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on the pediment of the entrance, assembling after the Christmas and have not been removed by vacation, considered it as an inLord Elgin.
cumbent duty to the Public, to An exact copy of these draw- take the necessary measures for ings, by the Marquis de Nointel's ascertaining the real state of the painter, is given in M. Barry's kingdom, in whatever most intiworks ; which are rendered more mately concerned its Agricultural valuable on account of the de- Resources; and for this purpose, struction of a considerable part of ordered the following Circular the temple in the Turkish war by Letter and Queries to be immethe falling of a Venetian bomb, diately dispatched to all their Corwithin a short time after the respondents : year in which they were made ; Sir ;-The Board of Agriculwhich, however, must have been ture, attentive to those circomprior to the date of 1683, affixed stances which concern the Agrito the plate in Barry's works, cultural Interest of the Kingdom, (2 vol. p. 163. London, 1809.) beg your attention to the under
Some notes of M. Fauvel, a written Queries; to which they painter and antiquarian, who request the earliest possible Reply. moulded and took casts from the The importance of the subject, in greatest part of the sculptures, the present state of the Kingdom, and remained fifteen years at will without doubt induce you to Athens, are given with the tracings be carefully accurate in the anof these drawings; in which it is swers with which you may favour said, with regard to these pedi- us. I am, Sir, your obedient, and ments, “ These figures were very humble Servant, adorned with bronze, at least if J. Fane, Vice-President. we may judge by the head of Sa- (Signed by Order of the Board.) bina, which is one of the two 13th February, 1816. that remain ; and which, having
QUERIES. fallen, and being much mutilated, was brought to M. Fauvel. The 1. Are any farms in your neightraces are visible of the little bourhood unoccupied by tenants; cramps which probably fixed the and have landlords, in consecrown to the head. The head of quence, been obliged to take them the Emperor Hadrian still exists. into their own hands? Please to Probably this group has been in- state the number of farms, and serted to do honour to that em- their size. peror, for it is of a workmanship 2. Have any tenants, within different from the rest of the your knowledge, given notice to sculpture.”
their landlords, of quitting their farms at Lady-day, or any other
period ? Agricultural State of the Kingdom,
3. Have any farms been lately being the Substance of the Replies relet at an abatement of rent; to a Circulur Letter sent by the and if so, what is the proportion Board of Agriculture.
of such abatement ? The Board of Agriculture, on 4. What circumstances, de
noting the distress of the farmers, tress ; and 64 of them also add, have come to your knowledge, that notices have been given to which may not be included under quit; a circumstance marking, in the above queries ?
some degree, the progress of the 5. Is the present distress greater evil. on arable, or un grass farms ? It may further be remarked,
6. Have flock-farins suffered that these letters represent a large equally with others?
quantity of land to be unculti7. Does the country in which vated. you reside, suffer from a dimi. nished circulation of paper ?
Second Query.--Notices to Quit 8. What is the state of the la
Three hundred and twenty-two bouring poor; and what is the replies have been received to this proportion of poor-rates, com- query, which may be thus arpared with the years 1811 and ranged : 1812?
Letters, in which the expres9. What remedies occur to you, sion is, many farmers have for alleviating these difficulties? given notice to quit ..... 103
To these queries the Board re- Letters, in which the expresceived 326 letters in reply, from sions are, several, or a few, which the following statement have given notice to quit.. 111 has been collected.
Letters, in which the
sion is, all that can, have First Query.-Occupancy.
given notice to quit...... Three hundred and thirteen re- Letters, in which the expresplies, describing the state of oc- sion is, none have given cupation, have been received, notice to quit ..
71 which may be thus arranged : Letters, mentioning farms
322 unoccupied by tenants, be
It is scarcely necessary to reing thrown on the land- mark, that until the present pelord's hands...
