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the throne by the army alone: that there to ca'use them to believe that they ore 10. Pre done on his side but a soldiery drunk thing to the justice which is due to all with war. But forth with you will know other men, and that in consideration of that our army has not been recruited in their personal hatred to Napoleon, they public houses. Generals, Captains, sol- are authorised to rob the French of the diers, all are drawn entirely from the sacred right of their independence, absobosom of the nation; and for 25 years late and withont limit, in the choice our army has executed almost always of the Chief of the Empire.--Virtory their wishes and the laws by the most bas several times placed the political brilliant victories. How dare you tell us existence of the Powers of the North that it is the army alone which votes for at the mercy of the Emperor Napoleon, Napoleon? Our legions do not range and he has not wished to erase any one themselves more promptly under their of them from the lists of nations. It is the colours than the Nation itself around his wish of Alexander, whose name is revered person and his throne. Almost every amongst us, to dispense with our renderwhere on his route, the popular insurrec-ing to his virtues the homage which they tions in his favour preceded the presence merit? Does the Emperor of Austria, in of Napoleon. The Bourbons, reduced dethroning, contrary to his interests and seek in every place a Vendee, have not those of his monarchy, his son-in-law, found it even in La Vendee itself. Of so and his grand-son, wish to prove to the many armies of volunteers, which they i world, by the most astonishing and ausaid they had in the South, not one is thentic of all examples, that among the formed; and though some little bands most hideous of all the sentiments of trembled while they had at their head the human nature, hatred is that which has the Duke of Angouleme, they are become in- greatest sway orer kings ? The people trepid by passing under the tri-coloured are not disposed to believe it: and in this flag. The power of the nation consists in age of revolutions it might be better to take įts talents as much as in its armed force. care to dissuade them from it. In short, They think now, or they express them- my Prince, when it shall be beyond doubt selves with respect to Napoleon, in the that France is resolved to display all her same manner in the towns, in the acade- forces, to expose all her destinies to supmies, and in the camps. Without doubt, port on his throne the man who is the liberty has been much restricted, but it object of her pride, who alone seems to bas never been destroyed. Glory, at least, her capable of guaranteeing all the exiswas a compensation for France; she de- tences and all the relations procceding from sired not aggrandisements of which we ab- Revolution ; will the Princes at the Conjure the abuse; but she was not able to gress make the attempt, perhaps a vain support the abasement when she had one, to tear him from his throne, at the thrown off the government of the Bour- price of all the torrents of blood v:hich bons. The French people feel the ex- this new war will cause to be spilled ?-treme want of peace, they wish it as they What pretexts will cover so many outwish for happiness ; but if they be forced rages on reason, on justice, and on humainto a war, they believe that, under Na- nity ?- They pretend that Napoleon canpoleon, they will not suffer disgrace. We not offer any guarantee with respect to do not wish, say the Powers assembled in the durability of the peace of Europe ; but Congress, to oblige France to take the what a strange mode of seeking this guaBourbons again; but Napoleon will not rantee, to commence their research by be recognised by us. France must choose replunging Europe in all the fury and another Chief; for, to restrict her, they horrors of war l-On the contrary, every add, we shall have, if necessary, 900,000 thing announces, every thing establishes, men.-I shall not stop to discuss here the that any Prince in Europe, at the present principles of the rights of nations : it is too time, cannot give this guarantee of peace evident that they are all violated by a si- in the same degree as Napoleon.-No one milar pretention. The Emperor Napoleon has experienced so many dangers and ri. may demand from the Emperor of Russia, cissitudes of war, so many unexpected and from the Emperor of Austria, from the terrible reverses, as Napoleon.— It is, ia King of Prussia, in what manner he has fact, a new life, as well as a new reign, merited from them, a hatred so violent, as which the Emperor Vapolcon commences, after having understood, during a year, in rant and too barbarous even to understand Ue Island of Elba, as in a tomb, every their own interests. On the approach of thing which truth as well as hatred, has the Emperor Napoleon, and his armies, Lold in Europe, respecting his first reign marching with animation to songs of and his first lise. - In fine, my Prince, liberty, Kings may be abandoned by their France has given herself a new Consti- subjects, as the Bourbons have been by tution, which will not be a vain charter. the soldiers on whom they depended with It is no longer possible to use subtilty and such confidence. Every throne will be deceit. The force of things will neces- subverted before kings will learn how to sarily bring order and justice into social govern ; and how many evils will be the life. - Our Constitution constitutes two work of Princes, capable by their virtues Chambers. The sittings in both will be of rendering happy the greatest part of public. Thus France and Europe will the world. How much will those Mou understand every thing which will be said narchs and humanity be indebted to you, on peace and war; and every war, which my Prince, if, by the wisdom of your shall not be one of justice and evident counsels, you can dissuade them from the necessity, shall paralyse with terror the determination, in which they oppose inte. man who would kindle it in Europe, al rests and passions over which they ought ready bleeding from so many wars.--The to have no controul. I have only to coalesced Powers plume themselves on the renew, with the most lively expresssion, immense number of men which they can to your Highness, the assurances of the collect. But, perhaps they may have highest consideration. calculated erroneously -- they may be (Signed) THE DUKE OF OTRANTO. deceived. If it were true, as they give out, Paris, April 23, 1815. that they have 900,000 men, fit for action, France, who has already 500,000, will soon have a million. I seek not to exag

