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the sliores, and to the forces acually kept on foot abandon territory and a portion of their citizens, lo upon those frontiers, they believe ilic superiority amit a forei-n interference in tlieir duńséstic cuftto have alivays been on the side of Great Britain. cerns, and to cease to exe.cise their natural righis , Il by the proposal to dismantle the forts upon
on their own shores and in their oirn waters. her shores, strike live ever her military Aag upon
A irealy concluded on such lering wuld be but an her lakes, and lay her wbule frontier defenceless armistice. It cannot be supposed that America in ille presence of her armed and fortified neighis would long submit 10 coudi tons so injurious and bour, has proceeded not from Great Britain to the degrading. It is impossible, in the natural course of Únited States, but from the United States to Great events, that she should nul, al lhe Grsl lavourable upBritain, the undersigned may sately appeal to the portantly, recur to arms for the recovery of her tertio bosonis or his Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiaries tory, of ber rights, ut her lonour. Custead o1 siling for the feelings with which, not only in regard to the existing diiter nces, sich a peace would only create interests, but the honour of their nation, they would
new causes of war, sợw the scéuy di aperianent have received such a proposal.
What would hatred, and layıhe fvandatun vi hostilities for an inGreat Britain herself say, it, in relation to another definite p«riod. Essentially paclic from her political trontier, where she has the acknowledged supe-institutions, from the boabits of her citizens, frona' riority of strength, it were propused (hat she should hier physical situation, America reluctantly engaged be reduced to a condition even of equality with in the war. She wishes for peace; but sbe wishes for the United States. The unicrsigned further per- it upon those terios of reciprocity, honourable to crive, that under the allerlged purpose of opening bulls countries, which can alune reuder it permanente a direct communication between quo of the British The causes of the war between the United States? provinces in America, the British Government re- and Great Britain having disappered by the naquire a cession of territory Torining a part of one ritime paciñeation of Europe, the government of the of the States of the Ancrican Union, and that United States dues not desire tu continue it, in de.' they propose, without purpuso specifically alledged, tence of abstract principles which have, for the preto draw the boundary-line westward, not from seul, ceased to have any practical effect. The under-' the Lake of the Woods, as it now is, but from signed have been accordingly instructed to agree to Lake Superior. It must be perfecily immaterial | its termination, both parties restoring whatever ier. to the United States, whether the object of the Bri- ritory they may have lukeni, and both reserving all tisli Goverument, in demanding the dismember their rights, in relation to their respective seanéu. ment of the United States is to acquire territory, To make the peace between the two nations solid às socli, or for purposes less Hible, in the cyes of aud peruunent, the undersigned were also instruct the world, to be ascribed to the desire of agyran-ed and have been prepured to enter into the amidisement. Whatever the motive may be, 'cuble discussion of all those points on which differ. and with whatever consistency views of conquest ences or uncertainly had existed, and wbich might may be disclaimed while demanding for herself, hereafter lead in any degree whatever to interrupt or for the Indians, a cession of territory more exten- the harmony of ilie (wo countries, wilbuus, however sive than the whole island of Great Britain, the uking the conclu ion of the peace at all depend duty suasked out for the uudersigued is the same. upon a successful result of the discussion. It is, willi They have no authority to cede any part of the ter- deep regret, that the undersigned have seen that ritory of the United States, and to nọ st’pulation ulher views are entertained by the British Govern. to that effect will they subscribe. The conditions ment, and that new and unexpected pretensions proposed by Great Britain have no relation to the are raised, which, it persisted in, musi oppose an subsisting differences between the two countries : insuperable obstacle tv a paciication. It is not ne they are inconsistent with acknowledged principles cessary lo reler such demands to the American Go? ir public law: they are founded neither on recipro- vernment for its instruction ; they will only be a fit city nur on any of the usual bases of negotiation. subject of deliberation, when it becomes necessary neither on that of the uti possidetis, or the status unte I decide upon the expediency of an absolute sur bellum: they would inflict the most vital injury on the sender of National Independence. The undersigned United States, by disnembering the territory, by request the British Plenipotentiaries 10 accept the arresting their nainral growili and increase of po- assurance of their high consideration. John Quiya pulation, and by leaving their northern and western CEY ADAMS, JAMES A. BAYAND, JONATHAN Roga frontier equally exposed to Britisli invasion and tu
SELL, II. Clay, d. GallaTIN. Indian agression ; lb«y are above all dishonourable
(To be continued.) to the United States, in den anding from them tu
· Printed and Published hy G. Jouston: No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed to the
Editor ale requested to be forwarded.
