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vations, to whom the caprice of Rome | cial act has proved the determination of a gave for Kings, Princes whose submission rupture. We are reduced to vague conand dependence were secure! In this jectures, to reports perhaps false. It apview, the efforts which the Allied Powers pears certain that on the 20th of March a may now attempt to make, would not new agreement was signed, in which the hare for their precise object to bring us powers consecrated the former alliance of back under a dynasty rejected by public Chaumont. If the object of it is defenopinion. It would not be the Bourbons sive, it enters into the views of your Main particular whom they would wish to jesty yourself, and France has no cause to protect; for a long time past, their cause, complain; if it were otherwise, it is the abandoned by themselves, has been so by independence of the French nation which all Europe; and that unfortunate family would be attacked, and France would has every where been subjected to a dis. know how to repel an agression so odious. dain but too cruel. The choice of the The Prince Regent of England declares monarch whom they should place on the that he wishes, before he acts, to come to throne of France would be of little im- an understanding with the other powers. portance to the Allies, provided they saw All those powers are armed, and they dethere seated with him weakness and pusilo liberate. France, excluded from these lanimity: this would be the most sensible deliberations of which it is the principal outrage that could be done to the honour object; France alone deliberates, and is of a magnanimous and generous nation. not yet armed. In circumstances so im. It is that which has already most deeply portant, in the midst of those uncerta nties wounded French hearts, and of which the as to the real dispositions of foreign powrenewal would be the most in:supportable. ers, dispositions whose exterior acts are of Although in the latter months of 1813, a nature to authorise just alarms, the senthat famous Declaration was published at timents and wishes of your Majesty for Frankfort, by which it was solemnly an- the maintenance of peace, and of the treaty nounced that they wished France to be of Paris, ought not to prevent legitimate great, happy, and free, what was the re- precautions. I therefore tbink it my duty sult of those pompous assurances? At the to call the attention of your Majesty, and same moment they violated the Swiss neu- the reflections of your Council, to the traiity. When, in short, on the French measures which the preservation of her soil, in order to cool patriotism and to dis-rights, the safety of her territory, and the organise the interior, they continued to defence of the national honour, ought to promise to France an existence and liberal dictate to France. laws, the events soon shewed what confi.

(Signed) dence was due to such engagements


CAULINCOURT, Duke of Vicenza, lightened by experience, France has its eyes opened; there is not one of its citi-CIRCULAR ADDRESSED TO AMBASSADORS, zens who does not observe and judge MINISTERS, what passes around it: inclosed within its ancient frontier, when it cannot give of

Paris, Nurch 30, 1815. fence to other governments, every attack

SIR.--The wishes of the French nalion vierer against its own sovereign is a tendency to ce sed to recall the Sovereign of its choice, thie interfere in its internal affairs, and will only Prince who can guarantee to it the couxet": appear only an attempt to divide its Emperor appeared, and the royal government no strength ly civil war, and to complete its longer exists At the sight of the universal ruin and dismemberment. However, Sire, movenient which carried both the people and even to this day, all is menace, and as yet family of the Bourbons perceived that there reo

army towards their legitinale Monarchi, the there is no hostility. Your Majesty will wained no other course for them but to take not wish that incidents proceeding from refuge in a foreign country. They have quitted the individual dispositions of particular the Frenca soil

, without a single musker having commanders, either little scrupulous ob- fence. The military household which accompas

been fired, or a drop of blood shed in their de. servers of the orders of their court, or too nied them has collected at Bethune, where it ready to anticipate their supposed inten- declared its submission to the orders of the Em. tions, should be considered as acts spring- peror. It has given up its horses and arms: ing from the will of those powers, and as

more than half of it has entered our ranks; the

rest, few in number, are retiring to their homes,' having broke the state of peace. No olli- ' bappy 10 tind an asylum in the generosity of