168 riod of declension commenced, Letters, in which no such such an idea, as giving notice to
want of occupancy occurs. 127 quit a farm, except for the purLetters, in which farms are pose of hiring a better one, may
stated to have been uncul- be said to have been almost untivated for want of being known in the kingdom; and no occupied by the landlords, 18 circumstance more clearly
mark the present degradation of
313 the employment, than these noIt is necessary to observe, in
tices to quit. relation to the 127 letters, that their not containing the article of Third Query.—Reduction of Rent. occupatiwn by tenants, is not sin-- There have been 212 returns, gly to be taken as a sign of pros- specifying the proportionate reperity, as a great number of duction of rent, and the average them are amongst those the most of them all is 25 per cent. descriptive of agricultural dis- It should however be remarked,
that this applies only to the letters become parish paupers, are parwhich specify the amount of the ticularly mentioned by many of recluction : many others speak of the correspondents; with great the same fact, without giving pre- arrears of rent, and in many cases, cisely the proportion.
tithes and poor-rates unpaid ; imThe land rents of the kingdom, provements of every kind geneaccording to the returns of the rally discontinued ; live-stock property-tax, have been stated at greatly lessened; tradesmen's bills 34,000,000; if the real fact should unpaid ; and alarming gangs of exceed this by only two millions, poachers and other depredators. the total will be 36 millions, and These circumstances are generally the loss of 25 per cent. will give expressed in language denoting a total of 9,000,000 to landlords extreme distress, and absolute alone; but this will by no means, ruin in a variety of instances. according to the letters received by the Board, be the whole of one
Fifth and Sixth Queries.-Arable
and Grass Lund, and Flock year's loss, as the amount of un
Farms, compared. paid arrears is stated in many of the letters to be very great in
The replies to the fifth query, deed, and property not only dis- very generally assert the distress trained for rent, but also for to be much greater on arable than taxes.
on grass.land; but many of them The distress of the present pe- observe, that of late the prices of riod will scarcely permit of a grass-land produce have so much doubt, were it proved by no other declined, that the difference procircumstance than the curious mises soon to be but small. In fact which occurs more than once general, it is asserted, that flock in the correspondence, that the farms have suffered much less mere occupation of farms,.free of than others; but they have begun allrent, is considered as a benefit, to feel it heavily, yet not equally with the Norfolk assertion, that with arable land. the year's rent of the county will be lost : such assertions may not
Seventh Query.-Circulation of be accurate, but they could not be
Paper. ventured, if the distress was not There is in the replies some very great: proved also by twenty difference of opinion upon this advertisements of sales for distress point: much mischief is noted of rent, in that one county. from the failure of country banks : Fourth Query.-Gentral State of of opinion, that agriculture suffers
many of the correspondents are Husbandry in the present Period.
much for want of a larger and By far the greater number of safer circulation ; and not a few the letters enter into considerable complain heavily of the deficiency details on the circuinstances which of paper being so extreme, that denote the present deplorable state they are forced to sell their proof the National Agriculture. ducts under a great depreciation Bankruptcies, seizures, execu
execu- of price, merely from the want of tions, imprisonments, and farmers notes to pay for them. The greatness of the inconvenience may be they are attended by minutes of easily conjectured from the case unoccupied farms, and notices to of Lincolnshire, where that dimi- quit. In two others, poor-rates nution is stated to amount to no are stated to be high and inless than two millions and a half creased. In one other, the fasterling; and in Wiltshire to vourable report combines with the 300,000l. But a few others are fact of fifty farmers being disof opinion, that the present trained for rent. In another case, amount of paper is adequate to the favourable report is confined the object of buying and selling to one or two parishes, with much at the present reduced prices. distress in their vicinity. In one
other, in which the poor are reEighth Query.--State of the La- presented as not suffering, it is bouring Poor, and Poor-Rates.
admitted that they have less emThe total number of letters ployment than heretofore.
