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every church in Spain. All communica in conversation with them. One of the tion with them is denounced under the pro-proctors (who was of Trinity College) severest penalties, and a complete sepa- accompanied by the inarshal of the univers ration is effected between the colonies tity, stopped the young women, and and the mother country. The evils which charged them with having been in conthis will produce, will no doubt be at versation with the gownsmen. They in first, most severely felt, but the conse- vain denied the fact. The pro-proctor dequences must eventually be beneficial to sired them to follow him, wbich they did Loth parties. All revolutionary govern- attended by the marshal. The gownsmen ments are liberal in their policy. They perceiving the young women were stopped, will no doubt invite all Europe to a free and supposing that it might have been trade, and thus commercial prosperity occasioned by their having apparently will be both given and received ; while, been in their company, returned and on the other hand, Old Spain, where indo- begged - leave to assure the pro-proctors lence and inactivity have so long been that no blame whatever was imputable habitual, will give way to exertion. This to the young women ; but they were dewill arise from the scarcity of the pre- sired to go to their College, and the fe. cious metals, which the revolution must males were escorted to Exeter College, necessarily produce. Under the old sys- where the marshal learned that the Vice tem, so abundant was the supply of gold Chancellor was engaged, and would not and silver, that little labour was necessary be spoken with. The pro-proctor upon to obtain support. A post material being informed of this circumstance, de
change will now be produced, and I have sired they might be taken to the marshal's no doubt, that if the government is vot house, and said that he would send the so stupidly blind to its own existence, as senior proctor to them. The marshal to still encourage the dominion of the obeyed the pro-proctor's directions, and priests, and the ignorance of the people, conducted them to his house, where the that a material alteration will take place senior proctor came soon afterwards. in the general habits and pursuits of the The young women asked what they had wliole nation.
been brought there for. The proctor said in my next letter, I shall trouble you that the pro-proctor had informed him with a statemeut of the operation of the they had been talking to the gownsmen. Inquisition upon trade, commerce, and This they denied, and begged they might - agriculture. In this country, an English- be liberated. The proctor replied that man can with difficulty understand how they must be confined there all night, these great causes of national prosperity and taken before the Vice-Chancellor in can be interfered with by the church. I the morning to exculpate themselves. shall explain this, and will shew clearly, They then requested that their motlier that Spain possesses every requisite to might be sent for; but this was refused rival the most favoured commercial ba- by the proctor, who immediately left the tions, if a wise and liberal government house, desiring the marshal to confine were to give spirit and energy to the them. The marshal copducted them exertions of the people.
I am, &c.
into a room up stairs (the usual place of March 1, 1815.
confinement for common prostitutes,)
shal before he left the room was about to
take away the candle, the girls begged SIR,—To the many instances of the they might have a light and a fire. But abuses of the proctorial power in theUni- he told them it was as much as his place versity of Oxford, which have been lately was worth to allow them to have either animadverted upon, in your Register, 1 the one or the other ; and they were conbeg leave to add the following: On the fined all night, without fire, candles, or 29th of November, 1811, two young wo any sort of refreshment. In the course of men, the daughters of a widow in the the evening, their mother, and two of middling rank of life, resident in Oxford, their friends, wished to be admitted, but were in the High-street, near St. Mary's were retused. About nine o'olcck the Churcb, betwen four and tive o'clock in fol owing morning, the marshal desired the afternoon, wheo two gownsmen cross-them to prepare to go before the Viceed the way, and endeavoured to engage Chancellor, and then left ther. Eę re
turned to them at twelve o'clock, ards and perhaps ruinous in its consequences,
FREEDOM OF SPEECH. siderable sum, were advised to drop all.
