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-down, all for the “ amusement of the , " observance" Much as has been done of rious and hospitable inhabitants of that late towards ameliorating our criminal bighly cultivated and enlightened city !!!|1a1, there still remains a vast accumulation

The pillory is evidently a vestige of that of abuse and error, which it will require feudal barbarisnı which formerlyoverspread more than ordinary exertion and talent to Europe ; and although it is not now at overcome. Those to whom the country is

tended, as then, with the painful infiction already indebted for niany excellent res "of baving the ears nailed to the instrument forrus in our criminal code, will have of disgrace, or the cheek branded with a much to combat, in the way of prejudice, lút irou, it is a punishment that nust, in before they can accomplish all they propose. many cases, be worse than death, when But as they have already experienced the the colprit, through a mistaken policy, is beneficial advantages of perseverance, they left to the mercy of an infuriated mob. may pretty safely calculate, that as long as It would be difficult, I think, to point out they continue to keep the object steadily tise wisdom of that law, which leaves the in view, they need be under no apprebendegree of punishment of a criminal to be sions as to the result.-Yours; &c. determined, and inflicted, by the multitude,

BENEVOLU'S. who neither know, or are capable of just

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. appreciating, the offence with which he is charged. The case of the man at Glasgow SIR,-You will much oblige the writer was no doubt of a very aggravated nature of the letter which appeared in your last But are all persons condemned to the pil. Register on the subject of the Oxford lory of the same description ? Have we prison, by inserting the following Postscript pot had that sentence put in execution for to it : mere matters of opision ? and can it ge- It is true that a room is now fitting up riously be said that any person thus situated in the prison for sick persons, but this oùglit to be consigned to the bands of a l'oom will not contain more than four beds,

set of unprincipled ruffians, to be kicked which is a very inadequate accommodation. and coffed, as long as they please, for their As the University Officers are at this time

am isement ? Why should not the law endeavouring to apprehend all the prostiexplicitly define and apportion the degree tutes who are ill of a certain disease, the of punishment belonging to each offence ? prison, should the winter be severe, wül Whz should so glaring a proof of its inef present a scene of more than usual mificacy be permitted for one moment to The writer will feel himself much exist? Where our national character is obliged to any resident Member of tive $0 mech involved, and the rights of huma- University of Cambridge, who will favou nity so deeply implicated, it surely would bim, through the medium of yourREGISTER, be në disgrace if our legislators would with a full and accurate account of the theexert themselves to get a practice abolish- thod pursued there with respect to these ed, which, on all occasions,

would be unfortunate women. mor: honoured in the breacli than in the Orford, Jan. 2, 1315.


Printed and Published by J, AJORTOX, 94, Straod,

Vol. XXVII. No. 2.) LONDON, SATURDAY, JAN. 14, 1815. [Price 1s.




[34 TO MR. JOHN CARTWRIGHT, called the Reformers, “ a low and degraded

"creio," having amongst them THE IMPLACABLE ENEMY OF TYRANNY.

no honour able distinctions ;' and he expressed his

pleasure, that they were, as he said, fightPeace between England and America.

ing on the side of our enemy. They were,

in his eyes, so contemptible, that he was Bolley, January 9, 1815. glad we had them for enemies, and espeDear Sir,-Before I proceed to the cially, as, in their chastisement, republicanproposed subject of this Letter, I think it ism would be humbled in the dust, if not right just to notice, that I have, in address- wholly destroyed. ing you now, omitted the addition of Esg. Such were the sentiments of the greater at the end of your name. It is become part of the nation, at the time when the high time for us, and all those who think as kings and Potentates of Germany paid us we do, to partake, in no degree whatever, a visit, and when the “ Bits of Striped in this sort of foolery, especially when we " Bunting" were seen reversed under the ale writing, or speaking, upon the subject Royal flay on the Serpentine River. There of a peace, which has been made with a had, indeed, occurred, before that time, nation, whose Chief Magistrate never pre-events, which, one would have hoped, tends to any title above that of " fellow-would have checked this contemptuous way “ cilizen," which he shares in common with of thinking. The defeat and capture of the all the people of the free and happy coun-Guerricre, the Macedonian, the Java, the try, at the lead of whose Government he Peacock, and divers other smaller ships of has been placed by the unbought votes of war, by that Republic, whose very name his fellow-citizens."

