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but be a momentous concern; and dom as a measure liable to very the king sanctioned the measures great inconveniences, as it might proposed by the war-department have the effect of interrupting the for completing the fortifications ordinary course of the trade in commenced on several points of corn, and suspend or lessen the the frontiers, in which labour importation : from 10 to 12,000 workmen were is That, however, a partial proto be employed during the winter hibition may be attended with saseason. At the sarne time a perfect lutary consequences for the inhacoalescence between the northern bitants of some provinces, and and southern provinces of the particularly of those which, by kingdom was effected by the abo- their situation, and by the prolition of the whole line of custom- hibitory laws of the neighbouring houses between them.

states, have not to expect any The failure of the harvest, and direct supply of foreign corn: consequent scarcity of the neces For these reasons, by the advice saries of life, prevalent in the of our Council of State, and in Netherlands as in so many other conjunction with the States-Geparts of Europe, occasioned a neral, we have ordained, as we orclashing of interests in different dain by these presents : portions of the kingdom, which « Art. l. It is forbidden to exwas the cause of warm debate in port wheat, rye, barley, oats, or the assembly of the states. Hol- meal of any kind whatsoever, by land, which had been accustomed the land frontier of the kingdom, to derive its chief subsistence to countries whence it is not perfrom foreign commerce, and had mitted to export those articles to thereby become a great mart of the Netherlands. corn as an article of free impor " Art. 2. We reserve it to ourtation and exportation, was un self to extend the said prohibia willing to acquiesce in those re tion to other articles of food, and strictions on the corn trade which to revoke it entirely, or in part, some of the Belgic provinces, re as circumstances shall require. duced to great necessity, repre “ Art. 3. The corn, and other sented as essential to preserve articles of food, included in the them from famine. After much above prohibition, or in that of consideration, his Majesty, on the 20th of Nov. 1816, the exDecember 20th, proposed to the portation of which shall notwithlegislative body a law on the standing be attempted directly or subject in the following terms: indirectly, shall be confiscated,

Having taken into consi- and the trespassers condemned, deration that the absolute prohi- besides, to pay a fine of one thoubition of the exportation of corn sand florins. must be considered in this king

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XII.

Spain.Weakness and Fluctuations of the Government.-Character of

the King.Chunge of Ministry.-- Matrimonial Connections between the Courts of Spain and Portugal.-Conspiracy at Madrid.-Decree respecting Religious Orders.- Property of Jesuits restored.-Prisoners at Ceuta removed.-Royal Nuptials.-General Pardon, with great Exceptions.— Portugal : its Commerce flourishing - Brazil declared a Kingdom.- Naples. Treaty with the Pirutical States.-Sicilian Papers excluded from Naples.- Transactions with the United States of America.Decree respecting the Political Relations between the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily.-Rome insuited by Pirates and Ba'ditti.- Torture forbidden in the Inquisition.-Security declared to Purchasers of National Property.-Confiscation no longer permitted to the Profit of the Inquisition. Negociations of the Church of Rome with France.Venice.

HE beginning of the year to the personal character of the

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of the state of the kingdom of less activity, and impatience of all Spain, which seems to have been opposition to his will. It is said freed froin internal war and the of him, that

“ He sees every shackles of foreign dominion, only thing, decides every thing, and to be re-delivered to that system watches over all the parts of the of weak and arbitrary govern- administration. Supreme master, ment, under which it has s., long his dispositions experience no been declining in the scale of delay; his wishes are instantly Europe. In the capital and the executed. This explains the raprincipal cities, the spirit of free. pidity of events at court.” One dom was at this time so far sub- of these, which excited much surjugated, that thediscontents which prize at Madrid on the 21st of subsisted, ere buried in secrecy; January, was a total change in but in the northern and frontier the ministry. The principal miprovinces, parties of guerillas were nister, Cevallos, was, however, roming uncontrolled, many of announced in a Gazette extraorthem composed of the dispersed dinary of the 26th, as restored to insurgents under Porlier, and of all his functions, his Majesty soldiers become deserters for want signing with his own hand the of pay. The public finances were following declaration : “ Consiin a wretched situation; and the dering as unfounded, the motives measures of administration were which induced me to order your perpetually changing. This fluctu- discharge from the office of my ation may in great part be ascribed first secretary of state, and of the VOL. LVIII.

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cabinet; and being highly satis- zil. Meanwhile, there being a fied with the zeal, exactitude, and great deficiency of money, expeaffection, with which in the cruel dients were resorted to for reest times you have served myself plenishing the treasury, one of and the state, I re-instate you in which was, that it should be open the

and exercise of your for receipt, but shut for payoffices, of which you will immediately take charge.” From the About this time a conspiracy same royal decree, it may be was detected at Madrid, the oblearned, that the King had been ject of which is reported to have alarmed by reports of public dis- been the destruction of the king contents; for the extraordinary and his brothers. It had for commissions for the trial of state some time been remarked, that offenders are abolished, and they an unusual number of discharged are remitted to the ordinary tri- guerilla officers without pay

had bunals; and the use of the party resorted to the capital, and susappellations of liberales and ser picions were thence excited, which viles is forbidden. The other dis at length produced the discovery missed ministers were not re of a plot. Many persons were stored, but other emoluments and in consequence arrested, among honours were conferred upon whom were names well known in them. Such, however, was the the history of the late war; and mutability of the royal counsels, they were examined by torture. that the abolition of the com General O'Donoghue, who was missions was soon after revoked. one of the apprehended, was af