You. XXVII. No. 7.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, FEB. 18, 1815.
[194 SIERRA LEONE.
"awefully pending state of the abolition,
"imperiously demand from me some efSEVERAL yeats ago I endeavoured to “ fort at this moment. Private exertion draw the attention of the public to the “I have exhausted; from high authority proceedings of the Sierra Leone Compa- “I am personally excluded; therefore to ny, of which Mr. WILBERFORCE was ' public appeal I am driven. It is the the protector, patron, and chief.- eu- only means by which I can fulfil my deavoured, but in vain, to make the pub-" duty to the King, my attention to the lic perceive, that the whole thing was a " colony, over which I judicially preside, deception, originating in folly, or in a de-1" and manifest my zeal for the civilizasire to gain popularity. I have now be- tion of Africa, and the abolition of the fore me a pamphlet, written by Mr. " slave trade. I shall commence with a THORPE, Chief Justice of the Colony, “review of what has been done from the which proves, in the clearest manner,
“ establishment of the Sierra Leone Conthat my opinion of this thing was per- pany;* whose avowed objects were to fectly correct. The author, in the form "* encourage trade with the west coast of a LETTER, addresses himself to Mr. " of Africa; to promote cultivation, ad. WILBERFORCE; and from this Letter “vance civilization, diffuse morality, I shall make two extracts, which I dare “and induce some attention to a pure say, will be sufficient to convince the " system of religion in Africa;' as also, reader, that this specious project has "not to suffer their servants to have the rcholly failed in its prefeuded object, "• slightest connection with the slave and that it was very foolish, 16 say the « • trade; neither to buy, sell, or employ least of it, to squander the public money "* any one in a state of slavery: and to on such an undertaking.
repress the traffic as far as their influ First Extract,
ence would extend.' This was a wise "The unbounded benevolence and un- " and truly beneficent plan, promising " paralleled philanthrophy attributed to "wealth to England, and happiness to
you, I aun confident will induce you to ex- “ Africa; but I have enquired, and found cuse this hasty and unornamented epis- " that no part of it was ever carried into “tle; but my continuance in England "effect. The Company obtained, in a " being very uscertain, I am impelled “ very short time, a superabundance of “precipitately to commit myself to you " land, finely situated, and well circum" and to the public.-You have been for stanced, on the Sierra Leone river,t in " above twenty years considered the pa- " exchange for a few insignificant articles " tron of Sierra Leone, and you are de
" of merchandise; they collected together " signated the Father of the Abolition.' " from London, Halifax, and Jamaica, " The effect of my exertions for that co- near two thousand settlers at very little "lony, and the spirit of my decisions in "expense; they had zealous and attluent " support of the abolition, I hope will supporters in England ; they had un
prove, that I have been as sincere a “ prejudiced and tractable (though un"friend to the one, and practically as enlightened) natives to negociate with; " beneficial a promoter of the other, as " and they had pear two hundred and
any unassuming individual. Thus “ fifty thousand pounds capital; yet "embarked, I should consider it a dere"liction of principle, and a proof of insensibility, to neglect exerting myself
*Vide their Report for 1794, priuted by Philips at all times in this great cause; but George-yard, Lombard-street. " the calamitous accounts I have recent- + Falconbridge's Account, 1792; also the Agree "ly received from Sierra Leone, and the meat with King Naimbana und the Company.