we affected to despise, might have been exIn my former Letter I stated, as clearly pected to create a doubt, at least, of as I was able consistent with brevity, the power to annibilate the Republic in any very real cause of the war; and also the real short space of time. But the nation had causes of its continuance after the Euro- been cheated here, too, by the corrupt press, pear peace. I shall now endeavour to state who persuaded them, that all these losses clearly the real causes of the peace ; and arose from causes other than those of the then we shall come to those consequences, skill and valour of the Republicans. At which, I think, we shall find to be of the one time, it was superior numbers ; at anoutmost importance to the cause of freedom ther, heavier metal; at another, our own all over the world.

seamen inveigled into the Republican ships. T'hie peace

has been produced by various This delusion was kept up for two years, causes. When Napoleon had been put until the incursion in the Chesapeake down, this country was drunk with exulta- seemed to have closed the scene ; and, you

n. The war with America was gene- will bear in mind, that, at that time, it was rally looked upon as the mere sport of a the almost universal opinion, that our Remonth or two.

Our newspapers published gent would soon send out his Viceroy to reports of speeches, or pretended speeches Washington City. (for it is the same thing in effect), in which It was even at this very moment, howthe orators-scoffed at the idea of our having 'ever, that the tide began to turn. The any trouble in subduing a people, with two gallant little army of Republicans, on or three thousand miles of sea-coast, defend the Nia, ara frontier, hal before proved, ed by raw militia, and byhalf a dozen fir at Chippawa, that they were made of the frigates, with bits of striped bunting at sa:neasti tliat composed their ancestor's ; “their mast heads.” This phrase will be and, at Fort Erie, they now gave a second long remembered. One of our Oratois most signal proof of the same kind.called the Americans, as he had before While these never-surpassed acts of deve




tion to country were performing on the same time ; the land army met, as far as borders of Lakes Ontario and Erie, Lake it went, with a very gallant resistance, Champlain exhibited a spectacle, which though it behaved, on its part, with equal struck with wonder all the Continent of | gallantry; and Mr. Macomb must, in all Europe, and which, in fact, astounded every probability, have yielded, in time, to a force of sense here, who had before clamour- so greatly superior, if the attack by water ed for the war. It is true, that this was had not been frustrated. But on the water only a repetition of the scene, exhibited the side, the Republican Commodore Macdoyear before on Lake Erie, where, with an nough, though his force was inferior to infirior number of men and guns, the Re- ours, and has becn so stated in the officiul publican Commodore Perry had beaten and dispatch of Sir George Prevost himself, actually captured, the whole of our fleet not only defeated our fleet, but captured under Commodore Barclay ; but, all eyes the whole of the ships, one of which was were at that time fixed on the Continent of 36 guns, while the largest of the, Reof Earope. The expected fall of Napoleon, publican ships was of no more than 26 and the real victories over him, made the guns! The Governor-General, seeing the luss on Lake Erie (a loss of immense im- fate of the fleet, knowing that the taking portance, as is now scen) to be thought of the fort after that would only lead to a nothing of. 'Our great object then was, speedy retreat from it, and fearing the Napoleon. Hiin once subduell, the Re- consequences

an attack on


back public, it was thought, would be done for Canada, raised the siege, and hastened ia a trice. To suppose, that she would be back towards Montreal with all imaginable able to stand against us, for any length of speed, pursued by the little Republican time, appeared, to most men, perfectly ri- army, and leaving behind hin, as the Rediculous. A far greater part of the nation publicans state, immense quantities of thought that it was our army who had put stores, ammunition,. &c. besides great down Napoleon. Indeed, the Commander numbers of prisoners and deserters. They of them w:19 called, “ the conqueror of may have exaggerated in these their acFrance ;” and, it was said, that a part of counts, but the Canada newspapers stated the Conquerors of France, sent to America, that 130 of our men deserted; and, which would, in a few months, “ reduce" the is a thing never to be forgotten, our Wicountry.