LETTER FROM MR. BIRKBECK. gerate the exultation which, in a similar

Wanborough, May 4, 1815. war, will fix all the senses, and the enthu

Sır-The little work which has received siasm with which their souls will be trans- your favourable notice is now going ported. Every man in France will be through a fourth edition. The appendix come a soldier; every article of iron will to the first, which I take the liberty of be fabricated into a sabre, a bayonet, or a sending you, was printed separately for musket, every where, as in 1793, will be the accommodation of the purchasers of established manufactories of salt-petre, of the first. powder, and of cannon. From the Rhine It is due to you as well as to myself to to the Pyrennees, from the Mediterranean state, that I dont feel myself called upon to the Ocean, the diversions of the pea. by the new position which Napoleon has sants, on Sundays and holidays, will be assumed, to qualify the terms in which I Twilitary exercises ; every commune, every have censured the principles of his former village will be transformed into barracks; government, because I am quite convineed and the entire population of the Empire, that they were hostile to the best interests arrayed as the National Guards, will be of his people, and perfectly inconsistent prepared to live in tents.--Already does with political freedom. France resound with war-songs, in which

I should have lamented as sincerely as the acquirers of national domains, who I now rejoice at his restoration, had he, harbour fears for their property'; the like Louis, recovered the throne vnin. friends of reason, who have been threat. structed by adversity, or through any ened with the return of superstition; the other means than the consent of the peo military, whose glory they have wished to ple, conditionally granted. tarnish ; in short, all classes of citizen's Infatuated by success, he forgot that he repeat with enthusiasm their ardent ex- owed it to the energies of a nation strugpressions of passions the most dear, and gling for freedom; and, mixing himself the most terrible.--In this war, which will with kings, he became a foe to that liberty be, in fact, a crusade against the inde. from which he derived his greatness. lle pndence of a nation, the contagion of the now acknowledges his error, and, if it be principles of the French Revolution, may in good faith, it is an instance of magnahind their way amongst people too igno. nimity Dew to the page of history.

!

The acts of his government have hitherto the Endymion, which, no one ever doub's corresponded with these fair professions ; ed, would be published in the Cazette. ani, as a pledge of their sincerity, he has The Gazette appeared; but it contained received into his councils men of sound no particulars from Captain llp as to principles, and whose integrity he had the actual engagement, or any detail by himself exposed to the severest proof. which it could be ascertaincu whether lie

This consummation of the late glorious fought the President single landed or not, contest, though far more glorious than any or whether that ship surrendered to the w.ich its mest sanguine supporters have Endymion or to another vessel belonging even imagined, is not entirely to the satis- to our squadron. But from other acfaction of the old governments. They counts in the same Gazette, and particubad rather see Bonaparte at the head of larly from the American cihcial account, his army than surrounded by wise and just it turned out, as I had supposed, that counsellors; and they are right. He is, more than one of our frigates vias engaged; in his present attitude, more formidable that the Pomone also had fought with the to the social system,” as exemplified in enemy; that it was to this ship the Presithe late Congress at Vienna, than when he dent actually struck; and that at the was thundering at the gates of that capital. very moment this happened, a ship of the