" they very quickly made the natives " few months,* and a missionary for a “ suspicious, the settlers discontented, “ few years; but they had Methodist “ their best servants were obliged to seek “ teachers and preachers in abundance; “ establishments under the native chiefs,t “the benefits derived from their precepts * and although they had a monopoly of “may be imagined, from the missionary " the trade, and their will was the
assuring me on his leaving the colony “ lation of profit, they sunk almost to “in 1812, relinquishing his house and * bankruptcy, from causes enveloped in per annum, 'that he could do no
mystery, and applied to Government good there, as the inhabitants were “ for support and protection. To the “ 'too far suak in sin and immorality, “ Nova Scotia settlers they promised. " 'that he would remove to the Booliain * land for cultivation; twenty acres for "shore, try new yround, and endeavour " each man ;$ ten for bis wife; and five "to instruct the natives, improve their " for each child; but this promise they "condition in this life, and prepare “ never fulfilled : || no man was allowed "them with a knowledge of, and con“ above a fifth of the land to which he “oduct for, the world to come.' Lastly, “was entitled; and implements to culti-“their servants constantly purchased the * vate even such a portion, were difficult " natives, tworked them themselves with“ to find, and too expensive to procure. “out pay, and hired them to others for *** The settlers could not raise in the co- pay; suffered slaves to be brought in lony even rice and yams for subsistence; “and taken out of the colony; allowed very
existence depended on a sup- " them to be seized and delivered to their ply from the neighbouring rivers. Had " masters when they sought protection; " land been granted at the commence permitted their storekeeper' to supply * ment to the settlers as promised; had “the slave factories,t slave ships, and to
they been enabled to cultivate and " feed the trade in every possible way. * raise provisions for consumption and “ Even in Mr. Ludlam's last administra
barter, they would soon have render-"tion of the government, two cargoes "ed themselves independent of, and less “ of slaves, taken from the Americans,
profitable to the Company; whose were publicly sold at twenty dollars a "storekeeper purchased provisions from "head. So much for their efforts to " the natives, paid for them in merchan-“repress the slave trade, of which they
dise, and sold them to the settlers ; " had professed such an abhorrence, ** this might have produced little profit," and which the act of parliament for * but it secured great control. Even the incorporating the company forbade “ plants indigenous to the soil remained" them to pursue. Is it possible the di “ uncultivated. Cotton, cotlee, indigo, rectors did not know, hear, or believe, < tobacco, &c. &c. were conspicuous; this, or any part of it? If disappro" but it was in all the wildness of nature. “bation had attached to such conduct, * Such were their efforts to promote cul- “ is it probable they would continue in “ tivation. In civilization they proceed "their confidence, after they had heard sed so far as to send two persons to “ of it, the persons who managed their * Teembo,** (a few days walk from Sier-“concerns? Or did they imagine by " ra Leone) and educated half a dozen “ trumpeting their abhorrence of this “ African boy's in England suficiently for “ diabolical traffic, fulminating against " common clerkships in the colony.--"every person implicated iu it, and bla“ As to religion and morality, they had a zoning the virtues of those who seemed “ Church of England clergyman for a anxious to exterminate it, that they
would prevent those transactions from
“ being divulged; or if revealed, that Appendix, No. I. + Some of them returned to the colong after the Alolition act passed, and reside there at present. Falconbridge's Account. # Vide Parliamentary grants.
+ Given in evidence, on oath, before Governos $ Lieutenant Clarkson,who signed the agreement. Thompsou and Chief Justice Thorpe.
|| Seuilers remonstrated in vain, then epsued an # Abundance of proof of this in the colony. insurrection.
Documents to prove this may be found in the Falconbridge's Account, p. 189.
