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unanimous resolution, that in the confederation. Eleven depufuture all communications and ties rejected the Pope's demand; petitions addressed to it should nine voted for the referendum ; be in German. The immediate and two deputies reserved their cause of this determination was votes ; so that the decision was the presenting to them a recla- temporarily adjourned. The remation in French, from M. La sult is of importance, as affording tour Auvergne, on the subject of a test of the influence of the Ro. the Duchy of Bouillon.

man pontiff in the Catholic part Switzerland. At a sitting of the of Switzerland. general Diet of the confederation, The multifarious local constion July 15th, heavy complaints tutions in the Helvetic confewere made of the ruin brought deracy have offered an example upon the Swiss manufactures by of political contrivance which in the severity of the French go- modern times is probably unique. vernment; which had imposed It is thus stated in a commiuni.. duties upon their entrance into cation from Lausanne. France amounting to a prohibi The Government of Friburg tion, and had executed its ordi has published a collection of the nances with the utmost rigour. organic laws of its Constitution in This treatment was considered as German and French. The most particularly hard, as practised to- important part of its contents is wards a nation devoted to France, that which relates to the Tribunal and which lately, in its capitula- of Censorship. This tribunal is tions respecting troops for its composed of seven menibers, who service, had given unequivocal have the singular title of Secrets. proofs of its attachment to the They must be of different famiHouse of Bourbon. After several lies, and each must have comdiscussions on the subject, the pleted 40 years of age. This triwhole was referred to the exa bunal is to assemble as often as mination of a committee.

business may require, but reguOn the following day a brief larly each year on the anniverfrom the Pope was read before sary of the Battle of Morat. The the Diet, addressed to the go duties of the Secrets are performed vernments of Switzerland, in gratuitously. Their persons are which his Holiness claimed their inviolable, and those who offend intervention for the re-es blish against them are to be prosecuted ment of the Abbey of St. Gall. criminally as disturbers of the The deputies of that canton, and public peace. Their 'functions those of Lucerne, Basle, Appen- embrace two principal objects-zel, Zurich, and Geneva, spoke the maintenance of the laws, and with great energy against this the superintendence of morals. pretension, as being contrary to With respect to the first, the trithat act of the congress which bunal watches the administration assures an indemnity and honour-, of the Government. It takes able rank in life to the late Abbot care that the officers who comof St. Gall, and to the constitu- pose the Government, do not tion of the canton, guaranteed by overstep the bounds of their au.

thority,

thority, that neither public nor tent to call upon the members of individual liberty be compromised, the grand council to give an acand that no ordinance in oppo- count of their conduct, to address sition with the law be put in exe suitable exhortations to them. to cution. For this purpose the suspend them, and even to distribunal possesses the right of miss them, according to the naveto, to the exercise of which ture of the offence. Finally, this every authority is obliged to yield. tribunal examines and determines With regard to morals, the tri- whether the members of the grand bunal watches the public and pri- council, newly elected, have fulvate conduct of the members of filled the conditions of eligibility Government. It is also compe- required of them by law.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XIV.

Sweden and Norway.--Denmark.-- Russia.--- Ionian Islands.- Turkey.

A

T the end of June, the Prince said, “ The constitution which

Royal of Sweden, with his guarantees to us a legal liberty; son the Duke of Sudermania, ar- the union of the Scandinavian rived at Christiania to attend the peninsula under a wise governclose of the Norwegian Diet, or ment, which secures our political Storthing, which had been assem coi dition ; the bases which we bled a year before. The Prince have endeavoured to lay of a part Royal delivered a speech on the of our internal arrangements, and occasion in French, which was the measures wbich we may exrepealed in the Norwegian lan- pect in future, when the national guage by his son. It began with assemblies shall have acquired announcing general peace, and more experience; make us hope confirmed amity with the nearest for the future happiness of Norpuwers, those of Russia, Prussia, way.” and England. Satisfaction was Prince Oscar, son of the Prince then expressed with the friendly Royal, has been appointed Viceconfidence displayed by the Nor- roy of Norway. wegians towards the Swedes, and A new survey of the frontier the harmony subsisting between hetween Sweden and Norway has the King and the Diet, notwith- been determined on for the enstanding unfavourable predictions. suing year, to be divided into “ You have recently (he said) three divisions, each tu be visited acquired the faculty of speaking by a Norwegian and a Swedish your rights : you have discussed officer. The whole line is estiyour interests and social prero- mated at between 7 and 800 Enggatives; and we must hope, that lish miles, a great part in mounhappy results will in future be tainous and steril regions. the fruit of your labours.” The Active measures have been taken Prince then touched upon the for meliorating the condition of difficulties and hardships under Sweden, which, like every other which nature had destined Nor- kingdom in Europe, has been reway to labour, and the necessity duced to financial difficulties in of encountering them by industry consequence of the war. Its foand frugality; and hinted at some reign debt has been partly paid provisions against the sufferings and partly liquidated by the money of the indigent which remained received for Pomerania and Guato be put in practice.

