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Additional Article to form part of Chefoo Agreement. VI. It is a greed that the present Additional Article shall be considered as forming part of the Chefoo Agreement, and as having the same force and validity as if it were inserted therein, word for word. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged at Peking, and it shall come into operation six months after its signature, provided the ratifications have then been exchanged, or if they have not, then on the date at which such exchange takes place.
Done at Peking in triplicate (three in English and three in Chinese), this thirty-first day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety, being the eleventh day of the Second Intercalary Moon of the sixteenth year of Kuang Ilsü.
(L.S.) JOHN WALSHAM.
CONVENTION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND CHINA, GIVING EFFECT
TO ARTICLE III OF THE CONVENTION OF JULY 24, 1886,
Signeil at London, March 1, 1894.
[Ratifications exchanged at London, August 23, 1894.]
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, being sincerely desirous of consolidating the relations of friendship and good neighbourhood which happily exist between the two Empires, have resolved to conclude a Convention with the view of giving effect to Article III of the Convention relative to Burmah and Thibet, signed at Peking on the 24th July, 1886,* and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries for this purpose, that is to say:
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, En press of India, the Right Honourable the Earl of Rosebery, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ;
* See p. 114.
And His Majesty the Emperor of China, Sieh Ta-jên, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of China at the Court of St. James', and Vice-President of the Imperial Board of Censor's;
Who, having mutually communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles :
Boundary between Burmah and Chinese Empire.
(1st Section.) It is agreed that the frontier between the two Empires, from latitude 25° 35' north, shall run as follows:
Commencing at the high conical peak situated approximately in that latitude and in longitude 98° 14' east of Greenwich and 18° 16' west of Peking, the line will follow, as far as possible, the crest of the hills running in a south-westerly direction through Kaolang Pum and the Warong Peak, and thence run nearly mid-way between the villages of Wanchon and Kaolang-leaving the former to Burmah and the latter to China--on to Sabu Pum.
From Sabu Pum the frontier will run in a line slightly to the south of west through Shatrung Pum to Namienku Pum; thence it will be continued, still running in a south-westerly direction, along the crest of the hills until it strikes the Tazar Kha River, the course of which it will follow from its source to its confluence with the Nam Tabet or Tabak Kha, thus leaving Uka to the east and Laipong to the west.
From the confluence of the Tazar Kha River with the Tabak Kha, the frontier will ascend the latter river to its junction with the Lekra Kha, which it will follow to its source near Nkrang. From the source of the Lekra Kha, leaving Nkrang, Kukum, and Singra to the west, and Sima and Mali to the east, the line will follow the Lesa Kha from its western source to its junction with the Mali River, and thence will ascend the Mali to its source near Hpunra Shikong; thence it will run in a south-westerly direction along the Laisa Kha from its source down to the point where it falls into the Molé River near Kadon, leaving the village of kadon to the west and that of Laisa to the east.
The line will then follow the course of the Molé in a southeasterly direction to the place where it receives the Che Yang Kha, which latter river it will follow to its source in the Alau
Pum. It will then be directed along the Nampaung River from its western source down to where it enters the Taping River.
This concludes the description of the first section of the frontier.
Boundary between Burmah and Chinese Empire.
(2nd Section.) The second section of the frontier, or that portion of it which extends from the Taping River to the neighbourhood of Meung Mao, will run as follows:
Starting from the junction of the Khalong Kha with the Taping River, the frontier will follow the Khalong Kha and its western branch to its source; it will be drawn thence southward to meet the Siphao or Lower Nanthabet at a spot immediately to the south-west of Hanton, leaving Matin to Great Britain and Loilong-ga-tong, Tiêh-pi-Kwan, and Hanton to China; thence it will ascend the branch of the last-named river which has its source nearest to that of the Mautein Kha. It will thence follow the crests of the line of hills running in a south-easterly direction to the more southerly of the two places named Kadaw, which is close to the Nunwan River, leaving Kadaw to China and Palen to Great Britain. It will follow the Namwan River in a south-westerly direction down to the point in about latitude 23° 55', where that river takes a south-easterly course. Thence it will run in a direction somewhat west of south to the Nammak River, leaving Namkhai to Great Britain. It will follow the Nammak River to the point where it bifurcates in about latitude 23° 47', and will then ascend the southern branch till it reaches the crest of a high range of hills to the south of Mawsiu, in about latitude 23° 45'. It will follow the crest of this range (which runs slightly to the north of east) until it reaches the Shweli River at its junction with the Nammak, thus leaving to China the district of Mawsiu, the spot recently identified as Tien-ma-Kwan and the villages of Hinglon and Kongmow, lying to the north of the abovementioned range.
