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The great object of the Board cases heavily burthensome, and in these inquiries, has been to in some ruinous ; it must be evicollect facts. If it be asked, what dent, that the managernent of conclusions are to he drawn from these farms may probably be so these facts ? Such will, of course, very imperfect, as to occasion a suggest themselves with the great great defalcation in the produce est clearness to the members of of corn. Of the same tendency the legislature. With this expec- is another circumstance mentiontation before us, we cannot but ed in the letters, the preparation be surprised at the anxiety felt, for the next crop of wheat being and the apprehensions expressed extremely deficient. It may also by many of the ablest persons be observed, that among the cir(being magistrates of extensive cumstances mentioned in reply to jurisdictions) amongst the Cor- the Fourth Query, is that of a respondents, whose letters are very general neglect of all purthe basis of this general result : chased manures, together with but the Board cannot forbear a discharge of labourers formerly making one observation, as it employed, to an amount that must may be extremely important to considerably affect the future culthe future state of the country, tivation of the soil. These points, when it is considered that the if duly considered, may afford no tracts absolutely uncultivated are slight reason for apprehending of considerable extent, and that a a considerable declension in the great number of farms are thrown amount of future productions ; upon the landlords' hands in a and should such an effect arrive, period when it must of necessity it may come at a time in which be extremely inconvenient to at- the pressure will be more severely tempt their cultivation, in many felt.



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Biographical Account of Dr. Ben- In a letter which I had the plea*

jamin Rush, of Philudelphia; by sure to receive from Dr. Rush, David Hosack, M.D. F.R.S. &c. a short time before his death, and &c. of New York. From Dr. which was written upon his return Thomson's Annals of Philosophy, from a visit to the tomb of his vol. viii. No. 2.

ancestors, he thus expresses the R. RUSH was born Dec. 24, obligation he felt for the early

1745, on his father's estate, impressions of piety he had reabout 12 miles from the city of ceived from his parents :Philadelphia. His ancestors fol- “ I have acquired and received lowed William Penn from Eng- nothing from the world which I land to Pennsylvania, in the year prize so highly as the religious 1683. They chiefly belonged to principles 1 inherited from them; the society of Quakers, and were and I possess nothing that I value all, as well as his parents, distin- so much as the innocence and puguished for the industry, the vir- rity of their characters." tue, and the piety, characteristic But this was not the only source of their sect. His grandfather, of that virtue and religion for James Rush, whose occupation which he was so eminently distinwas that of a gunsmith, resided guished. His mother, as if inon his estate near Philadelphia, fluenced with a presentiment of and died in the year 1727. His the future destinies of her son, son John, the father of Dr. Rush, resolved to give him the advaninherited both his trade and his tages of the best education which farm, and was equally distinguish- our country then afforded. For ed for his industry and ingenuity. this purpose he was sent, at the He died while his son Benjamin early age of eight or nine years, was yet young, but left him to to the West Nottingham Gramthe care of an excellent and pious mar School, and placed under the mother, who took an active inte- care of his maternal uncle, the rest in his education and welfare. Rev. Dr. Samuel Finley, an excellent scholar and an eminent of Bachelor of Arts in the autumn teacher, and whose talents and of 1760, at the early age of 15. learning afterwards elevated him The next succeeding six years of to the Presidency of the College his life were devoted to the study of Princeton. At this school young of medicine, under the direction Rush remained five years, for the of Dr. John Redman, at that time purpose of acquiring a knowledge an eminent practitioner in the of the Greek and Latin languages, city of Philadelphia.' Upon comand other branches necessary to mencing the study of medicine, qualify him, as preparatory for a the writings of Hippocrates were collegiate course of study. But amongst the very first works which under the tuition and guidance of attracted his attention; and as an Dr. Finley, he was not only in- evidence of the early impression structed in classical literature ; he they made upon his mind, and of also acquired what was of no less the attachment he had formed to importance, and which character- them, let it be remembered that ized him through life--a habit of Dr. Rush, when a student of mestudy and observation, a rever- dicine, translated the aphorisms ence for the Christian religion, of Hippocrates from the Greek and the habitual performance of into his vernacular tongue, in the the duties it inculcates ; for his 17th year of his age. From this accomplished and pious instruc- early exercise he prebably derived tor not only regarded the tempo- that talent of investigation, that ral, but the spiritual, welfare of spirit of inquiry, and those extenthose committed to his care. sive views of the nature and


At the age of 14, after com- causes of disease, which give value pleting his course of classical to his writings, and have added studies, he was removed to the important benefits to the science College of Princeton, then under of medicine. The same mode of the superintendance of President acquiring knowledge which was Davies, one of the most eloquent recommended by Mr. Locke, with preachers and learned divines our the very manner of his common. country has produced.