But why the people should be disturbed line, another frigate, and a sloop of at the view of Napoleon in his present at- belonging to us, were fast bearing down titude, I dont understand, unless, indeed, to attack her. It was plain, therefore, their comforts depend on the security of that the President had not surrendered to two or three thrones, and the insecurity of the Endymion, but that she surrendered the rest, according to the principles esta- to a British squadron, consisting of one blished at the said Congress. Yours, &c. sail of the line, three frigates and a sioop MORRIS BIRĄBECK. of war! It was also clear, that had the

President and the Endymion fought single

handed, the latter must have fallen into THE ENDYMION AND PRESIDENT

the hands of the former. Where then FRIGATES.

was the ground for exultation? Where When the news of the capture of the the proof, that the capture of the Frelatter of these vessels reached this coun-sident “ redeemed all the naval glory try, it was given out by our corrupt press, 6.which this country had lost during the that she had surrendered to the former, “ previous contest at sca with the Ameri. with whom she had fought single-handed, “cans?" I see, by files of papers which and that no other of our ships of war had I have received from Philadelphia, that fired a shot at the President. This was the conductors of newspapers at Bermuda, trumpeted abroad by the Times and the had imitated the example of our vile press, Courier, and never to this hour has any and had, like them, endeavoured to deof these venal prints retracted the asser- tract from the character of Commodore. tion. On the contrary, they repeated it, Decatur, by representing that he had suragain and again, and gravely assured their rendered the President to a single British readers, that the result of the conflict frigate. To expose the fallacy of this betwixt the President and the Endymion, statement, the American Commodore adbiad redeemed all the naval glory which dressed a letter to the Secretary of the this country had lost during the previous Navy, an extract of which I have given contest at sea with the Americans! I was below. This letter puts it beyond all satisfied, on the first blush of the trans- question, that the President was consideraction, that the President had been en. ed, even by the commander of our own gaged with more of our frigates than one, fleet, as a capture by the squadron, and and, instead of the enemy losing any of not by a single ship. It proves that the the renown he had acquired, that'this Endymion had on board, in uddition to her battle, when the particulars cante fully to usual complement, 50 men, one lieutenant, be known, would increase the splendour and one masters' mate, which shews that of his achievements. I said to those with the crew of the Endymion, the chief rewhom I conversed on the subject, that I liance of every vessel of war, was more was willing to abide by the account of numerous than that of her rival. It also the battle, as given by Captain Jlope of proves that the Endymion was completely disabled in the action, and would, it is, and fatigues. Natives of different states more than proballe, have become a prize acting together for the first time in this to the President, bad not the rest of our camp; ditering in habits and in lan. squadron come to her relief.

guagc, instead of viewing in these circumWASHINGTON, March 14.

stances the germ of distrust and division, you

hare made them the source of an Extract of a letter from Com. Stephen honourable emulation, and from the seeds Decatur to the Secretary of the Nary, of discord itself have reaped the fruits dated Nero York, March 6th, 1815.

of an honourable union. This day com. : "In my official letter of the 1811 pletes the fourth week since fifteen hun. January, I omitted to state, that a consi- dred of you attacked treble your number Kerable number of my killed and wounded of men who boasted of their discipline, was from the lireof the Pomone ; and that and their services under a celebrated the Endymion had on board, in addition leader in a long and eventsul war-atto her own crew, one Lieutenant, one tacked them in their camp the nioment Master's mate, anul 50 men belonging to they had profaned the soil of freedom the Saturn, and when the action ceased, with their hostile trade, and iuflicted a was left motionless and unmanagable until blow which was a prelude to the final she bent new sails, rove new rigging and result of their attempt to conquer, or ished her spars, nor did she rejoin the their poor contrivances to divide us.squadron for six hours after the action, A few hours was sufficient to unite the and three hours after the surrender of the gallant band; at the momeut they received President. My sword was delivered to the welcome order to march they were seCapt. Hays, of the Majestic, the senior parated many leagues in different direcellicer of the squadron, on his quarter- tions from the city. The gay rapidity of dcck, which he with great politeness imme- the march, thc cheerful countenances of diately returned. I have the honor to the officers and men, would have induced Quiclose you my parole, hy which you will a belief that some festive entertainment, perceive that the British ailmit that the not the strife of battle, was the object to President was captured by the squadron. which they hastened with so much cagerI should have deemed it necessary to have ness and hilarity. In the conflict that en. drawn your attention to this document, sued, the same spirit was supported, and had not the fact been stated differently by my communications to the executive of the the Bermuda Gazette on our arrival there, United States, have testified the sepse I which statement, however, the editor was entertained of the corps and officers that compelled to retract through the inter. were engaged. Resting on the field of frrence of the governor and some of the battle, they retired in perfect order on the British officers of the squadron."

