, and K'esterns, be not; take away the taxes that support the be not, I pray and supplicate you, made army, the ordnance, a great part of the

the ivols of the laring system! I know wavy; abolish the new military schools well that neither of you wish for high and all their enormous expences ; return prices in order to increase, or keep up again to cheap and peaceful government; your own incomes. Your wish is to pro-lay aside the bayonet and the broadtect, to secure the well-being of, a de- sweril, and be content with the oldscription of persons, as to whose pursuits (fushioned sheriff's wand and constable's staff. Do this, and there will be quite the constitution. It is for those who pro enough left to discharge the just debts of pose such a measure to shew, that it the country, and to support the Crown cannot be done without ; and this they with sufficient splendour, though Wheat must shew before any just man will give should again fall (as I hope it will) to the his consent to it. The measure would old 5 shilings a bushel of Jethro Tull; be no protection to the farmer; it would and agriculture will flourish and farmers do him no good ; it would do the landwill thrive as much as they have done for owner no good: what it gave in prohithe last twenty years; and, what is still bition, it would take away in tax, and of more importance, pauperism will al- give it to the military, naval, and official most disappear, hospitality will reviye, and part of the community, the tendency of honesty, the constant companion of com- which must inevitably be to give these a petence, will curtail the long and dismal predominance over all the peaceful arts Lists of crimes, commitments, convic- and professions, and to produce all the tions, banishments, and executions, which lamentable consequences which I have now fill the mind with horror and dismay, above described.-For these reasons, 1, Here" say the writers, “ we take our who am a farmer by taste as well stand. The English farmer cannot grow as in fact, and who am deeply interested corn, unless,“ by an importation duty, in the prosperity of agriculture, detest and “ the foreign farmer be made to bear part abhor, from the bottom of my soul, the " of the English farmer's taxes".--But, he idea of any measure tending to raise, or will not bear part then; for, he will not keep up, the price of corn ; and, if there bring his corn, and it is meant that he be but one man in all England found to should not. Here I take my stand. Re-petition agaiņst such a measure, I will be duce the taxes of the English farmer, that man, and then he will grow corn enough without the aid of foreign supply; and the COTINENTAL AFFAIRS. It is immanufacturers, eating cheap food, will be possible to peruse the information which able to sell cheaper than the manufacturers now daily arrives from the Continent, of other nations; and, thụs, all will thrive without experiencing the mostaweful sentogether; make corn dear, by continued sations as to the critical state of affairs heavy taxation, and all will decline toge- in that quarter. It is true, appearances ther, except the military and naval otfi- are very often deceitful, and lowering cial part of the community, who will, in clouds frequently subside; but there nethe end, obtain a predominance, such as ver was a period known in universal histhey possess in the Austrian, Prussian, tory when the " din of preparation” Russian and German dominions, and seemed so great. Let us turn our eyes English freedom and English manners from the Mediterramean to the Baltic, and English morals and English tastes peace and tranquility is no where to be and English learning and eloquence will found. In Italy, all the convulsions of take their flight for ever to the other side the thirteenth century appear to have reof the Atlantic.--I hardly think it possi- vived. The dawn of liberty having openble, that such men as Mr. Coke and Mr. ed on that delightful country, its inhabiWestern should be the partizans of a tants cannot without difficulty return unmeasure having such a tendency. They der the yoke of slavery. We find the may doubt, whether it be practicable, court of Vienna in the most feverish without injury to the fund-holders, to re-alarm on the subject. Long accustomed duce the taxes so as to enable the farmer as the Austrian monarchy has been to to sell wheat at 5s, a bushel For my look with anxiety to the entire possession part, I have no doubt at all upon the sub- of the Adriatic Gulf, from the possession ject; but, before I give myself the trou- of the ports of which, she might indulge ble of proving, and ny readers the trou- a prospective hope of possessing “ ships, ble of reading what I have to say upon, colonies, and commerce,” it caạnot be, the subject, let the advocates of a new but with the utmost apprehension, tha and odious measure give us their argu- she finds the voice of public opinion dements to prove, that the measure is indis-cidedly against her views. Little doubt pensably necessary to the discharge of can be entertained by the most commonthe just debts of the country and to the place politician, that a great notive which support of our government agreeably !0 | influenced Austria to join the Allies, at

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