SIR, Knowing that you as much despise farther proreedings, as the cause mast panegyric, as I do the panegyrist, it is have been determined in the Vice Chan not my intention to pass fulsome com cellor's Court, where there is no jury, and pliments, but merely to shew to the where it might have been protracted to a world what happy effects are produced grcat length of time, and have been atten- by the perseverance of plain truth. ded with much additional expence; pot
The fact is, your plain arguments have to mention this trifling circumstance, Sreatly tended to convert an educated that the proctor himself, the very man
man, and all original enemy to your Res who was one of the defendants, might gister.- From my intimacy and friendhave sat with the assessor, and his bro) ship with him, I have constantly sent ther proctor, as one of the judges ! Now it liim to read. Sometimes he would, and it must be observed that the conduct of sometimes he would not look at it. the proctors was not only unnecessarily Tinu', the tryer of all things, as your corharsh and severe, but illegal. That this respondent on Religious Persecution was the opinion of the Vice-Chancellor, says, eradicated that rancour, and curimay be inferred from the circumstance osity predominating, led himn occasionof the young women being liberated, ally to look it over, till at last conviction without appearing before him, who, if got the better of his prejudice, and I am any thing whatever could have been pro- happy to state, that we are now as unitved against them, would not have dis- cd in politics as we are sincere in missed them without reprimand. It friendship.- The wonder working effects would have been unjustifiable and illegal, of your uncontaminated reasoning is also even if the young women had been com- proved in your forcing a rebut from Sir mon prostitutes, for they had been guilty 1. C. Hippisley, to your anin/adversions of no ill-behaviour, and the pro-proctor on the abominable Times Newspaper interposed his authority, at a time of day, report of what you justly censured as an when he had no power of exerting it ex- impropriety in Sir John's (supposed) illicept on matriculated persons. Punish-beral and ungentlemanly atiаck on Mr. ment, in this case, it inflicted at all, Madison, the President of tlie only free should have been inflicted on the gowns-country in the world. I cordially particimen; but they were allowed to escape pate with you wlien you say,"you cannot with impunity. -- Instances similar to the help wishing that a respectable English above, I have reason to think, have fre- gentleman had refrained from the use quently occurred, though the individu- “of a phrase fit to be applied only to als who suffered had no opportunity of "the head and members of a government bringing their cases before the public; of a very different description.” I could a circumstance that will not be wonder- have wished that you had named the ed at, when it is considered that aggres- government, but I have a pretty good sions of this nature are generally commit- key to this when I look to your extracts ted against persons who cannot take from a Pamphlet written by Mr. Thorpe, any expensive measures to obtain redress, the Chief Justice of the Colony of Sier: as by their own situation or that of their ra Leone, (on the subject of the slave relations and friends, they are more or less trade) to Mr. Wilberforce, a sanctified dependent on the University, and to member of parliament, a suppressor whom any resistance or opposition to of vice; a good old man, who would those members of it who are clothed, with rather die tbau be deprived of the pleaauthority, might be very detrimental sare and power of emmming Bible
down our throats.-Sir J. C. Hippis- 'ral position, that it was consistent with the prio: ley, or the Times, may say that they hate ciples of public law, and with the practice of cia the Americans if they please ; that will vilized nations, lo include allies in a treaty of do the Americans no harm. I like can- peace, and 10 provide for their security, never dour; therefore it should be allowed was called in question by the undersigned; but every one, with the same candour, to they have been dinied ilie right of Great Britain. speak the truth. Then it might be truly according to those principles and liver own practice, said that we live in as free a country as tu interfere in any manner with Indian tribes re America. According to the sense our siling witloin the territories of the United States, Big Wigs have given to the word libel as acknowledged by herseif; to consider such tribes (namely the greater the truth the greater as lier allies, or to treat for them with the United the libel) Sir J. C. Hippisley was cer- States
. They will not repeat the fro:cis and arguá tainly correct when he said, that Mr. ments alrendy brought forwarit by krem in sap Hunt was libelling our own country: port of this position, and which remained unanWe must therefore take it for granted swered. The observations made by the Britisli that Sir Jolin's admits the truth of Mr. Plenipotentiaries upon the treniyot Grepeille, and Hunt's assertion, that the Americans their assertion), that the United Sluies now, for the “are the only remaining free people in first tinn', deny the absoluie independence of the " the world.” Here I certainly would have lodian trives, and claim the exclusive right of been on Sir John's side of the question. purchasing their lands, require, however, --At the same time, I should have made notice. If the United States had now assentert, it distinctly understood, that it was be that the Indians within their boundaries, whiú have cause I considered Mr. Hunt's assertion acknowledged the United States as their only to be the truth, call it what you may.- protectors, were their subjects, living only 'at susa Possibly Sir John thinks gagging a part ferance on their lands, far from being the first of our boasted liberty. But it is my mis- in making Iliat assertion, they would only have fiolfortune not to consider any country free, lowed the example of the principles uniformly and or enjoying the blessings of nature, that invariabiy asserted in substance, and frequently is deprived of the liberty of speech. avowed in express termis, by the British GoveriiWhat constitutes genuine freedom ? Is it ment itself. What was the meaning of all the not the liberty of speaking and speal the colonial charters grauted by the British Monarely, the truth, the source from whic have derived all human blessings ? Georgia, by the immediate predecessor of tlie
from that of Virginia, by Elizabeth, to that of When, therefore, we punish or censure others for exercising this facultyren- present King, if the Indians were the Sovereigns der it a curse instead of a ble; we and proprietors of the lands bestowed by thusa are, in that case, less benefit by the charters? What was the meaning of that article rights of nature than the brun creation, in the Treaty of Utrecht, by which the Five Nations
were described in terms as subject to the doininioa I am, &c. W. P. R.
