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them, for which reasons they are the average rise throughout Engalways desirous of hiring the house land.”—Earl of Winchelsea, Comand land occupied by a labuurer, munications, vol. i. p. 77. under pretence, that by that Mr. Crutchley, steward to the means the landlord will be secure Earl of Winchelsea, writes thus : of his rent, and that they will Wages are certainly not keep the house in repair. This raised by labourers having land. the agents of estates are too apt I am persuaded they are, in fact, to give into, as they find it much much lowered, if the wages were less trouble to meet six, than sixty the same; as a more industrious tenants at a rent-day, and by this set of men are employed in lameans avoid the being sometimes bour, and having more of the obliged to hear the wants and comforts of life, they are enabled coinplaints of the poor : all par- to work harder than common laties, therefore, join in persuading bourers; by this more work is the landlord, who, it is natural to done for the same wages. suppose (unless he has time and “The difference between a cotinclination to investigate the mat- tager and a cominon labourer is ter very closely), will agree to so much, that I am at a loss for a this their plan, from the manner comparison, except it be that of in which it comes recommended an opulent farmer to a cottager ; to him: and it is in this manner and where there are a number of that the labourers have been dis- them in any parish, the rates will possessed of their cow-pastures in be low, The public must be bevarious parts of the Midland coun- nefited by them, there being not a ties. The moment the farmer yard of waste land upon any of obtains his wish, he takes every their premises to be found."particle of the land to himself, Crutchley, Communications, vol. i. and re-lets the house to the la- p. 93. bourer, who by this means is ren- In a Memoir presented to the dered miserable, the poor's-rate Board, Lord Brownlow thus en increased, the value of the estate presses himself : to the land-owner , diminished, “ In many parishes the cotand the house suffered to go to tages are very generally let to decay; which, when once fallen, under-tenants, by the farmers ; the tenant will never rebuild, but but this is a practice universally the landlord must, at a consider- rejected on my estates. able expense.

Whoever travels To the cottager the contrary through the Midland counties, system affords the comforts of and will take the trouble of in- life; to the parish, it lowers the quiring, will generally receive for poor's-rates : a man who keeps a answer, that formerly there were cow has seldom been known to a great many cottagers who kept be troublesome to a parish; and cows, but that the land is now to the public it gives an increase thrown to the farmers ; and if he of hands, from infancy taught to inquires still further, he will find, work by their parents for their that in those parishes the poor's. advantage."-Lord Brownlow, rates have increased in an amazing Communications, vol. i. p. 85. degree, more than according to

In the following extract, it proportion of the poor having is Robert Barclay, Esq. who cows amounts to rather more than speaks :

half the whole, poor-rates are 3fd. It certainly is of great mo

in the pound. ment, to find some method to " In twelve parishes, where enable country labourers to live the proportion is less than half, more comfortably than they do at but not one-third, poor-rates are present, by placing them in a 9td, in the pound. situation where they may acquire In ten parishes, where the some property and subsistence, proportion is something under a when they become old, and un- fourth, poor-rates are 1s. Od. in able to perform hard work, and the pound. that they may not be so subjected “ In seven parishes, where the to the difficulties which they now proportion is but nearly one-sixth, undergo, in times of scarcity, poor- rates are 4s. 1 d. in the nor become a burthen upon the pound. parishes where they reside ; like- “ And in thirteen parishes, wise, that they may be enabled to where few or none have cows, keep cows for the nourishment of poor-rates are 58.' 11d. in the their children.-Barclay, Commu- pound. nications, vol. 1, p. 91.