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bis Imperial Majesty. The most profound tran sacred struggle for the happiness of onr people, quillity reigns thronghont the whole extent of the France is glait toproclaini with frankness this noble empire. Every where the same cry is heard ; never end of all its wistjes. Jealous of its slependence, did a ration present the spectacle of inore coin the invariable principle of its policy will be ibe plete unanimity in the expresion of its happiness most absolute respect for the independence of and joy. This great pliange has been only the other nations : if such, as I have a happy confi. work of a few days. It is the finest triumph of the dence, shall be the personal sentiments of your contidence of a mohorci in the love of his peo- Majesty, the general tranquillity is secured for a ple; il is at the same time the most extraordilong time; and justice, sealed on the confines of Mary act of the will of a nation wlich knows its different states, will alone suffice to guard their rights and its true duties. The tunctions en. frontiers. I seize with eagerness, &c. &r." trusted to you by the royal goveronient have “ Paris, April 4." (Signed) NAPOLEON.” terminated; and I am about to take, without delay, the orders of his Majesty ihe Emperor, in der to accredit a new legation. You must ipmediately, Sir, assume the tri-coloured cock.

THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON. ade and cause it to be taken by the Frenchmen who are about you. If, at the moment of quito crer gave rise to so much speculation, or

No event, in the history of the world, ting the Court where you reside, you have oc. casion to see the Minister for Foreign Affairs, so great a diversity of opinion as the event You will inform him that the Emperor bas no- of Napoleon's abdication of the thrones of ihing more at heart than the maintenance of France and Italy. Those who had all peace: that liis Majesty has renounced the plans of greatness which he might have anteriorly along been hostile towards him; those formed; and that the system of bis Cabinet, as who abused him when he was fighting uowell as the whole of the direction of affairs in der the banners of republicanism; those France, is upon a totally different principle. I who called him all sorts of names when, cannot doubt, Sir, that you will consider it as a dury to make kuown to the Frenchimen abont

as First Consul, he led the French armies yon, the new situation of Fiance, and that in to victory; those who calumniated him whichi, according to onr laws, they find them because he defeated the enemies of France selves placed.

even after he assumed the tiile api dignity (Signed) CAULAINCOURT, Duke of of an Emperor; those, in short, who, from Viceuza.

first to last, have hated and detested this LITTER, (THE ORIGINAL IN THIE ITAND

extraordinary man, and who took every WRITING OF NAPOLEON), ADDRESSED TO opportunity to shew their rancour and

malice against him. All this tribe of vi. Sir, iny Brother! You will have learned in pers, who have always been, and still are, the course of the last month my return on the very numerous, were forward in maintain. stores of France, ny entrauce' into Paris, and ing that Napoleon resigned his crown and the departure of the "amily of the Bourbons. The consented to retire to Elba, because he true nature of these evenis most no :: be known to had been defeated by the Allies; because your Majesty. They are the work of an irresistable joner, tire svork of the nnanimolls will of a great

his marshals and his


had deserted nation, whichi kuows its dities and its rights. The him ; and because he had for ever lost the dytlasty, wilicha force bad impo ed op the Princh affections of the people of France, in conpeople, was no longer maile for it: the Bour lains wonlit not accord with its sentiments or

sequence of his alledged tyranny and

opits manners : France has separated itself from pression.-- Nothing appeared so clear to thein. Its voice called for a deliverer. The cx these sagacious politicians, nothing so cerpctation which decides me to make the greatest tain, at the time, as that Napoleon owed of sacrifices was disappointeil. I came, and

his misfortunes to these causes, and that from the point where I touched the shore the Bove of my people carried me even to the bosom it was impossible he could ever recover cat' my capital. The first duty of my licart is to his fallen fortunes. Had the statements repay so much affection by the maintenance of which these men set forth been true, it is an honourable tranquillity. The re-establishi.

