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the great charges unhappily still perty. As speeches from the necessary, the first of all the throne may probably, in France means for meeting which is eco as well as in England, be regarded nomy, which it has been his study as the language of the existing to render operative in all parts of ministers, the substance of the the administration. Speaking of preceding address will indicate his negociations with the Holy the principles of government See, and the state of the church adopted by the persons now at of France, he said, “You have no the helm. doubt been of opinion with me, Several important topics were that we ought-not to restore to brought into discussion at the divine worship that which the piety meetings of the chambers before of our fathers had bestowed upon the close of the year; but as we it, (that unfortunately would be do not profess to include the deimpossible) but—to ensure to the bates of foreign deliberating asministers of our holy religion an semblies in our historical sketch, independent income.” A resolu- and the results of those in question is then declared of the King's tion will affurd matter for the firm adherence to that fundamental ensuing year, we here terminate law of the Charter, which secures our summary of French affairs, to the faith of their ancestors the now, happily, interesting rather pre-eminence due, but guarantees as the domestic concerns of a to all a rational liberty, and to particular nation, than us exerteach the peaceable enjoyment of ing an influence on the politics of his rights, condition, and pro- Europe.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XI.

Affairs of the Netherlands. - Finances.Debate in the States on Print

ing Speeches.-System of Weights and Measures.-Sacred Alliance. Ecclesiastical Affairs.--Restriction on the Press.— Treaty with Algiers. Discussions respecting Commerce and Manufactures.--Kiny's Speech at Brussels on the Finances.— Treaty between the Netherlands and Hanover.- Fortifications on the Frontiers.-Debate on Exportation of Corn, and proposed Law.

NO

ONE of the European go no political considerations can be

vernments burdened by the more important than those which enormous expenses of the late relate to the means of remedygeneral war, appear to have ap- ing the evils every where pressing plied with more steadiness and upon the public finances, we trust wisdom the principles of order and we shall not be charged with economy, for extricating them- filling a page uselessly by transelves from financial difficulties, scribing a part of the budget than the new kingdom of the presented on the 29th of DecemNetherlands; in the practice of ber last to the second chamber which laudable policy, the cha- of the States-general of the Neracter of the Sovereign happily therlands, by Mr. Six Van Otterconcurred with that of the nation. leck, minister of finance. As in the present state of things,

The amount of the expenditure for 1816, he estimated as

follows :Royal Household

2,600,000 florins High Colleges-(expenses of the Chambers, &c.) 1,220,000 Department of the Secretary of State

330,000 Department for Foreign Affairs

890,000 Home Department

2,300,000 Department of Justice

4,000,000 Department of the Reformed and other Religious

Worship, that of the Roman Catholics excepted 1,010,000 Department of the Roman Catholic Worship 1,600,000 Department of Education, Arts, and Sciences 1,000,000 Department of Finance

23,500,000 Naval Service

6,150,000 War Department

29,000,000 Sea and River Dykes and other Public Works 5,000,000 Department of Commerce and Colonies

2,550,000 Unforeseen Expenses

650,000

Total 80,000,000 (N. B.-A Florin is equal to 20d.)

The

The Minister of Finance stated, difference, the Minister observes, that the above would be the max " that however improvident it imum of the expenditure for the might appear, in ordinary times, ensuing year, unless in the case to fix the expenditure of a year of the occurrence of new and without providing the means for unexpected events.

meeting the whole of it, yet it He had also to state, that under appeared inexpedient to his Mathe head of 23,500,000 florins jesty, in the present situation of for the department of finance, things, to propose to the Chamwere included two new items. ber any increase of the taxes or One of these was the sum of other burdens on the country, so 1,500,000 florins, as the share of long as there was a possibility the Netherlands for the payment that the difference would of itself of the interest and the extinction decrease either in whole or in of the Russian debt, in confor- part." He expressed his hope, mity to the Convention concluded that the restoration of general at London, on the 19th of May peace would leave a surplus, even last. The other was a sum of after all the necessary expenses 475,000 fl. for payment of in of the State were defrayed. It terest on the Austro-Belgian debt, was impossible at present to state which the kingdom of the Ne- how far experience would justify therlands had taken upon itself this hope; but the question would by the Convention of the 11th of be decided long before this differOctober.

ence of 6 millions could be felt The Minister next proceeded as a burthen upon the finances of to state the Ways and Means for the country. If, however, the meeting this expenditure. Among hope of some considerable dimithese were the Land Tax for all nution of the expenditure in vathe provinces of the kingdom, rious branches, which had been which is fixed at 16,132,540 fl.; fixed at the maximum, should be the tax on persons and movea- disappointed, together with the bles, fixed at 2,735,570 fl.; and hope of the improvement of the the tax on doors and windows, at revenue from the restoration of 1,578,330.

general peace, then it would be Then follows an enumeration for the States General, at their of a variety of other taxes, direct next sitting, to consider of the and indirect, the produce of which means of covering this unlookedis not stated in the speech of the for deficit.” Minister, though subjoined in As few particulars of the asschedules annexed to the plan of sembly of the states have been law.

