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"the Prince's Chamber, Westminster, at "loughby Gordon, Knight of the Bath," "which were present-His Royal High-in his ever to be remembered examina"ness the Duke of York, asGrand Master; tion on Mrs. Clarke's affair with the be"the Rev. Dr. Vincent, Dean of West-loved Frederick. I suppose this is one of "minster, Dean of the Order; the Right his " achievements." LORD COCHRANE'S “ Hon. Sir David Dundas, Sir George II. are, indeed of a very different Order. The "Barlow, and Sir Richard Strachan; the expression which the representatives of "Genealogist, Sir George Nayler; the our most revered Regent, the Right Hon"Deputy Bath King of Arms, Francis ourable Henry Canning, thought proper "Townsend, Esq. and the Gentleman to apply to the American navy, when he "Usher of the Scarlet Rod, G. F. Beltz, described it as hearing a few bits of "Esq. all in their robes.-The object of" striped bunting," cannot but bring to "the Meeting being merely to communi- every man's recollection the extraordinary "cate to the Chapter the measures which achievements" which vessels, bearing "had been adopted for the DEGRADA- this striped bunting," have performed "TION of Lord Cochrane, and the ex- over our, hitherto reckoned, invincible "pulsion of his banner and achievements navy. One of these bits of red ribbon, "from King Henry the Seventh's Cha- which decorate the knights commanders pel, the Chapter adjourned soon after of the new order, is, I understand, on ihree o'clock."-So then ;- the new le- the way to Lisbon, as a reward for gion of Honour have held their first this statesman's clegant, and witty, and meeting, or "Chapter," as they call it; novel designation of the American navy. and, in a manner perfectly consistent The list of his achievements" must with their "most honourable” intentions, then be put up in Westminster Abbey; they have commenced their proceedings and no doubt they will occupy,. with communicating on the important peculiar grace and effect, the niche vasubject of having expelled LORD COCH-cated by the "expulsica and degrada RANE from their "honourable Order," tion of Lord Cochrane," which the and turned out his banner and "Achieve- Chapter" of the "honorable Order" ments" from King Henry the VIIth's has just assembled, in full form, to Chapel. —" Lord Cochrane's Achieve- ratify. I confess I should like to see 'ments!!!"— I have carefully looked over this list of our Ambassador's Achievethe list of names of this honourable fra"ments." It appears that a grievternity, beginning with his Royal High- ous complaint has been made by ness, our beloved Frederick, the Duke of some of the persons calling themselves York, and I can discover very sufficient" Heralds at Arms," as to a sort of reasons why they should be most anx-intruder, who has been put amongst jous to get rid of any record of LORD them, by the Prince Regent, and whose COCHRANE'S "Achievements," "Achievements.", Cer- peculiar duty, is said to be to manufactainly there is very little relationship ture, in good set terms, "the Achievebetween them and the achievements of ments" of these honorable gentlemen.” the members of this "most honorable fra- ---Now, I think, the whole College of "ternity." Can any of these men be so Arms, Heralds and all, even including silly as to suppose that they have "de- these new intruders, will be rather puzzled graded," as they term it, LORD COCH- to compose the poetical effusion which RANE by this measure? Can they sup- is to decorate Mr. Cauning's banner. pose that they have inflicted upon him Fiction is the soul of poetry. This then one moment's pain? Poor men! They will be a poem of first rate merit. I shall sadly deceive themselves: LORD CоCH-endeavour to obtain a copy of it, and I RANE suffers no regret at quitting the as- shall certainly gratify my readers by givsociation just remodelled. The quilling it to them as soon as it can be prodrivers at the Horse-Guards; the Post- cured, master of the Duke of Wellington; our beloved Frederick's Private Secretary, and such like gallant men, are certaiuly little fitted for the society of LORD COCHRANE. The "achievements" of these men must be, indeed, of a most curious description. I cannot forget Sir James Wil
Mr. COBBETT.---I have hitherto observed no particular notice in your Journal of the proceedings of the assemblage of royal and noble negociatiors that compose the congress of Vienna. It is said