It will then follow the course of the Shweli River, and where the river bifurcates, it will follow the more southerly of the two branches, leaving to China the island formed by them, until it reaches a point near the eastern end of the loop which the river forms opposite to Meung Mao, as indicated in the next Article of the Convention.
The Government of China consent that the most direct of the roads between Blamo and Namkhau, where it passes through the small portion of Chinese territory south of the Namwan, shall, while remaining entirely open to Chinese subjects and to the tribesmen subject to China, be free and open to Great Britain for travellers, commerce, and administrative purposes, without any restrictions whatever. Her Britannic
, Majesty's Government shall have the right, after communication with the Chinese authorities, to execute any works which may be lesirable for the improvement or repair of the road, and to take any measures which may be required for the protection of the traffic and the prevention of smuggling.
It is equally agreed that British troops shall be allowed to pass freely along this road. But no body of troops more than 200 in number shall be dispatched across it without the consent of the Chinese authorities, and previous notice in writing shall be given of every armed party of more than twenty men.
Boundary between Burmah and Chinese Empire.
(3rd Section.) The third section of the frontier will run as follows:
It will commence from a point on the Shweli River, near to the east end of the loop formed by that river opposite to Meung Mao; thence paying due regard to the natural features and the local conditions of the country, it will trend in a south-easterly direction towards Ma-li-pa until it reaches, at a point in about longitude 98° 7' east of Greenwich (18° 23' west of Peking), and latitude 23° 52', a conspicuous mountain range. It will follow the crests of that range through Loiaipong and Loipanglom until it reaches the Salween River, in about latitude 23° 41'.
This portion of the frontier from the Shweli to the Salween River shall be settled by the Boundary Commission provided for in Article VI of the present Convention, and in such a manner as to give to China at least as much territory as would be included if the frontier were drawn in a straight line from Meung Mao towards Ma-li-pa.
If it should be found that the most suitable frontier will give to China a larger amount of territory than is stated above, the compensation to be given to Great Britain on some other part of the frontier shall be matter for subsequent arrangement.
From latitude 23° 41' the frontier will follow the Salween until it reaches the northern boundary of the circle of Kunlong. It will follow that boundary in an easterly direction, leaving the whole circle of Kunlong, and the ferry of that name, to Great Britain, and leaving to China the State of Kokang.
It will then follow the course of the river forming the boundary between Somu, which belongs to Great Britain, and Mêng Ting, which belongs to China. It will still continue to follow the frontier between those two districts, which is locally.
well known, to where it leaves the aforesaid river and ascends the bills; and will then follow the line of water-parting between the tributaries of the Salween and the Mekong Rivers, from about longitude 999 east of Greenwich (17° 30' west of Peking), and latitude 23° 20', to a point about longitude 99° 40' east of Greenwich (16° 50' west of Peking), and latitude 23°, leaving to China the Tsawbwaships of Kêng Ma, Mengtung, and Mengko.
At the last-named point of longitude and latitude the line strikes a very lofty mountain range, called Kong-Ming-Shan, which it will follow in a southerly direction to about longitude 99° 30' east of Greenwich (17° west of Peking), and latitude 22° 30', leaving to China the district of Chen-pien T'ing. Then, descending the western slope of the hills to the Namka River, it will follow the course of that river for about 10' of latitude, leaving Munglem to China, and Manglün to Great Britain.
It will then follow the boundary between Munglem and Kyaing Tong, which is locally well known, diverging from the Namka River a little to the north of latitude 22°, in a direction somewhat south of east, and generally following the crest of the hills till it strikes the Namlam River in about latitude 21° 45', and longitude 100° east of Greenwich (16° 30' west of Peking).
It will then follow the boundary between Kyaing Tong and Kiang Hung, which is generally formed by the Namlam River, with the exception of a small strip of territory belonging to Kiang Hung, which lies to the west of that river just south of the last-named parallel of latitude. On reaching the boundary of Kyaing Chaing, in about latitude 21° 27', and longitude 100° 12' east of Greenwich (16 18' west of Peking), it will follow the boundary between that district and Kiang Hung nntil it reaches the Mekong River.
Boundary between Burmah and Chinese Empire to the
North of 25° 35' North Latitude. It is agreed that the settlement and delimination of that portion of the frontier which lies to the north of latitude 25° 35' north shall be reserved for a future understanding between the High Contracting Parties when the features and condition of the country are more accurately known.
Cession of States of Munglem and Kiany Hung to China.
In addition to the territorial concessions in Northern Theinni, and the cession to China of the State of Kokang, which result