next morning to these lines, destined to

become the scene of future victories, which After the disastrous retreat of the Bri- they were to share with the rest of you, tish army at New Orleans, General Jack- ny brave companions in arms. Reakon, the American commander, published soping always from false principles the an animated and spirited Address to his evemy expected little opposition from army. The following passages will shew men whose officers even were not in upi. witti what ardour and unanimity the sol- form; who were ignorant of the rules of diers of Liberty will always combat, when dress, and who had never been caned into their rights and independence are in discipline-Fatal mistake! å fire inces. danger :

santly kept up, directed with calmness and 66 Citizens and Fellow Soldiers,--The with unerring aim, strewed the field with enemy has retreated and your General the brave officers and men of the column bas now time to proclaim to the world which slowly advanced, according to the what he has noticrd with admiration and most approved rules of European tactics, pride your undaunted courage, your and was cut down by the untutored age patriotism, and patience under hardships of American militia.

Printed and Publisted by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed

to the Editor, are requested to be forwarded..

ol. XXVII: No. 20.]

LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 20, 1815. [Price 1s.

6097

[610 TO THE FUND-HOLDERS, You will start and swell here, and ask On the supposed approaching war ugainst whether commerce and manufactures, and On the supposed approaching war ugainst trades and professions, pay nothing? Yes, France.

they do; but, they pay precisely in proOf all the classes of people in this portion to the prosperity of agriculture. country you appear to me to have been, That is to say, in proportion to the height and still to be, the most misguided, as to of prices. If the land, out of which all all questions of politics, and especially as the great receive their increase, and all to the important question of peace or war. the farmers and all the labourers receive I will now do my best to enable you to their profits and their wages, yield little, judge correctly upon this subject, as far, little can all these pay to tradesmen and at least, as your interests are more imme- manufacturers, little will be the profits of diately connected with it.

commerce and of professions. When wheat Your great characteristic is anxiety was 208. a bushel, the landlord and the for the safety of your property; but, farmer had three times as much money to though sell-preservation is the first of na- lay out as they have now. Hence the preture's laws, and though, in general, men sent universal out-cry about the dulness who are alive to little else, are extremely of trade; hence the numerous bankruptalive, and even very skilful, in cases where cies; hence the stagnation of commerce their own interests are at stake, you do and manufactures. not appear to me to perceive how your

Though, therefore, I agreed most corinterests have been, or how they will be, dially with you in your opposition to the effected by wur, You entertain a sort of Corn Bill, the grounds of our opposition vague apprehension, that, unless Napo- were very different indeed. I knew, that jeon be destroyed, you shall have your a Corn Bill was necessary to enable the property taken away. You look up to land to pay the sum of taxes, demanded the government, that is, in your sense of by the government; but I wished the sun the word, to the Minister for the time be- of tures to be diminished. You wished to ing, as the guardian of your property. have Corn Cheap, aud the sum of taxes Hence you are always found on their side not to be diminished. These two together on the question of war, or peace. If they were' impossible. They could not, and say war, you are for war: if they say they cannot, co-exist. If you are asked, at peace, you are for peace

any time, what security you have for your On the subject of the Corn Bill, you property, do you not always answer, that were against the Ministers ; because that your security is on the land of the nation? was a question, as you thought, involving Do you not say, that the estates of all no danger to your property. But, in fact, the land-owners are mortgaged to you? you were more interested in the passirry This is a great mistake; for, it is only the mf the Corn Bill than any other class of revenues which are mortgaged to you; 29.4.ommunity; and, in explaining this but, to obviate' all difficulty upon this The ling paradox to you, I shall, in the score, take it for granted that

you

have easiest way, introduce the remarks which a bona fide mortgage upon all the land in I propose to make with regard to the ef- England. Can it, then, be your interest, fect, which war has upon the quality of that the land should be unable to pay your property, and upon your chances of you your annual demands ? The land, security, or insecurity.

upon your own principle is partly yours. What you most desire is, to have the Can you, then, be gainers by its produce interest of your stock regularly paid in being depreciated ? A certain farm, for infull, and to prevent any insecurity to your stance, pays a hundred pounds a year tocapital. Your interest is paid almost wards your annual demands. If produce wholly, and, indeed, entirely, by the land. | fall so low as to disable this farm from

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