place book, was also early adoptAt College, our pupil not only ed by Dr. Rush, and was daily performed his duties with his continued to the last of his life. usual attention and success, but To his records, made in 1762, we he became distinguished for his are at this day indebted for many talents, his uncommon progress important facts illustrative of the in his studies, and especially for yellow fever, which prevailed in, his eloquence in public speaking. and desolated the city of PhilaFor this latter acquirement he was delphia, in that memorable year. doubtless indebted to the example Even in reading, it was the pracset before him by President Da. tice of Dr. Rush, and for which vies, whose talents as a pulpit he was first indebted to his friend orator were universally acknow. Dr. Franklin, to mark with a pen ledged, and were frequently the or pencil any important fact, or theme of his pupil's admiration. any peculiar expression, remarkDr. Rush received the degree able either for its strength or its

elegance. elegance. Like Gibbon, “He which he soon became eminently investigated with his pen always distinguished. in his hand ;” believing, with an Few men have entered the proancient classic, “ that to study fession in any age or country with without a pen is to dream :- more numerous qualifications as “ Studium sine calamo, som- a physician than those possessed nium.”

by Dr. Rush. His gentleness of Having with great fidelity coin- manner, his sympathy with the pleted his course of medical studies distressed, his kindness to the under Dr. Redman, he embarked poor, his varied and extensive for Europe, and passed two years erudition, his professional acat the University of Edinburgh, quirements, and his faithful atattending the lectures of those tention to the sick, all united in celebrated professors, Dr. Monro, procuring for him the esteem, the Dr. Gregory, Dr. Cullen, and Dr. respect, and the confidence of his Black.

fellow-citizens, and thereby inIn the spring of 1768, after de- troducing him to an extensive fending an inaugural dissertation and lucrative practice. “ De Coctione Ciborum in Ven- It is abserved, as an evidence of triculo," he received the degree of the diligence and fidelity with Doctor of Medicine. In that ex- which Dr. Rush devoted himself ercise which was written with to his medical studies, during the classical purity and elegance, it six years he had been the pupil of was the object of Dr. Rush to il- Dr. Redman, that he absented lustrate by experiment an opinion himself from his business but two that had been expressed by Dr. days in the whole of that period Cullen, that the aliment, in a few of time. I believe it may also be hours after being received into said, that from the time he comthe stomach, undergoes the ace- menced the practice of medicine tous fermentation. This fact he to the termination of his long established by three different ex- and valuable life, except when periments made upon himself; confined by sickness, or occupied experiments which a mind less by business of a public nature, he ardent in the pursuit of truth never absented himself from the would readily have declined. city of Philadelphia, nor omitted

From Edinburgh Dr. Rush the performance of his professionproceeded to London, where, in al duties a single day. It is also attendance upon hospitals of that stated that during the thirty years city, the lectures of its celebrated of his attendance as a physician to teachers, and the society of the the Pennsylvania hospital, such learned, he made many accessions was his punctuality, his love of to the stock of knowledge he had order, and his sense of duty, that already acquired.

he not only made his daily visit In the spring of 1769, after vi- to that institution, but was never siting Paris, he returned to his absent ten minutes after the apnative country, and immediately pointed hour of prescribing. commenced the practice of physic In a few months after his estabin the city of Philadelphia, in lishment in Philadelphia, Dr.


Rush was elected a Professor in exampled growth of the Medical the Medical School, which had School of Philadelphia, and the then been recently established consequent diffusion of medical by the laudable exertions of Dr. learning, bear ample testimony ; Shippen, Dr. Kuhn, Dr. Morgan, for, with all due respect to the and Dr. Bond. For this station distinguished talents with which his talents and education peculiar- the other Professorships of that ly qualified him. As in the case University have hitherto been, of Boerhaave, such too had been and still continue to be filled, it the attention bestowed by Dr. will be admitted that to the learnRush upon every branch of medi- ing, the abilities, and the elocine, that he was equally prepared quence of Dr. Rush, itowes much to fill any department in which of that celebrity and elevation to his services might be required. which it has attained. What

The Professorships of Anatomy, Boerhaave was to the Medical the Theory and Practice of Phy- School of Leyden, or Dr. Cullen sic, Clinical Medicine, and the 'to that of Edinburgh, Dr. Rush Materia Medica, being already was to the University of Pennsyloccupied, he was placed in the vania. chair of Chemistry, which he fill- But Dr. Rush did not confine ed in such manner as immediately his attention and pursuits either to attract the attention of all who to the practice of medicine, or to heard him, not only to the branch the duties of his Professorship: he taught, but to the learning, his ardent mind did not permit the abilities, and eloquence of the him to be an inactive spectator of teacher.

those important public events In the year 1789 Dr. Rush was which occurred in the early period elected the successor of Dr. Mor- of his life. gan, to the chair of the Theory The American revolution; the and Practice of Physic. In 1791, independence of his country; the upon an union being effected be establishment of a new constitutween the College of Philadelphia tion of government for the Uniand the University of Pennsylva- ted States, and the amelioration of nia, he was appointed to the Pro- the constitution of his own partifessorship of the Institutes of Me- cular state, all successively intedicine and Clinical Practice; and rested his feelings, and induced in 1805, upon the resignation of him to take an active concern in the learned and venerable Dr. the scenes that were passing. Kuhn, he was chosen to the uni- He held a seat in the celebrated ted Professorships of the Theory Congress of 1776, as a represenand Practice of Physic and of tative of the state of PennsylvaClinical Medicine, which he held nia, and subscribed the ever-methe remainder of his life. To the morable instrument of American success with which these several independence. In 1797 he was branches of medicine were taught appointed Physician General of by Dr. Rush, the popularity of the Military Hospital for the his lectures, the yearly increase of Middle Department; and in the the number of his pupils, the un- year 1787 he received the addi

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