The poor in this considerable The person employed by the district being able to maintain Board, and who examined above themselves without parish asforty parishes minutely, gives the sistance, by means of land, and following general result.

live-stock, and to do it at the “Seven hundred and fifty-three same time so much by their incottagers have amongst them 1194 dustry and sobriety, and consistcows, or, on an average, 14 and ently with an honest conduct, 1-13th cow each. Not one of clearly marked by the entire uppro

bation of this system by the farmers, THE PARISH! even in the present &c. their neighbours, is a circumscarcity: The system is as much stance which, well considered, approved of by the farmers as it does away a multitude of those is by the poor people themselves. objections and prejudices which They are declared to be the most we so often hear in conversahard-working, diligent, sober, and tion." industrious labourers who have In the replies to the Circular land and cows, and a numerous Letter of 1816, some notes occur meeting of farmers signed their upon this practice, of cottagers entire approbation of the systein. keeping land, which it is necesIn the above-mentioned parishes, sary here to recite. rates are, on an average, 171d. in At Shewart in Kent, it is rcthe pound; and, but for excep- marked by Mr. Curling, that a tions of some families who have late legal decision, determining not land, and of certain cases and that keeping a cow gained a setexpenses foreign to the inquiry, tlement, has deprived many cotthey would not be one penny in tagers of that comfort, as it is the pound.

properly called; an observation “In nine parishes, where the which, however, does not attach Vol. LVIII.

to

THEM RECEIVES ANY THING FROM

2 H

to cottagers having already a set- a letter received from Earl Browntlement.

low : The same mischievous result of " The subject of cottagers', that decision is noticed by a Lin- cows, is one in which I have ever colnshire correspondent, Mr. Par- taken a deep interest, and I kinson, who lamients the effects have invariably continued on my which have flowed from it.

estates, the system which my Mr. Gregory, of Harlaxton, in father had established, of attachthe same county, says, “I have ing land to cottages, to enable several cottages, with land suffi- the poor to keep cows: I have no cient to keep two cows annexed hesitation in saying, that very esto--them; the cottagers who oc- sential benefit has been derived cupy them live comfortably, and from this practice during the preare industrious, useful labourers, sent period of general distress, and appear to be contented with inasmuch as scarcely any poor their situation."

family so circumstanced, (not In the same county, Mr. Bar- more, I should think, than one in ker, steward to Sir Robert Shef- twenty at the most), has become field, has the remarkable decla- at all burthensome to the parish; ration, that there can scarcely be while, on the other hand, I have said to be any poor in that coun- reason to believe, that the labourtry, because they all have cows, ing poor have suffered great dis. by means of which they are in a tress, and have universally becomfortable state, and are very come objects of parochial relief in generally equally sober, honest, those places where no system of and industrious.

this sort has been established. Mr. Goulton, of the same coun- “I cannot help adding, that ty, also commends this system, in a moral point of view, the as productive of much comfort system of attaching a moderate amongst the poor in this period portion of land to cottages, apof distress.

pears to me highly worthy of enThe Rev. John Gwillim, of the

couragement; as the

poor

obtain same county :

" All that have thus, if I may use the expression, cows do well, so that we have a capital in their labour ; they scarcely a pauper."

have an incitement to good conThe Rev. John Shinglar, also duct, and acquire for the most of the same county :

part habits of decency and inthough their employment is les- dustry, which parochial relief has sened by the distress of the of late years so much tended to farmers, have not been burthen- eradicate from the minds of the some; and the reason is, their lower orders of the conimunity.” keeping cows."

It deserves notice, that although The Rev. Henry Basset, of the the cottage cow system is very insame county, reports the state of complete in Northumberland and the poor in his parish to be very Scotland, still the mere circumcomfortable, as they generally stances of a cow forming a part keep one or more cows.

of the wages of the labouring The following is the extract of poor, they are stated to have suf

fered

“The poor,

fered much less than has been pay scarcely any thing to the rates, almost general in England.” the accumulated weight falls on

the occupiers of land. Poor-Rates.

