Page images

sollege of arrondissement, the president, ber of Representatives, and are tried by
and two vice-presidents. For that pur- that of Pecrs.
pose, the meeting of the departmental col- 41. Every Minister, every Commandant
leges shall precede by a fortnight that off of armed force, by land or sea, may be ac-
the college of arrondissement.

cused by the Chamber of Representatives,
31. The colleges of department and ar- and tried by that of Peers, for having com-
rondissement shall appoint the number of promised the safety or honour of the na-
representatives fixed for each in the table tion.

42. The Chamber of Peers, in that case, 32. The representatives may be chosen exercises a discretional power either in indiscriminately from the whole extent of classing the offence or mitigating the France. Every college of department or punishment. arrondissement which shall choose a mem- 43. Before placing a Minister in accuber out of its bounds, shall appoint a sup- sation, the Chamber of Representatives plementary member, who must be taken must declare that there is ground for exfrom the department or arrondissement. amining the charge.

33, Manufacturing and commercial in- 44. This declaration can only be made dustry and property, shall have special on the report of a Committee of 60, drawn representatives. The election of conimer- by lot. This Committee must make its cial and manufacturing representatives report in 10 days or sooner after its nomi. shall be made by the electoral college of nation. department, from a list of persons eligible, 45. When the Chamber declares there is drawn up by the Chambers of Commerce, ground for enquiry, it may call the Miand the Consultative Chambers united. nister before them to demand explanaTITLE III.--OF TAXATION.

tions, at least within 10 days after the re34. The general direct tax, whether on port of the Committee. land or moveables, is voted only for one 46. In no other case can Ministers in year: indirect taxes may be voted for se- office be summoned or ordered by the veral years. In case of the dissolution of Chambers. the Chamber of Representatives, the taxes 47. When the Chamber of Represenvoted in the preceding session are conti- tatives has declared that there is ground nued till the next meeting of the Chamber. for inquiry against a minister, a new com

35. No tax, direct or indirect, in money mittee of 60 drawn by lot is formed, who or kind, can be levied, no loan contracted, are to make a new report on the placing in no inscription in the great book of the accusation. This committee makes its republic debt can be made, no domain alien-port 10 days after its appointment. ated or sold, no levy of men for the army 48. The placing in accusation is not to ordered, no portion of territory exchanged, take place till 10 days after the report is but in virtue of a law.

read and distributed. 36. No proposition of tax, loan, or levy 49. The accusation being pronounced, of men, can be made but to the Chamber the Chamber appoints five of its members of Representatives.

to prosecute the charge before the Peers. 37. Before the same Chamber must be 50. The 75th art. of the constitutional laid, in the first instance, 1. The General acts of the 22d Frimaire, year 8, importing Budget of the State, containing a view of that the agents of government can only be the receipts, and the proposal of the funds prosecuted in virtue of a decision of the assigned for the year, to each department Council of State, shall be modified by a of service: 2. The account of the receipts law. and expences of the year or of preceding TITLE V.-OF THE JUDICIAL POWER. years.

51. The Emperor appoints all Judges. TITLE IV.–OF MINISTERS, AND OF RE- They are irremovable and for life from the SPONSIBILITY.

moment of there appointment; but the no38. All the acts of Government must mination of Justices of Peace, and Judges be countersigned by a Minister in office. of Commerce, shall take place as formerly.

39. The Ministers are responsible for The existing Judges, appointed by the acts of Government signed by them, as Emperor in terms of the Senatus Consulwell as for the execution of the laws. tum of the 12th Oct. 1807, and whom he

40. They may be accused by the Cham, shall think proper to retain, shall receive

[ocr errors]

ary next.

[ocr errors]

provisions for life before the 1st of Jagu-| the petition. They are publicly read;

and if the Chambers take them into consi52. The institution of juries is main-deration, they are laid before the Emperor tained.

by the President. 53. The discussions on criminal trials 66. No fortress, no portion of territory, shall be public.

can be declared in a state of siege, but in 51. Military offences alone shall be case of invasion by a foreign force, or of tried by military tribunals.

civil broils. In the former case the decla· 55. All other offences, even those com- ration is made by an act of the Governinitted by military men, are withiu the ju- ment. In the latter it can only be done by risdiction of civil tribunals.

the law. However, should the two Cham56. All the crimes and offences which bers not then be sitting, the act of the Gowere appropriated for trial to the high verment, declaring the state of siege, must Imperial Court, and of which this act does be converted into a plan of law within a tot reserve the trial to the Chamber of fortnight after the meeting of the ChamPeers, shall be brought before the ordi- bers. nary tribunals.