daloupe. Provincial committees In the reply of the Diet it is have been employed in framing Vol. LVIII.

plans

plans for restricting luxury, by 'transactions between the united which the use of foreign articles duchy of Sleswick and Holstein, will be much circumscribed. and the crown. The permanent Their importation of late years Assembly of Prelates and Knights has risen to the amount of 20 of this duchy, published a collecmillions of rix dollars, whilst the tion of their most important acts, exports have little exceeded nine two of which are said to have millions ; a drain absolutely ruin- produced an extraordinary sensa. ous to so poor a nation. Plans tion on the continent. In the are also in agitation for enabling first of these, a writ from the the national bank to pay off the royal chancery of the duchy to paper money in specie, which, the permanent committee of prehowever, cannot be brought to lates, &c. mentions, that their effect without the sanction of the petition of March 7th, and likeStates, whence a new meeting of wise their remonstrances conthe Diet is expected. Of the mi- cerning the future condition of litary conscription, divided into the duchies, had been submitted tive classes, the first class, amount to his Majesty by the chancery, ing to 70,000 men, is to be called which had thereupon been comout, armed and exercised for an missioned by his Majesty to make nual service. In this number is known to the committee, that the not included the standing army internal management of the duchy of nearly 42,000 men, part of must continue, as it had been rewhich are provincial regiments, gulated by the royal resolution raised and maintained by the of the 6th of September in the landed proprietors.

last year, and that the King A national bank for Norway would hereafter determine more has been established at Christi- precisely the time for carrying ania.

into effect any other resolutions, Near the conclusion of the year, touching the matter in question. reports were spread of great dis- This document was dated May 7th., turbances prevailing among the The committee reply, That the peasantry of Norway, who were permanent committee had rereduced to extreme distress by a ceived with gratitude the assurdearth, which could not fail of ances of a new constitution to be pressing at this period with ex- given them : but that they pertraordinary severity, in a country ceive with deep concern, that the almost always labouring under a period for the accomplishment of degree of scarcity. The inhabi so desirable an object was left intants of the interior are said to definite, and to depend upon the have been particularly exasperated future will and decision and will against the mercantile population of his Majesty. They feel the of the sea-ports, to whose inter more regret on this account, as ests they supposed themselves sa- they have daily opportunities of crificed.

witnessing the painful anxiety of Denmark. Respecting this king- all ranks on the subject. They dom, the most memorable circum. also could not forbear to con. stance of the year relates to the fess that, fully relying on the

royal

royal word, they had been greatly In the words of the ukase, “They disappointed at having to wait till have turned aside from our wora protracted period for the con- ship young people who had been firmation of their privileges. They intrusted to them, and some wofound themselves grievously frus- men of weak and inconsiderate trated in their hopes by the inde- minds, and have drawn them to finite line of his Majesty's con their church." His Majesty's duct, which could not, as in other ideas of this conduct are thus extimes, have been governed by pressed :

“ To induce a man to pending political events.

abjure his faith, the faith of his This is another example of that ancestors—to extinguish in him reluctance in crowned heads, to the love of those who profess the admit any diminution of their same worship-to render him a own authority, which has so much stranger to his country--to sow retarded the expected progress in discord and animosity in families the formation of free constitutions to detach the brother from the for the European states.

brother, the son from the father, Russia. An imperial Ukase was and the daughter from the mother published on January 2d, at St. -to excite divisions among the Petersburgh, which remarkably children of the same church_is illustrates the system of reli- that the will of God, and of his gious toleration in the Russian divine Son Jesus Christ our Saempire, and at the same time ex viour?" The result of his delihibits the indelible character of berations are contained in the folthe order of Jesuits. This so- lowing articles : That the Caciety, after having been abolished tholic church in Russia be again by a papal bull, and expelled from established as it was in the reign all the Roman Catholic states, of the Empress Catharine II., and obtained an asylum in Russia, till the year 1800: that all monks under the Empress Catharine II., of the order of Jesuits be immeand was permitted to engage in diately banished from Petersthe education of youth, a task burgh: that they be forbid to for which its members were re enter the two capitals. At the garded as peculiarly qualified. same time, that there might be Proselytism being held as the no interruption in the Roman highest of all duties by the church Catholic worship, the metropoof Rome, it has always been pur- litan of that church was ordered sued with peculiar zeal by the to replace the Jesuits by other Jesuits, its most devoted satel- priests then present, until the arlites; and the emigrants of that rival of other Catholic monks order in Russia could not refrain who had been sent for, for that from exercising the influence they purpose. had acquired in that country, in A note of the Russian chargé making converts, though the laws d'affaires at Hamburg to ihe of Russia strictly prohibit every Senate of that city, stating the native, born and brought up in circumstances of the misconduct the established Greek religion, of the Jesuits, and the measures from changing it for any other. taken by the Emperor in conse

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quebze.

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