of Great Britain ? or that of the treaty with the
Cherokees, by which it was declared that the King AMERICAN DOCASINS. of Great Britain granted them the privilege to live
where they pleased, if those subjects were indeContinued from page
pendent sovereigns, and if these tenants at the may be permited to add, that even sue chonces licence of the British King, were the rightful lords of war should yield te the British arms a muhen- of the lands where he grauted them permission tery possession of other parts of the territory of to live? What was the meaning of that proclaibe Uwiied States, such events would not alter their nation of his present Britannic Majesty, issued in views with regard to the terms of peace to which 1763, declaring all purchases of lands null and they would give their consent. Withuut recurring void, unless made by treaties held under the sanction to examples drawn from the Revolutionary Gover- of his Majesty's Government, if the Indians had ments of France, or to a more recent and illus- the right to sell their lands to wliom ihey pleased ? trious triumph of fortitude in adversiij, they Whai was the meaning of boundary lines of have been taught by their own history that the oc- American territories, in all the treaties of Great sapation of their principal cities would produce no Britain with other European Powers having Amedespondency, nor induce their submission to the rican possessivirs, particularly in the treaty of disnjemu berment of their empire, or to the aban- 1763, by which she acquired from France the donment of any one of the rights which constitute sovereignty and possession of the Canadas-in her a part of their aational independence. The gene- treaty of peace will the l'oited States in 1783?...
nay, whät is the meaning of the north western boun with the Treaty of Grenville. "These principles have dary line now proposed by the British Cominissi. been uniformely recognised by the Indians ihempners theruselves, if it is the rightful possession selves, not only by that treaty, but in all the and sovereignty of independent Indians, of which other previous as well as subsequent treaties between shurise bourdaries dispose? Is it indeed necessary then and the United States. . do ask, whether Great Britain ever las permitied, The Treaty of Grenville neither took from the or would permit, any fureign nation, or without Indians the riglit, which they liad not, of selling her consent, any of lier subjects, to acquire lunds lands within the jurisdiction of the United States, from the Instians, in the territories of the Hudson tv foreign Governments or subjects, nor ceded to Bay Company or in Canada? Iu formally pro- them :he right of exercising excluvive jurisdiction testing against this system, it is not against a novel within the boundary line assigned. It was mere pretension of the American Governmenil---it is ly declaratory of the problic law, in relation to the agaiose the must selenm acis of their own sovereigns, parties, founded on principles previously and oui. against the royal proclanations, charters, and versally recognised. It left to the United States the treaties of Great Britain for more than two centu- rights of exercising sovereignty and of acquiring ries, from the first settlement of North America soil, and bears no analogy to the proposition of 10 ile present day that the British Pleniporen-Great Britain which requires the abandonment tiaries protest. From the rigour of this system of both. The British Plenipotentiaries stale in however, as practised by Great Britain and all their last Note, that Great Britain is ready to enter the oilier European Powers in America, the bus into the same engagement with respect to the mage and liberal policy of the United States has Indians living within their lines of demarcatiuni, voluntarily relaxed. A celebrated writer on the as that which is proposed to the United States. The laws of muriods, to whose authority British juris:s undersigned will not dwell on the immense inequabave taken particular satisfaction in appealing, lity of value between the iwo territories, whichi after stating, in the most explicit manner, the under such an arrangement, would be assigned, by legitimacy of colonial settlements in America, the each nation, respectively, lo the Indians, and which exclusion of all rights of uncivilised Indian tribes, alone would make the ieciprocity merely nominala lias taken occasion to praise the first senlers New The condition which would thus be imposed, on Er.gland, and the founder of Peunsylvania, in liar. Great Britaiu nut to acquire lands in Canada froiza ing purchased of the Indians the lands they re- the Indians, would be productive of no advantage to solved to cultivate, notwithstanding their being ited States, and is, therefore, no equivalent furnished with a charter from their sovereign. Ii dorim sacrifice required of them. They du not is this example w Kich the United States, since they consider that it belougs to the United States, in any became by their independence the sovereigns of respect to interfere with thic concerns of Great the territory, have adopted and organised into a Britai er American possessions, or with bet political system. Under that system the Indians re- policy the Indians residing tfsere ; and they siding within the United States, are so far independ cannot compt to any interference, on the part of ent, that they live under their own customs, and not