by that race of expectants who are always Saxony? Does Saxony wish for the apologizing for kingly errors, that there is union? No. Directly the reverse. Do now a period arrived, when the ambition these liberators of the world, fulfil of monarchs is not tarnished with in- their promise respecting national rights justice; when the sceptre is not supported by outraging them? Could Buonaparte by blood, but by the free and generous have done more than force upon a applause of the people; when the Liber- country a sovereignty which it hated? ators of France will give peace to the Have not these liberators, according to world, and establish the general tran- the Times and Courier, done still quillity upon a basis too firm to be more? Have they not deprived Saxony shaken. However ridiculous might ap- of a monarch which it loves? Whom pear the assimilation of absolute monar- has the King of Saxony offended? his chy and impartiality, of policy and jus- people? they forgive him. The nations tice, we were still disposed to give them of Europe? What, by entering into credit for generally meaning well; and treaties with Buonaparte? They have we augured from their intentions what all done the same. By adhering to the we might have doubted from their ca- faith of those treaties? Yes. Here pacities. The Courier, and its satellites, lies the real grievance: his adherence now say that we were deceived; that the to his word, his treaty, reproached deliberations of Vienna have unveiled many of them with the breach of theirs: their motives, and that personal advan- he had received benefits from the hands tage seems the general and the only point of Napoleon, and did not think it conon which they proceed to argue. Whe- sistent or honest to betray him. The ther our newspaper press be correct or example he had before his eyes, did not not in ascribing these motives to the convince. He exhibited the phenomeAllied Sovereigns, it is not my province non of a sovereign who did not think to decide. To time, which tries all convenience a sufficient reason for falsethings, it must be left to settle this. I hood. The Times, I observe, talks of cannot, however, refrain from remarking, conquest, as giving the negotiating mothat the infamous partitioning of Poland narchs the right of disposing of the in the first instance, gave to the revolu- fate of Saxony, and of transferring the tionary leaders of France an example Saxons, like cattle, to a master they and a fair justification for proceeding in dislike. Would it have been advisable a similar manner; and I should not be to talk of the conquest of their counsurprised if the seeds of another, and try to those Saxon soldiers who joined a more tremendous revolution, were the ranks of the allies at the battle of now sowing upon the continent, by the Leipsig? Would Bernadotte, who placed legitimate monarchs of the day, again himself at their head, and called upon forming treaties of convenience, and them to follow him in the cause of the schemes of personal aggrandisement liberties of Europe; would he have and private advantage. Napoleon really thought it the best method of securing possessed an equal right to Spain, with their aid, by telling them that their Russia to Poland, or Prussia to Saxony. country would be treated as a conquered If these projected annexations shall take province? But Prussia must have inplace, let us hear no more of the ty-demnity? Indemnity for what? For the ranny, or the injustice of the Empe- loss of Hanover, which she received ror of France. It has been very well re- from Buonaparte to wink at the ruin of marked, that Calvin was far more cruel Austria? For the loss of her own prothan the Catholics whom he so abus- vinces in the war with Buonaparte which ed; because, alive to the condemna- she herself provoked? Are these the tion of their cruelty, he equalled its claims of Prussia to the annexation of vilest enormity. Why then, if what is Saxony? Can her best friends assign said of these sovereigns be true, are any other? Would the worst of her enethey less guilty than the victim of their mies desire any more? Have the Times efforts? Why is the conduct which in and Courier no recollection of their Buonaparte was so universally execrated own consolation at the ruin of the into be tolerated, or approved, in them? fidel House of Brandenburgh? Have This cannot be justice; this surely is not they so soon forgot their pious remarks generosity. But why must Prussia have upon the judgment which attended the
society, which might, with great propriety, and without any departure from its original views,connect the subject of the pillory with the other important reforms for which it was instituted.