brought before the public, there The total produce of the Ways is reason to suppose, that it and Means is estimated by the passed with general tranquillity : Minister at 752 millions of florins. we find however in a Dutch The amount of the expenditure is paper the report of a discussion, estimated at 82 millions, thus which, as relating to the forms creating a difference of 61 mil of a representative body, may be lions. On the subject of this regarded with interest. At the

sitting

sitting of the second chamber on it might hear and report their Jan. 4th, the report of the cen discussions, and that for this reatral section was read, relative to son it was unnecessary that the the mode in which the minutes minutes should contain the delishould in future be drawn up, berations. The question being and whether the opinions deli- put to the vote, Mr. Pycke's movered by the members should be tion was negatived by 64 to 23. inserted at length, or in analysis. Another member from West The report recommended. on the Flanders having put the question, ground of an article in the stand whether the minutes might not ing orders, that no speech should at least contain an abstract of the be inserted in the minutes, with opinions of each member, it was the exception of leading or inci- negatived by 59 to 35. dental expositions.

This occa

The great improvement in dosioned a warm debate, and Mr. mestic policy, of establishing an Pycke, a member from East Flan uniform system of weights and ders, delivered a long speech measures founded on stable prinagainst the recommendation. Ar- ciples, which has occupied many guing from an article in the Con states in Europe, and it is to be stitutional Code, enacting the hoped, will in time become unipublicity of the discussions in versal, has in this year been taken the second chamber, he contend up by the government of the Need, that the intention of the le therlands, and his Majesty on gislature could hardly have been June 4th submitted a plan for that this publicity should be con the purpose to the States-general. fined to the few auditors who In the royal message preceding, daily attended in the galleries at it is observed, that the plan apHague and Brussels ; and that it proved, called the metrical or dewas important that the public, cimal, has already been introduced as well as the deputies, should be by law into many provinces of acquainted with the persons who the kingdom, (those, apparently, most promoted the interests of which had longest been under their country, in order to direct the dominion of France,) and had them in their future elections of been employed in all the transacrepresentatives. He replied to tions in which public authority the objections urged in the com takes a part. As it cannot but mittee, of the slowness such a be of advantage to place under practice would occasion in their general consideration every wellproceedings, and the time it would weighed proposal for bringing cost to the secretary and mem into practice a scheme of great bers, by remarking, that their national utility, we shall copy the time could not be better expended articles of the law here offered for than by promoting the good of enactment. the kingdom.

Art. 1. As soon as circumMr. Gondebieu, from Hai- stances shall permit, and at nault, in opposition, said, that furthest by the 1st of January the meetings of the chamber be 1920, the same weights and meaing public, every one who chose sures shall be introduced through

out

sures.

out the whole interest of the and measures as come nearest to kingdom.

them. 2. After their introduction, no 9. The length mentioned in one shall be permitted to make art. 6, is the foundation or eleuse of other weights and mea ment of all length-measure, and

shall bear the name of ell. 3. Commencing from the 1st 10. The unity of all measures January after the year of intro of distance shall be the ell multiduction, no claims whatever which plied a thousand times. become the subject of legal dis 11. The foundation of all supute shall be pronounced lawful; perficial measure is the square of unless in the deeds, books, and the ell, or the ell square. documents on which they are

12. For land measure the square founded, and which shall be of a multiple of the ell by ten brought to prove their legitimacy, shall form the unity of measure. the new system shall be used, and 13. The foundation of all meaform the groundwork of the cal sures of contents in the great culation.

shall be the cube of the ell. 4. From the enactment in the 14. The cube of the tenth of preceding articles are excepted the ell shall be the unity of the transactions entered into abroad measure of contents for retail with the subjects of other powers. articles.

5. Moreover, after the 1st of 15. The foundation of weights January, 1817, in all the schools shall be the weight of a quantity of this kingdom, without excep of purely distilled water reduced tion, where arithmetic is taught, to its greatest solidity, contained elementary instruction must be in the cube of the tenth part of communicated according to this the ell, and shall bear the name established system of weights and of pound. measures ; and after that time no 16. The cube of the ten-thousone shall be admitted into them andth part of the pound shall be as teacher, who is not sufficiently the unity for the weight of vaacquainted with the same to be luable wares. able to give instruction to others. 17. The direction and form of

6. The new system of weights the new weights and measures, and measures for this kingdom, together with their multiples and shall have for foundation a length aliquot parts, as also the names which is the forty-millionth part of every measure and weight, toof a meridian-circle of the earth, gether with their multiples and which passes through Paris. aliquot parts, in conformity to

7. All measures and weights what is contained in art. 8, shall shall stand in connexion with this afterwards be fixed by us. length, and all its multiples and The so-termed Sacred Alliance aliquot parts shall be decimal. entered into by the three con

8. To them shall be given none federate potentates was acceded other but the usual Dutch names; to on June 21st by the king of and such, by preference, shall be the Netherlands, which act was employed of the present weights notified by a message to the States

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