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General Most-faroured-nation Treatment, It is agreed that subjects of the two Powers shall each within the territories of the other enjoy all the privileges, immunities, and advantages that may have been, or may here, after be, accorded to the subjects of any other nation.


Invocation of advantages of Overland Trade between Burmah

and China.

It is agreed that the commercial stipulations contained in the present Convention being of a special nature and the result of mutual concessions, consented to with a view to adapting them to local conditions and the peculiar necessities of the Burmah-China overland trade, the advantages accruing from them shall not be invoked by the subjects of either Power residing at other places where the two Empires are conterminous, excepting where the same conditions prevail, and then only in return for similar concessions,


Revision of Commercial Arrangements of this Treaty after

Six Years or sooner.

The arrangements with regard to trade and commerce contained in the present Convention being of a provisional and experimental character, it is agreed that should subsequent experience of their working, or a more intimate knowledge than is now possessed of the requirements of the trade, seem to require it, they may be revised at the demand of either party after a lapse of six years after the exchange of ratifications of the present Convention, or sooner should the two Governments desire it.


Ratifications. The ratification of the present Convention under the hand of Her Britannic Majesty and of His Majesty the Emperor of China shall be exchanged in London in six months from this day of signature, or sooner if possible. [536]


The Convention shall come into force immediately after the exchange of ratifications.

In token whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention in four copies, two in Chinese and two in English.

Done at London this first day of March, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, corresponding to the 24th day of the 1st moon of the 20th year of Kuang Hsü.

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On proceeding to the signature this day of the Convention between Great Britain and China, giving effect to Article III of the Convention relative to Burmah and Thibet, signed at Peking on the 24th July, 1886 :

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries declare that, inasmuch as the present Convention has been concluded for the special purpose mentioned in the preamble thereof, the stipulations contained therein are applicable only to those parts of the dominions of Her Britannic Majesty and of His Majesty the Emperor of China to which the said Convention expressly relates, and are not to be construed as applicable elsewhere. Done at London the 1st day of March, 1894.


No. 34.



Signed at Peking, February 4, 1897.

[Ratifications exchanged at Peking, June 5, 1897.] In consideration of the Government of Great Britain con. senting to waive its objections to the alienation by China, by the Convention with France of the 201h June, 1895, of territory forming a portion of Kiang Hung, in derogation of the provisions of the Convention between Great Britain and China of the 1st March, 1894, it has been agreed between the Governments of Great Britain and China that the following additions and alterations shall be made in the last-named Convention, hereinafter referred to as the original Convention:


Boundary betreen Burmah and Chinese Empire,

(From 25° 35' North Latituile to the Toping.) It is agreed that the frontier between the two Empires from latitude 25° 33' north shall run as follows:

Commencing at the high peak situated approximately in that latitude and in longitude 980 14' east of Greenwich and 18° 16' west of Peking, the line shall follow, as far as possible, the crest of the hills running in a south-westerly direction to Warung Peak (Kaulrang), and shall extend thence to Sabu Pum.

From Sabu Pum the frontier shall run in a line along the watershed slightly to the south of west through Shatrung Pum to Namienku Pum.

Thence it shall follow a line to be fixed after local investigation, dividing the Szis and the Kumsas as far as the Tabak Kha; thence the Tabak Kha to the Namtabet ; thence the Namtabet to the Paknoi Kha; thence the Paknoi Kha to its source near Talang Pum; thence the Talang Pum ridge to Bumra Shikong

From Bumra Shikong the frontier shall follow a line running in a south-west direction to the Laisa Kha; thence the Laisa Kha to the Molè stream, running between Kadon and Laisa; thence the Mole to its confluence with the Cheyang Kha; thence the Cheyang Kha to Alaw Pum; thence the Nampaung stream to

the Taping


Boundary between Burmah and Chinese Empire.