kingdom of the Deist Frederick. Has which it was formed have been abanthe Christianity of the present mo- doned. No notice, as far as I have narch retrieved its destiny? I shall not been able to discover, has been taken notice the pretext of arrondisement: of it in any of our newspapers, or It would be only the plea of universal other periodical publications. monarchy in its extreme; no arrondise-ciety with such liberal and enlarged ment could be complete, but the cir-views, could not fail, in my opinion, cumference of the globe. In my next to meet with generous support were its I shall offer with your permission, a few intentions made sufficiently public, and remarks on the pretension of Russia to why these should be kept in reserve, if the association now exists, is a problem that seems very difficult to solve. It would gratify many of your readers, if any of your correspondents could SIR. The remarks which lately ap-give some information respecting this peared in your journal on the subject of the pillory, do equal credit to the head and to the heart of Benevolus. It is rather extraordinary in these cnlightened times, when we hear so much about converting the heathen, emanci- While, however, it may be said, that pating the slaves, and encouraging the I have been liberal in my censure Bible Societies, that scarcely one pub- of our public writers for neglecting lic writer should be found, who pos- this vital subject, let me not be acsessed the courage, or the inclination, cused of partiality.---From this general to reprobate a practice so disgraceful reprehension I am glad to find there is to our law, and marked with so many one exception, who has done the subfeatures of a barbarous policy. The ject ample justice, though his modesty, public press every where teems with which is always a proof of talent, has idle and contradictory speculations as led him to conceal his name. I allude to the probable result of the discus- to the observations on the pillory, sions at Vienna; whether the system which appeared in the last number of of aggrandisement attributed to the the periodical work, entitled Emperor Napoleon, is to be adopted Pamphleteer. They appear to me so as the law of nations, or whether that excellent, and the writer has discussed state of things which existed previous the subject in so masterly a manner, to the French Revolution, is to be re- that I should like to see the whole of stored. These and some contemptible his remarks published in your Register, matters as to a new order of knight- But as this may not be altogether conhood, are the only topics for which sistent with your other arrangements, the people of this highly cultivated I have subjoined to this letter a short pation seem at present to have any extract, to which I hope you will relish, or on which the pen of the phi-the more readily give insertion that its lanthropist or of the philosopher is engaged. The amelioration of our laws, the state of our prisons, the remains of that rudeness which still pervades many of our customs, and presents a formidable barrier to civilization, are points that few writers appear interested in, nor which have found many partizans among the people. Some years ago, I heard something of the existence of a society in the metropolis for the diffusion of knowledge on the punishment of death, and the improvement of prison discipline; but I have yet to learn that any thing was effected by this institution, or if the objects for
whole tendency is to inforce and illustrate the arguments of Benevolus, who so strenously and so laudably contended against the existence of a mode of puuishment possessing so many features of savage cruelty and barbarity.
Yours, &c. A. B.
"It may indeed be said, that some of the crimes thus visited are well deserving the utmost fury of an enraged prople, and that there is no punishment denounced against them by our penal code at all equal to the darkness of "their guilt. Be it so. That affords no rea son why the defects of the law should
latter, the people act the part of un-
be made up by the assistance of popular | arrayed against their authority; and a tumult, or its necessities supplied by competition is excited where it is the violence and outrage. In short, the noblest policy to conciliate. In the pillory is in direct opposition to the principle upon which all laws are founded, and must serve, as far as its influence extends, to undermine the foundation of their authority. They were erected to control the unbridled passions of man, to take from individuals the power of revenge, to render punishments the determinate effect of firm and substantial enactments, instead of fluctuating with the rage and the sympathies of individuals, to prevent parties from being judges of their own injuries, to humanize society by taking from the strongest the power of inflicting arbitrary penalties by which it was reduced to a state of perpetual warfare, and to impress the mind with awe by the weight and the solemnity of their decisions. But this strange infliction ac tually reverses all these benign intentions which the collective wisdom of ages has gradually matured; it proceeds on antisocial principles, and tends to bring us back to our state of original barbarism. We have all been taught that the sacred throne of justice should be exalted far above the passions and the ever-fluctuating sympathies of man; that its voice should be as certain as it is awful, and its sentences untainted with any of the grosser particles that move in a lowlier atmosphere. We have learnt that while increasing wisdom should improve our laws, their actual dietates should be received during their existence with a noble and generous obedience. But here, in opposition to all these maxims, we see in them a principle which tends to their own destruction, a secret cancer which by insensible degrees is eating away the vital principle on which their vigor and their majesty depend. A judgment of the pillory is the worst of their enemies. If the mob applaud, they are set openly at defiance; and if on the other hand they break out into violence, the peace they should preserve is broken, the personal feelings they should subdue are excited, and the barbarous spirit of man unsoftened by civilization which they were formed to The Ancients searched for Truth; the Moderns
repress, is aroused by their powerful sanction. In the former case, the best emotions of the heart are injudiciously
It is sufficiently melancholy to see such a monument of savage life standing uninjured amidst the trophies of goodness and of virtue; but it__is_still_more offensive to see it regarded as a pillar of our legislative system. It saddens us to see riots at all existing in a well regulated state; but we are doubly provoked by the strange anomaly which makes the laws appear to excite them, We regret to see a popular demagogue lead his followers to confusion and disorder; but our vexation has no bounds when a judge is compelled by the duties of his office to give up the reigns to the frenzy of the shameless and the degra ded."