Great Britain, with their own concerts, and par. under the laws of the United States; that their ticularly with the Judians living within their tetrirights upon the fands where they inhabit or hunt torics. It the interca of Great Britain to are secured to them by boundaries defined in anii. limit hier sa in Canuda, to their present cable treuties between the United States and them- extent, a the country to the west a perod ves; and that whenever those boundaries are fect wild for ever inhabited by scattered varied, it is also by anicable and voluntary treaties tribes out it would inflict a vital injury by which they receive from the Vuited States ample on ed States to have a line run through coinpensation for every right they have to the lands the territory, beyond which their settlements ceded by them. They are so tar dependent as not should for ever be precluded from extending, thereby to have the right 10 dispose of their lands to any arresting the natural growth of their population private persons, nur lo any power, other than the and strength; placing the Indians substantiallye United States, and to be under their protection by virtue of the propased guarantee, under the prom alone, and not under that of any other power, tection of Great Britain, dooming them in perpetual Whether called subjects, or by whatever name barbarism, and leaving an extensive froutier, før designated, such is the relation between them ever exposed to their savage incursions. and the United States. That relation is neither asserted pay for the first time, nor did it originale
Signed as before,
Printed and Publisked by G, Houston: No. 192, Strand; where all-Coinmunications Addressed to
Editor are requested to be forwardedo
Vol. XXVII. No. 10.] LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 19, 1815. [Price le
[ 290 CORN BILL:
son llest, was made to inflame, or to mis leads no attempt to mark ,out any par
ticular class for popular resentmeut; no WILTSHIRE COUNTY-VIBETING,
atteuint to stir up the labourer to cut the Held at Salisbury, on the 8th of March, throat, or to set fire to the house or baras
of his employer ; but, many endeavours 1815.
were used, and it is believed with com This meeting, which was convened by plete success, to make the vast 28seido advertisement, under the authority of blage clearly understand, that the propothellighSheriff was the most numerous sition to make corn dear had growo out of any that bad ever been witnessed in the of the desire to continue to raise war County. The Sheriff opened the proceed- taxes upon the farmer; tbat this desire bad ings in the Couneil Chamber of the City, grown out of the immense expenditure but, it being found, that the open air was still intended to be kept up; and that the only proper, place to afford a chance this immense expenditure had grown out of hearing to such an immense assembly, of those measures; which would have an journment took place to the square been all prevented by a Reform in the in the front of the Council House. -Here, Commons' House of Parliament. It was after the requsition had been read, the explained to the people, that the owners Resolution, and after it the Petition of land and growers of corn would not (which will be found below), were moved gæin, in the end, vy a Curn Bil), which, by Mr. Hunt and seconded by Mr. in fact, was intended to enable them to Cobhett of Botley, who having a free pay war-taxes in time of prace, though hold in Wiltshire was induced to taţe some of them had been evidently actuated part in a discussion, in which every man by the selfish notion of gain to themselves. in the kingdom is interested. -Whatever li was explained to the Meeting, that the might have been the wishes, or the ex-, inevitable effect of the Bill would be to pectations, of the friends of Corruption, enhance and uphold the price of corn ; They were not here gratified by witness- or, in other words, that it would impose ing'any attempts to work up the passions a new tax upon the loaf, and that, too, and prejudices of the people into that without any ultimate benefit to the land
flame of violence, which, unhappily, has lord or tegant, however some of these sburst forth in the metropolis, and wþich might think the contrary.--In adverting it is the duty of every man to discourage, to the Wiltshire Petition for a Corn Bill, and to prevent, if he has it in his power. it was observed, that the Petitioners had
Mr. Hunt gave early proof of his de said, that they had long borne heavy sire to discharge this duty and of the taxes, AND THAT THLY WLRE STILL weight which a mau may have with the WILLING TO BEAR HEAVY TAXES, people, if he proceed in the right way. provided the Government and Parliament
- There were carried into the Council would pass a law, the effect of which Chamber, upon the tops of two long should be TO RAISE AND KEEP poles, a large loaf decorated with gay UP THE PRICE OF THEIR CORN. ribbons, and a small loaf arrayed in crape. That is to say, that so long as they could Mr. Hont requested, that those loaves have a price, which shouid be a protec(the sight of which was so well calculation to them against ruin, they did not ted to inflame) should be taken away. care how heavily the loaf was taxed, They instantly were taken away, and never how much money was squaiglered away, again made their appearance. --To give how large a standing army was kept up any thing like a report of speeches here in time of peace, nor bow the liberties will not be attempted. But, it is right to aud rights of the people were dealt with. bserve, that no attempt, not even the It was explained to the mee:ing, that, in