nisters have never published in the Gazette A part of them were, accordingly, sent Sir George Prevost's account of his methither; and now we are going to view morable retreat, though they have pubtheir exploits against the Republicans on lished his dispatches relating to' all the the borders of Lake Champlain. The movements of the army before and afier Governor-General of Canada, Sir George that retreat. Prevost, having received the reinforce- This blow did, in fact, decide the quesments from Fraace, invaded the Republic tion of war, or peace. There was much at tlre head of 14,000 men, with five blustering about it here ; it was affected Major-Generals under him, four troops of to treat the thing lightly; the Times, and Dragoons, four companies of Royal Artil- other venal newspapers, represented it as a lery, one brigade of Rocketeers, one bri- mere trifling occurrence, which would soon gade of Royal Sappers and Miners. The be overbalanced by sweeping victories on first object was to dislodge the Republicans our part. But npon the back of this came from Fort Moreau, near the town of the brilliant success of the Republicans in Plattsburgh, on the edge of the Lake, repulsing our squadron, and burning one about 15 miles within the boundary line of our ships before Fort Mobille, in the Gulph the Republic. · In this fort were 1,500 of Nlexico ; and thus, while we had to Republican regulars, and no more, and vaunt of our predatory adventures against 6,600 volunteers and militia from the the city of Washington, the town of States of Vermont and New York, under Alexandria, and the villages of Frenchthe command of a very gallant and accom- town and Stonington, the fame of the Replished citizen, named Macomb, a Briga- publican arnis, ly land as well as sca, dier-General in the Republican service sounded in every ear and glowed in every While Sir Geerre Prevost attacked the heart, along the whole extent of the sixfort by land, Commodore Downie, with teen hundred miles whieh lie between Cahis feet, was to attack it by water. The nada and the Mexican Gulph. attack, on both sides, commenced at the In Europe these events produced a preTints


digious sensation. Those who wished to those taxes, the existence of which depend

a check given to the all-predominant ed on the duration of the war. naval power of England, rejoiced at them; In the meanwhile, the Ministers, preand tvery where they excited and called rious to their knowledge of the battles of forth adiniration of the Repubicans. There Chippawa, Fort Erie, Plattsburgh, Lake haul been, during the struggle on the Con- Champlain, and Fort Mobille, had put for

tinent, no leisure to contemplate the trans- ward, at Ghent, very high pretensions. Catlantic contest ; but it now became an They had proposed, as a SINE QUA NON,

object of universal attention ; and Europe, they expulsion of the Republicans from a so long accustomed to regard English paval considerable portion of their territory, in invincibility, when the force on both sides behalf of the savages in alliance with us; was equal, or nearly equal, as a thing re- they had demanded though not as a sine

qua ceived and universally admitted, was sur- non, the surrender of the Lakes to our prised beyond expression at the undeniable King, even with the prohibition to the proof of the contrary.

The world was Americans to erect fortifications on the now called on to witness the combat be borders which would remain to them; they tween England and America single-handed. bad demanded a line of communication beThe former was at the summit of power tween Quebec and our territories east of and glory; she had captured or destroyed the Penobscot, through the territories of almost all the naval force in Europe ; those the Republic. The American Negociator's powers who had any naval force left were declined any discussion of these conditions, her allies, and were receiving subsidies until they should receive instructions from from her ; she bad an army of regulars of their Governme nt ; alledying, and very 200,000 men, flushed with victory ; she justly, that this was the first time that any had just marched part of this army through such grounds of war, or dispute, had been the heart of France herself ; she had a mentioned by us. thousand ships of war afloat, commanded These demands having been transmitted by men who never dreamt of defeat. This to the President, he, instead of listening to was the power that now waged war, single them, laid them before the Congress, with handed, against the only Republic, the an expression of his indignation at them; only Commonwealth, remaining in the and in this feeling he appeared only to have world. The friends of freedom, who were anticipated his fellow-citizens throughout not well acquainted with America, had the country, with the exception of a handbeen trembling for her. They did not ful of aristocratical intriguers in the State seem to entertain any hopes of her escape. of Niassachusetts. New and vigorous They thought it scarcely possible, that she measures were adopted for prosenting the should, with her Democratical Government war. The Congress hastened on Bills for and her handful of an army, without ofli- raising and paying soldiers and sailors ; cers and without stores, resist England for making the militia more efficient; for even for a year single-handed ; and they expediting the building of shi's; erecting saw no power able if willing, or willing if fortifications ; providing floating batteries, able, to lend the Republic the smallest de- In short, it was now clearly seen, that the gree of assistance.