The complaints almost univer

sally made of the increase, heavy The letters, containing returns burthen, and most mischievous descriptive of poor-rates, are to

consequences to the industry of to the following purport:

the people, which result from Letters, in which the rates poor-rates, form a conspicuous

have increased since 1811 feature among the complaints of and 1812

147 the correspondents; insomuch, N. B. In 54 of these let- that many apprehensions are ex

ters, the proportional pressed of this system being perrise is given, and mitted to continue, and increase amounts on the aver- till it will absorb, in union with age to 43 per cent.

tithes, the whole rental of the Letters, in which the rates kingdom, leaving nothing more have decreased........ 29 to the landlords of it, than that of N. B. In 8 of these let. acting as trustees and managers

ters, the proportional for the benefit of others.
fall is given, and But the surprising circumstance
amounts on an aver-

of this result, is the increase beage to 28 per cent.

ing so general at the very period Letters, in which the rates in which, from the reduced price

are stationary, that is, of provisions, a directly contrary neither higher nor lower effect might have been expected. than 1811 and 1812..... 77 To find that rates have, risen,

while the principal object in the

253 support and nourishment of the But this table gives by no means poor has fallen in price above 100 a sufficient idea of the distress at per cent. seems to be extraordipresent arising from this heavy nary; nor could such a result tax; as in a variety of instances, have been found, but in an adthe farmers who lately paid to ministration liable to so many obthese rates, have been obliged to jections. We cannot be surprised give up their farms, and are ac- at a great number of these cortually become paupers themselves, respondents calling with anxiety receiving parochial allowances for regulations in a system which like other paupers; and this in- tends directly to the annihilation creased burthen in many other of all industry. parishes occurs, while farms are The extreme burthen arising unoccupied or run waste; and, from poor-rates, is a subject in the cases the most favourable, which can never have too much the burthen falls with increasing attention paid to it; and its naweight on the landlords. The ture can be well understood only letters contain many complaints, by reference to particular cases : that while the manufacturers, who thus, it deserves attention, that have occasioned the chief burthen, this tax has been collected in cer

2 H 2

tain

corn

tain districts of Wales, in kind, if Letters, to increase paper the expression be permitted, that circulation..

21 is, the substances necessary for Letters, to regulate poorthe support of the poor, taken in- rates, and especially by substead of the value in money ;-it jecting all property to bear may be presumed, through a want its fair share.

34 of circulating medium. The Letters, to raise the price of amount to which this tax can

corn, &c....

19 rise, may be understood by re- Letters, to establish ferring to the case of Halstead in lents...

7 Essex, where it rises to 5s. 6d. Letters, to repeal the Act for in the pound for one quarter of a warehousing foreign corn.

12 year, taken at one-fifth under the Letters, to lend Exchequer rack-rent; and at Coggeshall, in bills on good security....

2 the same county, much higher : Letters, to continue the Bank and in a parish near Sandwich in Restriction.

2 Kent, it amounts to 22s. per Letter, to encourage emiacre. Such facts require no com- gration..

1 ment. The abuses to which this Letters, to give the same faadministration is liable, may be vour to agriculture as to mafelt from the Somersetshire case, nufacture, as the principal of parish paupers becoming claim- remedy ; but many allude ants as creditors on the effects of less decisively to the same a bankrupt.

system ..

2 Letters, to reduce the interest Tithe. of money ....

3 The general complaints against Letters, to establish public the weight of tithe, would open

granaries, the corn to be too wide a field to permit more

purchased by Government. 8 than a solitary remark : it appears

Letters, to encourage distil-
leries

2 from the Correspondence, that 10s. in the pound rent, is taken Letters, Government to take

into their own hands the as a commutation in Dorsetshire; and 9s. an acre for grass-land

management of the poor.. 2

Letters, proposing to reguis paid in Berkshire.

late the cottages with the

addition of lands....... Ninth Query.-Remedies proposed.

no

Letter, to repeal the Game Letters, proposing the repeal

Laws

1 or reduction of taxes 205 Letters, to lessen the quanLetters, proposing the re- tity of land intended to be duction of rent .... 90

2 Letters, to cominute tithes . 47 Letter, to give a bounty on Letters, to prohibit, or lay the cultivation of hemp.. 1

heavy duties on the impor- Letter, to take off the tax on tation of all land produce. 58 draining-brick .....

1. Letters, to give a bounty on Letter, the Bank of England the export of corn......

to establish branch banks. 1

The

SOwn

31

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