on of the Imperial Throne was necessary for unquestionable that their conclusions die happiness of Frenclumen. My dearest would have been just; but as these stateihonglit, is, at the same time, to make it useful ments were altogether the result of malice, to the securing of the repose of Europe. Sufas they were from the beginning, and all ticient glory has adorned by forues the base of through, dictated by a hatred of liberty, Have caused sufficient great reverses to succeed and of every man who gave it support, to great successes. A tiner field is now open their conclusions have proved as fallacious for sovereigns, and I am the first to enter it. as the premises upon which they were Atier baving presented to the world the specia: founded. It was with a partial and preche of great combats, it will be more deligbtful in fliure, to know no other rivalry except that of the judiced eye they viewed the conduct of auvablages of peace, wo other struggle except the Napoleon, in whatever situation he was,


placed. It was impossible, therefore, whelming torrent of malignity, of prethey could be correct either as to his mo- judice, of malice, and of misrepresentatives of action or the consequences likely tion. I denied that Napoleon had ever to result from the step which he took. It been defeated in the field. le, no doubt, is pretty certain also that the abdication found it necessary to retreat after the batof Napoleon was an event which his ene. tle of Leipsic. But this, confessedly, was mies little expected. They could not occasioned by the defection of his Allies, conceive how a man that had been so long who weut over to the Confederates in the accustomed to dispose of crowns at plea- heat of the engagement. Even the treasure, could so far become the master of son which led to this disaster did not prehimself; could so readily subdue, what vent Napoleon carrying off the greater they called, his inordinate ambition , could part of his faithful troops, a circumstance bring his inind so easily to abandon the which could not have happened had he splendour, the dignity, the glory that is suffered a defeat. During the six weeks supposed, by its rotaries, to accompany he resisted, with a handful of men, the royalty. They had no conception, no whole combined forces of Europe, in their idea that Napoleon, the haughty, the des. attempts to reach Paris, he was on all ocpotic Napoleon, the slave of every vile casions successful when he could bring and despicable passion, was capable of his opponents to face him in battle. The conquering himself, and of voluntarily re- astonishing skill, and undaunted bravery linquishing empire over a nation so pow. which he displayed in that campaign, with erful and so celebrated as that of France. so fearful an odds against him, would have Therefore these vile detractors of his been sufficient to immortalize his name as fame, confounded at the unexpected event, a warrior, had he done nothing else to inhad determined never to give him credit sure the suffrages of posterity. It was in for any one act of his life; those hired ca. this light I viewed him at the time. It Jumniators resolved, the moment they had was in language similar to this that I conin some measure recovered from their stu- veyed my ideas of his astonishing exploits; por, to give Napoleon no quarter. He and when at last he was forced to give ap was a coward, a paltroon, a contemptible the contest, I hesitated not to attribute fellow.–A thousand anecdotes were in this to treason, to foul and premeditated vented, to shew that he had resigned his treason, on the part of those in whom he crowa merely to insure his personal safety; had placed implicit confidence. Still it that he had preferred a secure retreat to was in his power, I remarked, to prolong the welfare of his old and faithful ad- hostilities, even after the Allies got posherents; and that, when the means of session of the capital. He had, I stated, a wiping off the disgrace, which this shame considerable force under his immediate ful conduct entailed upon him ; when he command, which, with the troops occupy• was urged by his nearest and dearest ing the garrisons, and acting in other parts friends to imitate the example of the an- of France, would have formed an army, cient Roman heroes, and to close his ca- wholly attached to his person, sufficiently reer by what they ironically denominated, formidable to make head against the ina deed worthy of his great name, he cow. vaders. With this force, I observed, it ardly rejected the proposal, shrunk from was in his power to render a contest for the appearance of death, which he had so

the government of the country a matter at often braved in a thousand forms, and least of considerable doubt, had he not sought a hiding place, from the scrutiny preferred the tranquillity and the prosand contempt of honourable minds, on a perity of France to his own individual barren and inaccessible rock in the Ocean. rights. The Allied Powers had declared