In containing replies on the first of another case, employment is found these subjects, amounts to 273. by manufacturers ; and in one,
Two hundred and thirty-seven the reporter employs all the poor letters describe the state of the of his parish, on a principle of poor under various expressions, charity. denoting a want of employment, in terms more or less forcible.
Cottagers, Land, and Cows. One hundred and one of the The Board of Agriculture, on above letters, expatiating on the occasion of the scarcity in the degree of this want of employ- years 1795 and 1796, made variinent, describe the extreme dis- ous inquiries into the state of the tress resulting from it as amount- labouring poor ; which produced ing to great misery and wretched- some interesting memoirs on the ness, and in some cases to an best means of supporting them. alarming degree.
Among these, one from the Earl Eighteen letters describe the of Winchelsea, on a practice which state of the labouring poor as had been common in Rutlandshire neither better nor worse than for- for time immemorial, that of atmerly.
taching land to cottages, to enable Twenty-five letters give a fa- the poor to keep cows, was parvourable report, representing ticularly distinguished; and quetheir state as not in want of em- ries on the same subject were ployment, and therefore not dis- also satisfactorily answered by the tressed.
late lord Brownlow, and some These forty-three cases, other correspondents. In the much more favourable than the year 1800, the Secretary of the rest, require a few words of ex- Board was directed to employ the planation, as in fifteen of them summer in examining the effect there occur circumstances tending of a great number of parliamento shew, that whatever the pre- tary enclosures, as well in resent state may be, it will soon spect to the interest of cottagers, become not superior to that of as to those general beneficial rethe rest. In seven of these cases, sults well known to flow from
the measure of enclosing; and as sufficient to maintain her, the first it appeared upon that inquiry, thing he has thought of, has been, that many cottagers were deprived how he could save money enough of the benefit of cows, without to buy another; and I have alany necessity for such deprivation, most always had applications for the Board, in order the better to more land from those people so understand the question, dis- circumstanced. There are several patched a person in 1801, for the labourers in my neighbourhood, cxpress purpose of fully ascer- who have got on in that manner, taining it in the two counties of till they now keep three, and Rutland and Lincoln : the report some four cows, and yet are of that journey was one of the amongst the hardest working most interesting memoirs ever men in the country, and the best laid before the public; and proved labourers. I believe there are unquestionably the immense ad- from seventy to eighty labourers vantages resulting from the sys- upon my estate in Rutland, who tem, to the landlord, the farmer, keep from one to four cows each; the cottager, and the public. A and I have always heard that they few short extracts will fully sup
hard-working industrious port the assertion. Lord Win- men ; they manage their land chelsea thus expresses himself : well, and always pay their rent.
“ I am more and more con- “ In a village near me, where firmed in the opinion I have long there are a great number of lahad, that nothing is so beneficial, bourers who keep cows, the poor's both to the cottagers and to the rate is not at this time above sixland-owners, as their having land pence in the pound: the number to be occupied either for the of inhabitants 335. keeping of cows, or as gardens, « Some difficulties may occur, according to circumstances. in establishing the custom of la
By means of these advan- bourers keeping cows, in those tages, the labourers and their fa- parts of the country where no milies live better, and are conse- such custom has existed : wherequently more fit to endure labour ; ever it has, or does exist, it ought it makes them more contented, by all means to be encouraged, and more attached to their situa- and not suffered to fall into distion; and it gives them a sort of use, as has been the case to a independence, which makes them great degree in the Midland counset a higher value upon their cha- ties; one of the causes of which racter. In the neighbourhood in I apprehend to be, the dislike the which I live, men so circum- generality of farmers have to see. stanced, are almost always consi- ing the labourers rent any land. dered as the most to be depended Perhaps one of their reasons for upon and trusted : the possessing disliking this is, that the land, if a little property certainly gives a not occupied by the labourers, spur to industry; as a proof of would fall to their own share ; this, it has almost always hap- and another, I am afraid, is, that pened to me, that when a labourer they rather wish have the lahas obtained a cow, and land bourers more dependent upon