67. The French People morevver de57. The Emperor has the right of par- clare, that in the delegation which it has don, eren in correctional cases, and of made and makes of its powers, it has not granting amnesties.

meant, and does not mean to give a right 58. Interpretations of laws demanded to propose the reinstatement of the Bourliy the Court of Cassation shall be given bons, or any Prince of that family on the in the form of a law.

throne, even in case of the extinction of TITLE VI.-RIGHITS OF CITIZENS. the Imperial dynasty; nor the right of re59 Frenchmen are equal in the eye of establishing either the ancient feudal nobithe law, whether for contribution to taxes lity, or the feudal and seignorial rights, or and public barthens, or for admission to tithes, or any privileged or predominant civil and military employments.

religion; nor the power to alter the irre60. No onc, under any pretext, can be vocability of the sale of the national dowithdrawn from the judges assigned to mains; it formally interdicts to the Gohim by law.

vernment, the Chambers, and the Citizeus, 61. No one can be prosecuted, arrestel, all propositions on that subject. sletning, or exiled, but in cases provided Girea at l'aris, April 22,912. for by law, and according to the prescribed


NAPOLEON. forms.

By the Emperor, 62. Liberty of worship is guaranteed to The Minister Secretary of Slate, all.

(Sigued) The Duke of B.155.130. 63. All property possessed or acquired in virtue of the laws, and all debts of the

Then follows a decree regulating the state, are inviolable.

proportion of representatives for each do61. Every citizen has a right to print partment, who are in all to be 005. and publish his thoughts, on signing them, Another decree appoints 23 Deputies to without any previous censorship, liable at be pominated for all the arrondissements, the same time, after publication, to legal from among merchants, ship owners, bankresponsibility by trial by jury, even where ers, and manufacturers. They shall be there is ground only for the application chosen by the electoral colleges, out of of a constitutional penalty.

lists presented by every department. 65. The right of petitioning is secured Then follows a decree for opening reto all the citizens. Every petition is iudi- gisters in which the rates on the constitu. vidual. Petitions may be addressed either tion are to be inscribed. They are to be to Government or to the two Chambers ; open tên days. The act of the constitunevertheless, even the latter must also be tion is also to be sent to the army and entitled “To the Emperor.” They shall navy. The assembly of the field of May, be presented to the Chambers under the for examining the votes, &c. is appointed guarantee of a member who recommends for the 26th May.

[ocr errors]

Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed to

the Editor, are requested to be forwarded.

Vol. XXVII, No. 18.]


[Price 1s.




soon as he is strong, and that, therefore, PEOPLE OF NOTTINGHAM, we ought to fall upon him and destroy

him while he is weak. On the Motives and Prospects of the War.

Whether he be weak is a question on Amongst those towns of England which which I will speak hereafter. At present have shewn the best spirit, for many years let us inquire into the solidity of this opi. past, as to political matters, Nottingham nion, that we cannot trust Napoleon, stands at least as forward as any, and grounded this opinion is on the assertherefore, I address to you the observa- tion, that is is a n 'orious breaker of tions, which, at this critical period, I think treatics. it my duty to publish, on the Motives and Suppose this latter assertion to be true, Prospects of that War, which, perhaps, is that a ground of war? When would will be begun before this paper reaches the wars cease, and with whom could we ever press.

have treaties, if we were to act on such a The last war, which added 600 millions rule? Did not Russia make a treaty with to the National Debt, and which produced Napoleon at Tilsit, in which the former so many and such great calamities, cala- stipulated to adopt the Continental Sys. mities pot transient but durable; that war tem, and in which she acknowledged Inhad for its pretexts, 1st, that the French seph King of Spain? And was it not the had issued a Decree inviting all nations to breach of this treaty, which led Napoleon rise against their governments, and 2nd, into Russia ? Did we not see Bavaria, Authat they had opened the Navigation of stria, and Prussia, all bound to Napoleon the River Scheldi in Flanders. The futi. by treaty in a war against Russia ; and did lity of these pretexts have been a thousand they not all of them actually desert him in times demonstrated. The real grounds of the field and join his enemies? And, you that war are now well known; but, at will bear in mind, too, that he had repeat. r any rate, there is no such pretext for the edly had the Sovereigns of these three present intended, or, threatened, war. countries at his feet, and had replaced The war-faction are now compelled to ac-them opon their thrones.