pretend they possess it.-VOLNEY. MR. COBBETT.--When I sent you my two former letters, I endeavoured
to call your readers, not only to consider the situation of Mr. G. Houston, bui also to request they would examine into the liberty of the press in this country; on whose altar that writer is now a victim; for until this " thinking "nation" really understand his situation, and the motives for which he is punished, he will not be the last that will suffer in its cause.
explained to me the design and intention of its author; since which I have had a sight of the book. It has fully answered my expectation, and again I say displays a fund of prodigious erudition. The following short extract will shew its intention, and design, "I contend (preface page ii.) that the Ancient Jews, like other nations of antiquity, had their esoteric, and their exoteric doctrines; they concealed the former under innumerable types and symbols, the meaning of which is generally unknown among their descendants. It is the object of my book to explain the hidden sense of many passages in the Hebrew Scripture." Page 22, he says, "I recollect
I knew I touched a sore place, when I attempted to shew to your readers the discordant opinionis entertained of that old book for which Eaton, Houston, and thousands more may be sent to prison. I knew that I might be a trinitarian, a unitarian, a Southcotearian, or any other foolarian; but that I must not bring the contradictions, and (what "that Moses was learned in all the wisthey call) the arguments of one tribe to "dom of the Egyptians, and I expect to combat the whims of the other, without" find traces of that wisdom in his works. exciting the suspicions of those who "The learned among the ancient Egypcall themselves Just! But I have done "tians were pure theists, as Cudworth to; and while I delight in the deed, I "has proved. They were deeply skilled smile at their suspicions and contempt." in the sciences: but they carefully Before I reply to your correspondent" concealed their mysteries under innuJustus, permit me to introduce the origin "merable symbols and allegories. May of my acquaintance with the work in "we not look then for the same thing question. You must know there is a "in the writings which are ascribed to town designated by one of the most "the Jewish Lawgiver. It is what I corrupt of his time as "the toyshop" have done, and I submit to the judg of Europe; whose inhabitants, (I speak “ment of a few individuals, the result of generally) in my estimation, rank lower my researches." for liberalty of sentiment, general in- Of the 250 copies only, which I stated formation, and Christian charity, than to have been printed, 100 now remain any other on the surface of the globe. in the hands of the publisher. You will, The scale by which I estimate them is, therefore, judge whether I have been unthat in and about the place, there are fair in my former communication. As to the remains of half-mutilated houses, quibbling about its method of publication because their inhabitants opposed the and circulation, it would be a ridiculous origin of our war with the French Re-waste of time. I wish a copy was in the public, burnt by Church and King hands of every person in the kingdom; mobs; and that in those receptacles of for Sir Wm. Drummond would then make resort, where its people go to drink a better and more practical use of his mild ale and talk wisdom, there are abilities and learning. With regard to scrolls inscribed with legible English the cruel hint about a prosecution, for characters "No Jacobins admitted blasphemy, and the pillory, its author, " here." I was leaving this town last like D. J. Eaton, will receive more praise, Summer in the Mail, and in passing and of a better description, than if he one of those houses whose miserable were to be bespangled with orders and appearance appeals, in silent and pa- titles by every King in Christendom. thetic language, to the frigid faculties, O, Sir, it is cruel? You know it is, to and would hush to silence their un- talk of law in a country where it is manly prejudices, if reflection ever an- possible a picked jury may be chosen imated their torpid brains; when I by those who fatten on the wages of corsoon discovered from the observations ruption, and who delight in persecuting of a gentleman in the coach, that he such as attempt to nndeceive the people. was the Father of the engraver of the As to the writers, whose books I have plates, in the Edipus Judaicus. He fainly quoted, being Sir W, D. himself,