-Thus it was that the haters of Napo- that they would not enter upon terms with leon explained his motives of action ; thus Napoleon, or any of his family. This it was that they scrutinized his conduct. was making it a personal quarrel, which The reader who was accustomed at that would have led immediately to a civil war period to attend to the remarks which I in France. To avoid this, I said, Napooffered on this subject, will not fail to re- leon readily abandoned all his pretentions collect that I ventured, notwithstanding to the crown), agreed to arcept a penn-ion the almost universally prevailing clamour for himself and house, and to become an against Napoleon, to oppose this over. I exile, in order to give the nation an opportunity of choosing another ruler. I also | Napoleon in the light of a defeated or a remarkrd, that the conditions of the treaty degraded Monarch, with whom no chances of Fontainbleau was such, as clearly of recorery remained. On the contrary, shewed that the Allies still considered it is plainly admitted, that the advantagehim a formidable personage, whom it was ous terms which he obtained, were the desirable to get rid of almost upon any consequence of his being then too formidaterms; that, instead of having been dictated ble to temporize with, and too much the to, Napoleon had proposed the articles idol of the army to think of prescribing of the treaty, which the Allies considered any other conditions to him than what, in it prudent to accept, rather than risk a re- the circumstances, were honourable and newal of the contest with a man who had just. The particular acts of treason, so often made them feel the fatal effects of which paralized the efforts of Napoleon, opposing his mieasures. In fact, had not have also been distinctly admitted by those Napoleon obtained a victory over himself; who formerly denied them. All this, I had he not preserred the happiness of am aware, has not resulted from a desire France to his own immediate interest, a to do justice to that great character. He strugg! for authority might have com- never would, I am satisfied, have been able menced, more fatal to the country than all to draw from his enemies an acknowledge she had endured in the course of the revo- ment of the truth, had they not found this lution. With these views it might have acknowledgment necessary to their own been easy for me to have predicted the re- justification. But in whatever way the turn of Napoleon, had it been safe in the truth has come out, it is now before the then state of Europe to hint at such an public, and ought to have the effect, at event. But whatever danger there might least, of undeceiving them, of opening have been in asowing this opinion, I knew their eyes to the villainous efforts wbich that there was none in being persuaded in are every day making, by a base and cormy own mind that he would be recalled rupted press, to involve us in a new war by the people of France. I never once with France. All that these hirelings doubted this, though, I confess, it hap- said as to the causes of Napoleon's abdicapened at a period when I least looked for tion; all the lies they invented to make it it, and has been attended with conse be believed, that he was deserted by his quences more favorable to liberty than my army, and hated by the people; all and most sanguine crpectations had led me to every one of these falsehoods and calum. espect. Bat while the fact of Napoleon's nies have now been exposed and refuted, restoration, proves the correctness of my and that by the publication of documents former views asto that particular, it has also which cannot be controverted, and which brought to light a mass of evidence as to always command the highest assent. But the real causes of his abdication, and the sincerely as I wish these facts to produce bighly favorable terms he obtained from a corresponding effect, I am much afraid the Allies, which completely lays open that the attempts again making to mislead the falsehoods of his traducers, and gives the public mind, will counteract every en: to my original speculations on these topics deavour of mine to dispose them to peacean importance which I scarcely calculated able pursuits. How, indeed, can it be they ever would receive. I had no means otherwise, when the mass of the people are of discovering the motives which infiu so fickle and inconsistent. They cry for enced the Allies, or any part of their deli. war; nothing will satisfy them but interberations; but, from what has been re- minable war; yet, with the same breath, peatedly stated by Ministers, in both they grumble and fret against the taxes, houses of Parliament,-from official papers without which it is impossible for any set laid on the table of the House of Com- of men to carry on war. They would mons--and from the important French have Napoleon destroyed; they would documents inserted above, it is perfectly have France degraded and partitioned; obvious that my remarks at the time of but although they know that these