Government of the Republic was equal to a But when the battles of Lake Champlain time of war as well as to a time of peace; vere announced ; and when it was seen by that we had to carry on a contest, at 3,000

e President's Message to his fellow-ci- miles distance, against a brave, free, and tizens of the Congress, that the Republican great nation ; and that the aristocratical Government marched on with a firm step, faction, on whom some men had depended i and had resolved not to yield one single for aid, were sneaking off into pitiful sub

point to our menaces, or our attacks, a terfuges, afraid any longer to shew a very different view of the contest arose. bankering after our cause. The English nation, which had been exult- In this state of things; with this proing in the idea of giving the Yankeys" a spect before them, the Ministers wisely redrubbing," began to think, that the under-solved to abandon their demands, and to taking was not so very easy to execute; make peace, leaving things as they stood and seeing no prospect of an end to the before the war. The Opposition, who bad war and its expences, they began to cry pledged themselves to the support of the ont for the abolition of the greatest of war upon the old ground, that is to say,

upon the ground of impressment, began to that peace has been made, and not cne protest against it upon the ground of con- single point has been yicliled to us. quest; and, if the war had continued, there We now come to the most important is no doubt that they would have greatly and most interesting part of our subject; em'varrassed the Ministry upon this subject, namely, THE CONSEQUENCES of especially as the continuation of the war this

peace, made at such a time and under was the only remaining excuse for the con- such circumstances. Considered as to its tinuation of the war taxes, against which probable and almost necessary consepetitions were preparing in every part of quences, it is, in my opinion, an event of the kingdom. Here we cannot help ob- infinitely greater importance to the world serving how wise it was in Mr. Madison than any that has taken place since the to make public our demands. If these had discovery of the Art of Printing. But I been kept secret, till after the close of the will not enter further into the subject, 'till I war, how long might not that war have have laid before you, or, rather, put upon drawled on? The demands would never, record, for the sake of reference, some of perhaps, have been known. How wise is the overflowings of gall, which this event it, then, in the Americans to have framed has brought from the throats of the swor'u their Government in such a way as to pre- enemies of freedom. You have observed, vent mischievous State secrets from exist that those public prints in England, which ing! How wise to have made all their were the most bitter against Napoleon, rulers really responsible for their acts have been also the most bitter against the How wise to secure, upon all important American President; a fact which ought points, an appeal to themselves. The Pre- to make people reflect a little before they sident was very coarsely treated bere by give way to such outrageous abuse of the some persons, who onght to have known former, though we must always regard him better, for having exposed the conferences. as a traitor to the cause of liberty, having It was said to be an act unprecedented in married a King's daughter, made himself a civilized nation. Civilized nations," an Emperor, and propped up and created you will perceive, mean nations governed Kings, for the sake of his and his family's lay kings and other hereditary sovereigns ; aggrandizement. Still, it is clear, that the 2nd, in that sense, the Americans cer- writers, whom I have now in my eye, tain'y are not a civilized nation. But thought him more favourable to freedom pohy should such papers be kept secret ? than those who have succeeded him; beOr, at least, why should they not be cause no sooner was he down, than they set male public, if the Government chooses upon the American President with the to make them prblic? When once a Go- same degree of fury, with which they had vernment has dispatches in its hands, attacked Napoleon; and they recommended there is no law that deprives it of the li- | the deposing of him, upon “the same prinherty to make what use of them it pleases. "ciple," they said, that they had recomNothing eruid he wore fair than Nr. Ma- mended the deposing of Napoleon. You dison's mode of proceeding. The aris- will not fail to have observed this, and to tocratical fiction, whom we called our liave traced it to its truc source; but, I friends, were crying out for peace; the am afraid that it has passed unobserved by whole of the American people were repre- but too large a portion of the nation, sentel, in our newspapers, as disapproving There are several of our public prints, . of the war, and as wishing for peace on our indeed, a very great majority of them, iil

Wbat, tben, could Mr. Madison country as well as in town, which have do more just and more candid than publish urged the justice and necessity of extinto the people the whole of those terms.-guishing the American Government ; that “ There they are,” said he, “ decide upon ill-organized associution;" that “ mis" them. Say: will you have peace npon “chievous example of the existence of a " these ternis? I am, myself, ready to “ Government, founded on Democratical “perish, rather than make such a peace. “ Rebellion." This peal was rung

from “Now, let me hear what you bare to say." one end of the country to the other. But A nation of free men agreed with hiin, that the print, which led the van in this new they would perish rather than yield to such crusade against liberiy, was that vile newsternis; and, indeed, rather than yield to paper, the Times, to which paper re and 115 “ one single point,” thoug'a of ever so the world owe no small portion of those little importance. The result has been, I conséquences which will result from the


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