In February a royal decree was terwards discharged. The conmade public, informing the royal spiracy, of which nothing was council, that the King, in order made known by authority, appears to strengthen the bonds of rela to have been suppressed without tionship between the families of any public commotion. Spain and Portugal, had treated In July the King issued a long with the Prince of Brazil, for an decree, in which, after lameniunion between himself and the ing the corruption of morals and second daughter of the Prince, his doctrine effected in Spain by the own niece, the Infanta Maria late war, he announced his inIsabel Francisca; and another tention of employing in future union between the Infant of Spain the religious orders in the 'educaDon Carlos, and the third daugh- tion of youth, and mentioned, ter of the same Prince, the In that he had obtained permission fanta Maria Francisca de Asis; froin the Pope, that some of the and that full powers had been nuns should be abstracted from given for concluding these ma their devotional exercises in contrimonial contracts. The Duke vents, and engaged in the eduof Infantado, president of the cation of females. That the recouncil of Castile, was nominated establishment of the company of to go in state to Cadiz, for the Jesus might be effected as speepurpose of receiving these Prin- dily as possible, he declared his cesses on their landing from Bra vereign will, that all the houses,

colleges,

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colleges, funds and rents, of which The inportant and still wholly it had been deprived at the sup unsettled affairs of Spanish Amepression, and which still exist, rica, will be brought under conshould be restored to it.

sideration when the events of The rigors of despotic police that quarter of the world claim were in the meantime exercising our attention. throughout the kingdom, seizures Portugal, governed by a rebeing made, it is said, in every gency during the residence of its town, and even every village, of sovereign in Brazil, is reported to all persons meeting in the street be flourishing in commerce, partly at a certain hour. A measure at the expense of the rest of the put in practice with respect to peninsula. Several rich mercanthe patriots of the late Cortes tile houses from Malaga and confined at Ceuta, struck terror Cadiz have established themselves among all the friends of freedom. in this kingdom, the more liberal On the 19th of July, they were spirit of which has favoured the taken out of their beds at the settlement of foreigners. It is dead of night, carried on board a even affirmed, that religious toxehec under a strong escort of leration has extended so far as to soldiers, loaded with irons, and have allowed the German merconveyed no one knew whither. chants to open a Protestant place

On Sept. 28th, the new Queen of worship in Lisbon, notwitharrived in Madrid, when the standing the opposition of the royal nuptials were consummated, clergy. The trade with both Inwith those of the King's brother dies was so much extended, that and the Queen's sister. On this in the year 1815, 490 vessels occasion his Majesty“ wishing laden with European produce, , to signalize the happy day by a sailed for South America alone, mark of his royal mercy,” pub- bringing back a very valuable lished a “general pardon to all importation. delinquents capable of receiving The additional importance atit,” which description excluded tached to the Transatlantic colothe following crimes : lese-ma- nies since they were personally jesty; divine and human treason; known to the sovereign was mahomicide of priests ; blasphemy; nifested by a decree published fabricating false money ; export- at Rio-de-Janeiro, in December ing prohibited articles; resist 1815. The Prince Regent of ance to justice, and malversation Portugal (as was then his title) of the royal powers; with some after alluding to the vast extent others. Hence it appears, that a of his dominions in America, and large scope was still left for the the abundance and variety of the indulgence of royal vengeance elements of riches which they against the class of patriots and contain, remarks the advantages reformers. It must, however, be which would result to his subadmitted, that an established go-jects from a perfect union of invernment cannot be blamed for terests between his territories in taking precautionary measures Europe and in Brazil. He therefor protecting itself, and pre- fore declares from the present serving the general tranquillity time, the State of Brazil raised to

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the dignity and denomination of ples and Sicily were now reunited a kingdom; and orders, that in

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crown, their future the kingdoms of Portugal, constitutions remained different, the two Algarves, and Brazil, and the limited government of shall form one sole kingdom, the latter, in which a degree of under the title of United King freedom of the press was estadom of Portugal, Brazil, and the blished, could not but be regarded Two Algarves. The transactions with jealousy by a Neapolitan in that part of the world will court. The King therefore prohereafter be mentioned.

hibited the introduction of the The kingdom of Naples was Sicilian journals into his contivisited at the beginning of the nental territories. year with a pestilential disease, A signal proof of the little (apparently the true plague) which respect inspired by the governbroke out at Noia, on its eastern ment of Naples was exhibited by coast, said to have been brought the arrival, in the beginning of by infection from a Turkish ship. August, of an American squaAs soon as it was discovered, a dron under Commodore Chaunstrict cordon was drawn round cey, off the city of Naples, having the place by the Austrian troops, on board Mr. Pinckney, whose which appear to have this weak purpose was to demand a large monarchy still under guard, sum of money, being the amount whereby it was prevented from of American property confiscated spreading; and after committing in the reign of Murat. This meaconsiderable ravages, it was finally sure, which had the appearance extinguished.

of intimidation, excited great The situation and the weak- alarm in Naples, almost all the ness of this kingdomı, having ex- ships of the Royal Navy having posed it to the depredations of the been disarmed : the other means piratical states of Barbary, Lord for the defence of the port, howExmouth, as the British naval ever, were not neglected ; and commander in the Mediterranean, the Austrian general Nugent acundertook in the spring to medi- cepted the command of the Neaate a peace for the King with the politan army. The marquis CirDey of Algiers, which at that cello, minister for foreign affairs, time could not be effected with delivered a note to each of the out an agreement for paying a foreign ministers relative to the large sum for the liberation of American claims, and couriers the Neapolitan slaves, the dis were sent to engage the proteccharge of which the Admiral was tion of different courts. The neobliged to urge with some impor- gociation of Mr. Pinckney was tunity. When, however, the no- protracted, and took a more moble commander had reduced the derate tone; and part of the barbarian to his own terms, he American squadron left the bay made the restoration of all the of Naples for Messina. ransom paid by Naples one of the In the month of October, it is conditions of peace.

announced from Naples, that Mr. Although the kingdoms of Na- Pinckney had taken his leave of

the

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