High Court of Admiralty, as transmitted by Gover ** fide Company's Report.
aor Thompson, in 1808-9.
si they could induce this nation to dis." ged with him near ten years before “ credit any authority that might dare your accession; yet you are now held “ to give them utterance? The Omni up to this enlightened age, and would * scient will know and judge; inipotent“ be handed down to posterity, as the
laumanity may conjecture! After six- parent that generated the abolition of “ teen ycars expériinent, trade having “ slavery, emancipated, enlightened, cal- failed; cultivation being retarded; ci- “ tivated, and civilized Africa ! Be it as
vilization unattempted; religion and" it may : I have examined already the
morality debased; and the slave trade“ means adopted to effect some of those - nourislied; every plan defeated, every praise-worthy objects, and how far “ artifice exposed; the Company, desir- “ they have succeeded; now I shall pro"ous of relieving themselves from the “ ceed to shew, how little your theory “ enormous expense, prevailed on Go- extended to pure abolition; and that, “ vernment to accept a surrender of the practically, you have not been in the " colony, and formed (to uphold their Slightest degree successful. That yon
old influence) a society called the Afri-“ most laudabiy assisted Sir William
can Institution: having taken leave of “ Dobbin, and others, in procuring Bills " the expense, they demanded to be paid" to be passed for meliorating the condifor their buildings, and did accordingly
“ tion of slaves in their Transatlantic "receive a large sum from the treasury," passage, I delight in acknowledging; " although they had before obtained (by “ but when I behold you for near twen
pleading poverty) one hundred thou- ty years professedly struggling with the ," sand pounds from Government for the great and all-commanding minister of "improvement of the colony: their books“ this country ; whose administration of "and agents were removed; while many " this government you admired, and to " of the poor settlers who had toiled for “ whose private friendship you were de"them for years were left unpaid. The “ voted; it is wonderful this benevolent “case of some of these old, impoverish- measure was not carried. You knew ed, and destitute people, I represented
“ Mr. Pitt was all powerful with his par. before the chairman of the Sierra Le- ty, and the sole director of his admi
ene Company, in a committee of the “ nistration : you had a commanding, "African Institution; but no redress was “ connected phalanx of friends in Par"offered: I simply requested that all
“ liament; and on this occasion, you had “ their demands might be referred to “the people's support, and the finest feel“ arbitration in the colony; and even this "ings of the nation to gratify; yet for " was not complied with.”
twenty years you did not carry this Second Extract.
“ Bill; though you apparently acted with “I have now, Sir, arrived at the time for
“ such a commanding associate. It is
evident addressing you as the Father of the Abo
you never did make it a " sine
qua non” of the continuance of your " lition. I presume, by accepting the ap support of Mr. Pitt's Administration: " pellation, you hold yourself thereto enti- « the speaking on it, for it, and about it, " tied; yet, 'tis påssing strange;' for was ad captaudum vulgus :" it served " Mr. Clarkson, (whose active humanity, to uphold the pendulum in its vacil“ indefatigable industry, in the cause of " lancy between the minister and the pes « abolition, can never be sufficiently appreciated or applauded,) was certainly
ple. But what is still more wonderful,
a new Administration was formed, to engaged in this great cause near twen
« the members of which you were not * ty years before he enlisted
under * his banners. The invaluable and ever
“ the devoted friend ; of whose measures " to be regretted Mr. Granville Sharpe,
you were not an unshaken admirer;
« who were not in themselves all com« was nearly fifteen years in the cause of " injured Africa, before you joined his
manding in Parliament; yet by those " amiable band of pkrilanthropists. Many this Bill was carried in both Lords
very men, without hesitation, or delay, " other worthy personages, whom Mr. " Clarkson's History records, were enga- « Fox, or Lords Grey and Grenville,
“ and Commons. Did yon ever tell Mr.
“ that the jusuce, policy, and humanitý Transferred 1st January, 1808.