(From the Taping to the Shweli River.) From the junction of the Taping and the Nampaung streams the frontier shall follow the Taping to the neighbourhood of the Lwalaing ridge; thence a line running approximately along the Lwalaing ridge and the Lwalaing stream to the Namwan; thence the Namwan to its junction with the Shweli. Great Britain engages to recognize as belonging to China the

*“State Papers," Vol. LXXXVII, p. 523. [536]

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tract to the south of the Namwan River, near Namkhai, which is inclosed to the west by a branch of the Nam Mak River and the Mawsju range of hills up to Loi Chow Peak, and thence by the range running in a north-easterly direction to the Shweli River.

In the whole of this area China shall not exercise any jurisdiction or authority whatever. The administration and control will be entirely conducted by the British Government, who will hold it on a perpetual lease from China, paying a rent for it, the amount of which shall be fixed hereafter,


Boundary between Burmah and Chinese, Empire.

(From the Shweli River to the Mekong.) From the junction of the Namwan and Shweli the frontier shall follow the northern boundary of the State of North Hsinwi, as at present constituted, to the Salween, leaving to China the loop of the Shweli River, and almost the whole of Wanting, Mong-ko, and Mong-ka.

Starting from the point where the Shweli turns northward near Namswan, i.e., from its junction with the Namyang, the frontier shall ascend this latter stream to its source in tho Mong-ko Hills, in about latitude 24° 7' and longitude 98° 15', thence continue along a wooded spur to the Salween at its junction with the Namoi stream. The line shall then ascend the Salween till it meets the north-west boundary of Kokang, and shall contine along the eastern frontier of Kokang till it meets the Kunlong circle, leaving the whole circle of Kunlong to Great Britain.

The frontier shall then follow the course of the river forming the boundary between Somu, which belongs to Great Britain, and Mêng Ting, which belongs to China. It shall still continue to follow the frontier between those two districts, which is locally well known, to where it leaves the aforesaid river and ascends the hills, and shall then follow the line of water-parting between the tributaries of the Salween and the Meikong Rivers, from about longitude 99° east of Greenwich (17° 30' west of Peking), and latitude 23° 20', to a point about longitude 99° 40' east of Greenwich (16° 50' west of Peking), and latitude 23o, leaving to China the Tsawbwaships of Kêng Ma, Mengtung, and Mengko.

At the last-named point of longitude and latitude the line strikes a very lofty mountain range, called Kong-Ming-Shan, which it shall follow in a southerly direction to about longitude 99° 30' east of Greenwich (17° west of Peking), and latitude 22° 30', leaving to China the district of Chen-pien T'ing. Then, descending the western slope of the hills to the Namka River, it will follow the course of that river for about 10 minutes of

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latitude, leaving Munglem to China and Manglün to Great Britain.

The frontier shall then follow the boundary between Munglem and Kiang Tong, which is locally well known, diverging from the Namka River a little to the north of latitude 22°, in a direction somewhat south of east, and generally following the crest of the hills till it strikes the Namlam River in about latitude 21° 45' and longitude 100° east of Greenwich (16° 30' west of Peking).

It shall then follow the boundary between Kiang Tong and Kiang Hung, which is generally formed by the Namlam River, with the exception of a small strip of territory belonging to Kiang Hung, which lies to the west of that river, just south of the last-named parallel of latitude. On reaching the boundary of Western Kyaing Chaing, in about latitude 21° 27' and longitude 100° 12' east of Greenwich (16° 18' west of Peking), the frontier shall follow the boundary between that district and Kiang Hung until it reaches the Mekong River.


[No addition to original Convention.]


Non-cession by China to any other Power of Ntung Lem and

Kiang Hung. It is agreed that China will not cede to any other nation either Mung Lem or any part of Kiang Hung ou the right bank of the Mekong, or any part of Kiang Hung now in her

possession on the left bank of that river, without previously coming to an arrangement with Great Britain.


Demarcation of Boundary between Burmah and Chinese

Empire. Article VI of the original Convention shall be held to be modified as follows:

It is agreed that, in order to avoid any local contention, the alignments of the frontier described in the present Agreement shall be verified and demarcated, and, in the event of their being found defective at any point, rectified by a Joint Commission appointed by the Governments of Great Britain and China, and that the said Commission shall meet, at a place hereafter to be determined by the two Governments not later

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