What impuknowledge, that France is confined within dence, then, is it in the war-faction to call har ancient limits; that Napoleon has de him a treaty-breaker, and to say, that we clared his adherence to the Treaty of Pa- cannot trust him! How we have kept our ris, dictated by us and our allies; that he treaties I shall not attempt to shew; nor, has made overtures to all the Powers to indeed, is it necessary. It is well known, preserve peace; that he has mast explicit that all those Powers, whom we now call ly pledged himself to the French people our high allies, and on whose valour and that he will enter on no war of aggression; fidelity we place so much reliance, have that he has, in complaisance to us, abo- been our allies before; that they have quit. lished the Slave Trade, which we could ted our alliance and joined France against not prevail on Louis to do; that he has us; that they have, in short, within the agreed to the formation of a constitution last 22 years, all been twice fighting with which will necessarily tend to promote the France against us, and more than twice peace and happiness of France. All this fighting with us against France. These the war-faction acknowledge; none of this facts being notorious, what assurance must tan they deny. What, then, is their pre- those persons have, who would persuade text for going to war? What do they tell us, that we never can bave peace with Nayou, that they wish to see Europe once poleon; and that we ought to make war more bleeding for? Why, they say, that with him till he be destroyed, because be they cannot trust Napoleon ; that he never is a man, who does not keep treaties ! has kept any treaty; that he will keep no What, then, are the real Motives of the treaty now; that he will sally forth as expected war. This is a matter of vast im


portance. It is of the greatest conse-, keep on shedding human blood, lest peace quence that the people of such a place as should enable the English to go abroad in Nottingham, or Coventry, or any other search of cheap living? fine town of England, abounding in good But, how comes this migration to have sense, should clearly understand this ques taken pláce now, more than in former tion at the very out-set of the war; be- times? You will bear in mind, my friend cause, if they do not carry this knowledge of Nottingham, that we did formerly live along with them through the war, the ef- in peace with France for many years tofects of the war will not, in all likelihood, gether; that we had treaties of friendship lead, at last, to a just and beneficial and of commerce with France; and that result.

nobody used to be alarmed at the effects What, then, are the real Motives of the of any migration from England to France. expected war? I am not in acquaintance How comes it, then, that France is now with the Ministers; I know nobody who become so inviting to English people : is. But, I hear many of the war-faction What is the cause of so many thousands talk; and, with them, at least, the follow- flocking thither to live in preference to ing are the real Motives for going to war: their own country? You will bear in ---They say, that the country is come to mind, my friends of Nottingham, that bethat pass, that it cannot now live in peace fore the peace, we were told of nothing with its present system in existence. They but the miseries which Napoleon had insay, that the last twelve months were far ficted upon France. We were told, that more distressing than any foregoing twelve he had drained the people of their all; months of war; that commerce was less that he had ruined the arts, manufactures, productive; that trades of all sorts were commerce, and agriculture; that he had worse; that houses and land became less taken away all the able men, and left the valuable ; that manufactures throve less; land to be ploughed and sowed by old that journeymen and labourers were star- men, women, and children. And yet, the ving, who, before, were doing passably moment the passage to France is free, well. They say, that more than 40,000 thousands upon thousands of English peofamilies, living upon their incomes, had ple flock thither to live, while not a sipgle migrated to various parts of the Continent, French family came to live on their means and especially to France; that these fami- in England. What, then, is the real fact? lies draw out of England 15 or 20 millions Why do so many go to live upon their sterling a year; that the rents of lands and fortunes in France? I will, in as few the dividends from the Stocks were, in a words as I can, explain this mystery. great degree, spent in France instead of The motive for going to live in France, England, because in the former country is that people can live cheuper there. For one pound would go as far as three pounds instance, Mr. Bull has an income from in the latter country; that thus there was the Stocks, or from his farms, which he less demand for labourers, for corn, for lets, of 500 pounds a year. With this, if cattle, for household goods, for all arti- Mr. Bull lives in the country, he may, if cles of dress, for carriages, than there was Mrs. Bull manages well, keep one maidju time of war; that thus tradesmen, far- servant, and drink a pint of wine a day, mers, and manufacturers lost their cus- without being able, however, to lay by a tomers, and that labourers and journey. single shilling for his three or four chilmen lost their employment. They say, dren. If Mr. Bull, or, rather Mrs. Bull, that houses fit for persons of fortune be- chooses to live in town, he must put up came worth little or nothing; and, that, with part of a house; he must black his near London, in particular, thousands of own shoes, and Mrs. Bull must cook her houses became tenantless on account of own mutton chop. Thus situated Mr. the peace, to the ruin of builders, and the Bull reads in the newspaper that a bottle starvation of journeymen.

of wine in France costs six-pence, a turNow, I believe all this to be true; but, key half a crown, a house and garden ten how, then, are we to go to war in order pounds a year, and so on.