“ of the abolition were so impressed on # Vide public account, 1808.
your conviction, that you could not
“ conscientiously support any ministers, “substitute for the slave trade, appears “ that would not assist you in carrying “evidently to have been a premeditated - it into effect? The whole tenour of your " plan, well laid before the Act passed,
language on the subject would have “ from the interesting letter which your " prompted and justified this demand; “ worthy Secretary, Mr. Macaulay, wrote “ but you did no such thing; the inte- “ to Governor Lidlam, dated London,
grity, the humanity, and the consisten- " 7th of May, 1807*. - You somewhat “cy of these distinguished statesmen, in- misconceive (says he) our ideas in this “ duced them to give their whole un- country on the subject of African sla. “bribed, and voluntary assistance, in “ .very. While the slave trade lasted, I cer "accomplishing this great work. The • tainly was averse to giving any direct “ Bill was evidently carried by their ex- encouragement to the purchasing of
ertions; and cannot be attributed either slaves, with a view to the benefit of to your perseverance or benevolence. their labor for a certain given period ;
Allow me to look at the Abolition "" but I always looked forward to the " Act minutely, which I hope will not “ event of the abolition, as removing " appear to be an offspring of your's," • many objections to that system.
though the features rather proclaim “ Thus the Abolition act is to give us “ the parent; for you avow it is not sla- “ slaves without purchase, by seizing “ very, but the Slave Trade, you dislike. " them from our allies; and then the “ In your Letter to Prince Talleyrand, “ framers of this magical act (which is to
you say, " The abolitionists took all “ free and enslave at the same moment), “opportunitiesof proclaiming that it was “ acknowledge, that they look forward to "the Slave Trade, not slavery, against its removing many objections to our " which they were directing their efforts.' " purchasing Afrieans, for the same “The Abolition Act upholds the same "avowed and specific purpose ourselves! “ principle; but it did not express the “As I view and consider this whole “true uncontaminated principle, nor the “plan, the act, the promoters, and the .. “ fine feeling of this magnanimous coun- manner in which it bas been “ try.-By the seventh section of the forced, I am scarcely able to suppress “ Act, • slaves taken as prizes or forfeit- “ the language that would express my " "ures, may be enlisted for the land or “ sensations; however, I must repeat 5. sea service; or may be bound as ap- “ what he says : 'You somewhat mis"«prentices, whether of full age or not, “'conceive our ideas in this country, on "! "for a term of fourteen years;' and by “the subject of African slavery.' This " sections 16th and 17th, it is laid down, “ is, we are the most abominable lıypo" that when the term of apprenticeship “crites on earth; proclaiming to the “has expired, they may be apprenticed “world, thạt from the finest feelings of “ ' apew; and the service of a negro sol-justice and humanity, we
are abo “ dier is directed to be for life;' so that " lishing the slave trade; yet, in the “ here is involuntary servitude for life es- most surreptitious manner, we are de“ tablished by an Act of Parliament pur-" termined to pursue it vigorously, and porting to abolish slavery. The sol- “ raise all tropical producet by slaves, may
endure some sca sickness in “ not in the West Indies, but in Africa.“ crossing the Atlantic, I suppose, be- " The West Indian planters and mer“cause he receives some compensation; /“ chants suffered, and complained long “ but here is a permanent, sedentary sla-since; but when they perceive the au
very for life, under the name of ap- “thors of their calamity planning to ob « prenticeship, without any compensa- “ tain plantations without purchase, la« tion, established by this liberating Act" bourers without expense, territory from “ of our Legislature: and the scat of this “the Gambia to Angola, and a monopoly “ new slavery is in Free-town, in the co-" of the exports and imports, I fear they
lony founded by the most benevolent “ will consider this an attempt at their
men, on the most liberal plan: exalted “ inevitable ruin. The army having " as the freest spot on earth, to enlighten “ benighted Africa; and displayed to * the world as the finest example of Bri
• To be found with the others, as before directed. piorar, tigh liberty, and British philanthrophy! + Pans for boiling sugar were long since sent to
sith sorrow I must declare, this Sierra Leone.