things Napoleon's abdication, were as correct as cannot even be attempted without money, if I had been fully acquainted with the that new and large loans must be resorted discussions which led to the treaty of Fon- to, that the assessed taxes must be greatly tainbleau. In fact, it now appears that increased to pay the interest of these, and the Allied Sorereigas neither considered that the Income Tax, that tax which has already been denominated a "high-While hope remains, put forth your manly wayman's tax” by the supporters of strength; unite firmness with moderation; the “ Social System,” is to be renewed convincing argnment with eloquence; and with all its terrors. Although they have continue to demonstrate to the divided already felt, and must again feel the per- world, that Peace is better than War.picious effects of these measures, even No perice, in the annals of history, affords should the couniry continue in a state of to the contemplative mind a collection of peace, they still bawl out for war, for the events so great in magnitudie, so extensive punishment of the “rebels” in France, in their interests, or so awful in their confor the overthrow of those institutions sequences, as those which at this moment which have exalted France to so lofty a agitate Europe. It is not the concern of a pinnacle, and for the destruction of that single nation, or the interest of this gene. man who has endeared himself to the ration only, but the prosperity and happiwhole nation, by uniformly protecting ness of nations unborn, of ages yet to these institutions. All this the enemies of come, that are involved in the doubtful France, and of liberty, demand at the determination of a few individuals. What hands of ministers, and yet they are so heart, possessed of a single spark of ho. unreasonable as to complain because they manity, does not sicken when he views the are called upon to contribute the means sanguinary Proclamation issued at Vienby which alone their wishes are to be ac- nu? Are our principles and dispositions complished. If we are to have war with to be guided by the hostile spirit it France, I am satisfied that neither ten nor breathes :-- Are we to draw our rules of fifteen per cent. on income will be suffi- morality and justice from thence?-Does cient to support it for any length of time. the happiness of society and the world deAccording to present appearances, France pend on doing evil that good may come? will not be very speedily reduced. It will -If ever a public declaration merited take troenty per cent. at least to accom- universal censure, surely this of all others plish this, if ever it is accomplished. Let demands it. Are these the specimens of those then, who ery for war, who cant in. moderation proceeding from the “ Deliçessantly about the establishment of the verers of Europe ?"- What awful conse"S Social System,” and the preservation of quences may we not expect, if the same our “ holy religion,” look to this.---They spirit is to pervade our councils, and goare, at this moment, more likely than ever vern our national divisions ?-It appears to see the flames of war rekindled in Eu- to me, Sir, that this is the momentous perope ; but while they feel so much gratifi- riod, when the inhabitants of the country cation in this, let them at least be should step forward to implore and peti. thankful to those who have been the cause tion Parliament, to avert the melancholy of it. Let those who are active in endea- calamities a new war would inevitably provouring to bring on a war, have all the duce.-I admit that recent circumstances money they desire. It is hy money only do not give us much encouragement to bethat the means of prosecuting the war can liere the voice of the people would be efbe procured. How senseless, how stupid, fectually regarded; yet the late unsuccesshow inconsistent it is in us to expect war, ful attempt is not without important ad. and not expect that we will be called on vantages, in as much as it has, in my opi. to pay for it.

nion, done more to convince the bulk

of mankind of the absolute nece

ecessity of Par.

liamentary Reform than any single event PEACE OR WAR.

during a long period of time.—A few more

such refusals against the public will, might Mr. COBBETT,_If ever there was a excite a spirit and an energy in the nation time when the interests of mankind im- which would command attention. If the periously called on the advocates of peace public feeling is not moved, on the present to exert their influence, the present is that occasion, to express its disapprobation at time. You, Sir, have raised your power threatened hostilities, the administration ful voice in her defence, in a manner truly of the country will be more excusable by honourable to your character, and worthy resolving on prosecuting a war. Or what the approbation of every friend to hun real advantage will it be to this nation nanity. Be not weary in well doing that the Bourbon family should again re

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