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ple for that purpose, or for the making of laws; that he was invited to England by the aristocracy, and through agents sent to Holland by them; that the Dutch army, brought over by William, marched to London with him and displaced the English soldiers stationed there; that the general commanding the English army went over to William; and that laws were immediately passed for disarming suspected persons, and for enabling the new government to put into prison whomsoever it suspected of designs hostile to it. Add these facts to the former, and then nothing further need be said with regard to the actors in, or the motives to, this "Glorious Revolution."

15. But, though, by these and similar means, and by a pretty free use of the gallows and the scaffold, the aristocracy secured the estates for this time, the thing was by no means settled thus. A war with France became necessary "for the preservation of the Protestant religion"; that is to say, the quiet possession of the church-estates. To carry on this war, and to bind the monied people to the new government, it was necessary to borrow money; and hence arose, the funds, the bank, and the national debt. These brought taxes, and so heavy as to create great discontents. The people felt themselves loaded with ten or twelve millions a year, instead of the million and a half, which they had had to pay in the reign of James II.; so

that, soon after the accession of George I., the first king of the House of Brunswick, he had to encounter an open rebellion; and the aristocracy, though they had so pared down the independence and power and influence of the people, found it necessary to pare it down still more; and this they effected in the year 1715, by an act, called the Riot act, and by another called the Septennial bill.

16. By the first of those laws all assemblages of the people out of doors were, in effect, put down. And, why was this? Certainly not because they were favourable to the government. But the Septennial bill can leave no doubt in the mind of any man. One of the charges against the STUARTS was, that they had not called new parliaments frequently enough; and that, thus, they had deprived the people of the power of changing their representatives as often as might be necessary. The right of the people was to choose a new parliament every year. But, those who introduced William, did not restore this right; but enacted, that, in future, there should be a new parliament every three years. However, in 1715, they found, that the people had still too much power; and, in this year, they, whom the people had chosen for three years, made a law to authorise themselves to sit for four years longer! Aye, and that every future parliament should sit for seven years

instead of three; though the declaration against the STUARTS stated, that "new Parliaments ought to be frequently called," and that this was an unalienable right of the people of England.

17. But, audacious as this was in itself, it was less audacious than the pretexts set forth for the passing of the law. These were, that such frequent clections were attended with "grievous expenses"; that they caused "violent and lasting heats and animosities"; and that they might, at this time, favour the views of a "restless and popish faction in causing the destruction of the 66 peace and security of the government." Now, if this had been a mere faction, why take away the rights of all the people, in order to counteract its restlessness! Why, in order to keep down a mere faction, subvert the fundamental laws and usages of the country, and violate, in this daring manner, the solemn compact so recently entered into between the crown and the people!

18. It was, then, under the auspices of the Riot act and of the Septennial act that the House of Brunswick began its reign in England; and, though Mr. CANNING will not, by those who knew him, be deemed much of an authority upon the subject, he did say, in the House of Commons, in 1822, that, if the people of England could have had their will, the House of Brunswick would never have worn the Crown of

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this kingdom. The dislike of the people was not, however, to the House of Brunswick, but to the exercise of the power of the aristocracy, who, by this last-mentioned act, left hardly the semblance of power in the hands of the people. The members of that house have, in general, conducted themselves with great moderation; but, in its name, the aristocracy has gone on with its encroachments, which, however, seem at last to be destined to counteract themselves.

19. The "glorious revolution" brought wars; first for the keeping out of James and his family, and second for the preservation of Holland and of Hanover. These brought debts; and these brought taxes. The American colonies, now the United States, all of which, observe, had been settled by the Stuarts, began, in 1770, to present food for taxation. The parliament (the Septennial parliament) passed laws to tax them. The Americans had seen how their brethren in England had, by degrees, lost their property and their liberty. They raised the standard of “No WITHOUT REPRESENTATION;" the septennial parliament raised the standard of "UNCONDITIONAL SUBMISSION;" the battle began; and how it ended all the world knows.


20. It was impossible for these two standards to remain raised for seven years, as they did, without attracting the attention of the world, and particularly of the intelligent and brave people

of France, especially as the latter had to take a part in the conflict. The success of the Americans, in conjunction with the armies of France, beckoned to the people of France to follow the bright example. As it was absolutely impossible for Lafayette not to imbibe the principles of Washington, so it was impossible that the French should not imbibe the principles of the Americans. And, now it was that our aristocracy began to see the effects of their septennial system recoil upon themselves. The French people, who, as FORTESCUE clearly shows, had never derived from the Catholic church the benefits which the English had derived from it; the French people, always borne down by a great standing army, while England had none; the French people, pressed to the earth by taxes, partial as well as eruelly heavy, such as England had, at that time, never heard of; the French people, insulted in their wretchedness by a haughty, a squandering, and most profligate court, and higher clergy; this oppressed and brave people resolved, in 1789, no longer to endure the degrading curse, and, at one single effort, swept away their grinding and insolent aristocracy and clergy, and, in their rage, the throne itself; and, by that act, sent dread into the heart of every aristocrat upon the face of the earth.

21. Our septennial law-makers remained, however, spectators for about two years and a half;

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