6 Look here, to make England as cheap a country as “ my dear,” says he to Mrs. Bull, "Why, France ? Or, are we always to have war we could live much more comfortably in to prevent these migrations to France? “ France. We could keep a maid and Are we ncucr to have peace; are we to footman in France."

& Aye," says

[ocr errors]

Mrs. Bull, "and a carriage too, my England. You see clearly why it is that “ dear.” “ Yes," replies he, “and lay people migrate to France; and, as this “ by something too for the little Bulls. migration cannot take place in time of rear,

And, besides, we shall have no poor- this is one of the reasons why the war-fac

rates or tythes to pay.” They soon get tion are so eager to push the country en rid of their odds and ends ; off they go to into that state, without any consideration France, leaving behind them an order to as to the consequence which that war may send them their income, and also leaving produce. behind them their share of the poor-rates But, they have other reasons, one of and other taxes to be paid by those who which is of the same sort. They say, that remain, and leaving their maid-servant, France presents an enticing field for Matheir taylor, shoe-maker, bricklayer, car- nufuctures. They have seen how manu. penter, butcher, baker, &c. to find, where factories have risen up in America. They they can, other customers to supply their have seen, that, in a very few years, the place.

cotton and woollen manufactories of Ame. I am sure you all clearly understand rica have so rapidly increased as almost to this. You clearly see the reason for peo- shut out those of England. They know ple migrating to France; you see how this that this great change in the commercial migration throws others out of work, and affairs of the world has arisen from the how it lessens the number of persons who migration of English manufacturers to pay the taxes, and you see, that they America. They knoir, that as much food would not migrate to France, if the means can be bought in France for a shilling as of living were not cheaper in France than in England for two or three shillings; and, in England. But, as I am not so sure, they say, that France being so near, it that you clearly perceive the cause of these will be impossible, in time of peace, to low prices in France compared with the prevent manufacturers and machine-makers prices in England, I will explain that from going to France. They say, that cause to you as briefly as I am able. thus France, instead of England, will sup

All the necessaries of life are dearer in ply the rest of Europe with what are now England than in France, because the Taxes called English manufactures. They say, are heavier in England than they are in that hundreds of manufacturers and artiFrance. For instance, suppose the go-zans went over in the last year, even under vernment to take six-pence tax upon every the Bourbons, and that now, when they pair of stockings, the maker must sell them are sure to enjoy complete religious lisix-pence a pair dearer than he did before. verty, without any predominant church, We pay twenty shillings a bashel for salt; the migration would be by thousands. but, if there were no tax upon salt, we Therefore, they wish for war, seeing that, should not pay above three or four shil- during a war, no migration can take place. lings a bushel. The tax is, I believe, 16s. They know, that there are laws to prevent a bushel, and then there is the charge of artizans and manufacturers from migrating the maker for the interest of the money to any country; but, they also know, that advanced in the amount of the tax. For it is next to impossible to enforce those ale you pay at Nottingham, I suppose, 60. laws. They know that such laws only a quart, Winchester measure. Malt, make the desire to migrate the more keen. which now sells for 10s. a bushel, pays They know, in short, that such laws are 4s. 6d. a bushel in tax. To this must be not more efficient than would be a law or added the tax paid by the brewer on the proclamation to prevent birds from flying Ale. To this also must be added the innu- from one grove to anot er; and that nomerable taxes paid by the farmer out of the thing but a complete and forcible obstrucprice of his Barley. If you put all these tion will answer the purpose. together, you will see what it is that makes Another motive with the war-faction, your Ale cost 6d. a quart. If one coun- and, perhaps, the most powerful of all, is, try pays upon every article twice as much to prevent the people of England from in taxes as another country, it is very evi- witnessing the effects of a free government dent that living in the former must cost in France. In France Napoleon has twice as much as it costs in the latter. agreed that the people shall be really re

Now, then, you see clearly why things I presented in the Legislature; that no tax are cheaper in France than they are in shall be imposeil without the people's free

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »