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tional gratification and evidence of all his inquiries. He has well of his country's confidence in his observed, that medicine without talents, his integrity, and his pa- principles is a humble art and a triotism, by being chosen a mem- degrading occupation : but, diber of the State Convention for rected by principles,-the only the adoption of the Federal Con- sure guide to a safe and successstitution.
ful practice,-it imparts the highThese great events being ac- est elevation to the intellectual complished, Dr. Rush gradually and moral character of man. retired from political life, resolv- But the high professional chaed to dedicate the remainder of racter and attainments of Dr. his days to the practice of his pro- Rush did not alone display themfession, the performance of his selves in his skill as a physician, collegiate duties, and the publica- or his abilities as a teacher; he tion of those doctrines and prin- was equally distinguished as a ciples in medicine which he con- writer and an author. sidered calculated to advance the The present occasion does not interests of his favourite science, allow me to recite even the nuor to diminish the evils of human merous subjects of his medical life. In a letter which I received publications ; much less does it from him as early as the year afford an opportunity to review 1794, he expresses this determi- the opinions they contain. I must nation, adding, “I have lately however, observe generaliy, that become a mere spectator of all the numerous faets and principublic events." And in a con- ples which the writings of Dr. versation on this subject, during Rush contain, the doctrines they the last two years of his life, he inculcate relative to the nature expressed to me the high gratifi- and causes of disease, and the imcation which he enjoyed in his provements they have introduced medical studies and pursuits, and into the practice of medicine, rehis regret that he had not at a commend them to an attentive pemuch earlier period withdrawn rusal and study, while the perspihis attention from all other sub- cuity and elegance of the style in jects, and bestowed it exclusively which they are written give them upon his profession.
an additional claim to attention as Such was the attachment of Dr. among the finest models of comRush to his profession, that, position. The same remarks are speaking of his approaching dis- equally applicable to the epistosolution, he remarks," when lary style of Dr. Rush, and that of that time shall come, I shall re- bis conversation ; in both of which linquish many attractions to life, he eminently excelled. and among them a pleasure which Mr. Fox declared in the British to me has no equal in human pur- House of Commons that he had suits ; I mean that which I de- learned more from Mr. Burke's rive froin studying, teaching, and conversation than from all the practising medicine." But he books he had ever read. It may loved it as a science; principles also be served of th conversa in melicine were the great objects tion of Dr. Rush, that such were
the riches of his mind; such was The great moralist* justly obthe active employment of all his serves, that “to temperance every faculties ; so constant was his ha- day is bright, and every hour is bit of giving expression to his propitious to diligence.” The exthoughts in an extensive corres- treme temperance of Dr. Rush in pondence, in the preparation of like manner enabled him to keep his public discourses, and in his his mind in continual employdaily intercourse with the world, ment, thereby "setting at defithat few persons ever left his so- ance the morning mist and the ciety without receiving instruc- evening damp—the blasts of the tion, and expressing their aston- east, and theclouds of the south.”+ ishment at the perpetual stream He knew not that “ lethargy of of eloquence in which his thoughts indolence” that follows the inordiwere communicated.
nále gratifications of the table. It has frequently been the sub- His ciesto did not consist in inject of surprise that amidst the dulgence upon the bed or in the numerous avocations of Dr. Rush, armed chair, to recover those as a practitioner and a teacher of powers which had been paralysed medicine, that he found leisure or suspended by an excessive for the composition and the pub- meal, or the intemperate use of lication of the numerous medical vinous or spirituous drinks. and literary works which have Dr. Johnson, during his tour been the production of his pen. to the Hebrides, when fatigued by
Although Dr. Rush possessed his journey, retired to his chamby nature an active and discrimi- her, and wrote his celebrated nating mind, in which were blend- Latin ode addressed to Mrs. ed great quickness of perception, Thrale. Dr. Rush, in like manand a retentive memory; although ner, after the fatigues of profeshe enjoyed the benefits of an ex- sional duty, refreshed his mind by cellent preliminary and profes. the perusal of some favourite sional education, it was only by poet, some work of taste, some habits of uncommon industry, volume of travels, biography, or punctuality in the performance of history. These were the pillows all his engagements, the strictest
on which he snught repose. temperance and regularity in his But the virtues of the heart, like mode of life, that enabled him to the faculties of his mind, were accomplish so much in his pro- also in continued exercise for the fession, and to contribute so large- benefit of his fellow men ; while ly to the medical literature of his the numerous humane, charitable, country. Dr. Rush, like most and religious associations, which men who have extended the boun- do honour to the city of Philadeldaries of any department of hu- phia, bear testimony to the phiman knowledge; who have con- lanthropy and piety which anitributed to the improvement of mated the bosom of their departed any art or science, was in habits benefactor, let it also be rememof early rising, by which he al- bered that, as with the good Saways secured what Gibbon has well denominated, “ the sacred Dr. Johnson. + Boswell. Boswell. portion of the day."
maritan, intercourse whaler,
maritan, the 'poor were the ob- Pacific ocean, and so were conjects of his peculiar care; and sidered by Captain Cook. that in the latter and more pros- When Captain Cook, in 1778, perous years of his life, one- discovered the Sandwich islands, seventh of his income was ex- Tereoboo was king of Owhyhee ; pended upon the children of af- Teteree, of Moratai ; and PedeoAiction and want. Dr. Boerhaave ranne of Waoho, and the islands said of the poor, that they were to the leeward. Tamaahmaah, his best patients, because God was the present kiny, is known in their paymaster.
Cook's voyage under the name of Let it also be recorded, that Maiha-maiha, and was present at the last act of Dr. Rush was an the death of that illustrious naviact of charity, and that the last gator : he was cnly brother to expression which fell from his Tereoboo. lips was an injunction to his son, From the departure of the Re“Be indulgent to the poor." solution till the year 1787, no
“Vale egregium academiæ de- ship visited these islands. In cus! tuum nomen mecum sem- 1788, Captain Douglas, in the per durabit ; et laudes et honores Iphiginia, touched at Owhyhee. tui in æternum manebunt.'' Tamaahmaah at this time having
These words were addressed by obtained the assistance of Boyd, Dr. Rush, upon his taking leave a ship carpenter, built a small of the University of Edinburgh, tender, and it was at this period to his particular friend and pre- that Young and Davis, the perceptor, Dr. Cullen.
sons subsequently noticed, became resident at Owhyhee. After the arrival of Captain Vancouver,
the king, with the assistance of The King of the Sundwich Islands; the ships carpenters, constructed
from Campbell's Voyage round this first decked vessel ; and in the World.
order to ensure the good-will of
the English, a formal surrender The sudden revolution produced of the sovereignty of these islands in ihe customs of the natives of was made by the king, reserving, the Sandwich islands, from their however, freedom in all matters intercourse with the Europeans, of religion, internal governinent, gives a peculiar interest to any and domestic econoniy. Tamaahrecent accounts of them, from maah, after various successes, which we may be enabled to trace had in 1810 reduced all the islands the progress of society in one of in this group under his domiits earliest stages. These islands, nions, except Atooi and Onehooi. from their situation, midway be. Scarcely 30 years have elapsed tween the continents of Asia and since the period of the discovery America, the fertility of their of these islands; and we already soil, and the natural talents and find a chief who has made rapid industry of the natives, are ren- progress towards civilization, and dered by far the most interesti who on all occasions has availed of the recent discoveries in the himself of every opportunity of intercourse with the Europeans, Canton, he was enticed from his surrounded by artificers, with ship by the commander of an guards regularly trained to the American vessel, bound to the use of fire-arms, and a navy of north-west coast of America, on 60 sail of decked vessels, built on which coast the vessel was afterthe island ; almost every vessel wards wrecked.
Before they that navigates the Pacific, finds reached Kodiak, his feet becoming shelter, provisions, or trade in mortified from the extreme cold, his harbour. Much is to be as- were both amputated at Kodiak, cribed to the natural ingenuity by a Russian surgeon ; here he and unwearied industry of the remained some time, employed to inhabitants; but added to this, teach the children of the natives they have received all the benefits English. In the hope, however, which are conferred on rising of meeting with American vessels communities, by the appearance at the Sandwich islands, in which of their chief, Tamaahmaah, he might return home, he was
one of those great men who go induced to leave Kodiak, in the before their age.”
Neva (the ship commanded by The death of Captain Cook, Captain Lisianski, in Captain and the frequent murders by the Krusenstern's expedition.) From natives of the subsequent navi- Kodink they proceeded to the gators, gave such ideas of the island of Wahoo, being the one savage nature of the inhabitants, of the Sandwich islands now that for many years few ships chosen by Tamaahmaah for his ventured to touch there. But residence. Campbell's appearsince the present chief has esta-, ance having excited the com- , blished his power, his conduct passion of the queen, he was has been marked with such jus- invited to reside in her house, tice, that strangers are as safe in and being recommended by the his ports as in those of any other Russian captain to the king, was nation. He is known in this employed as a sail-maker in the country from the accounts of royal arsenal. After remaining Turnbull, Lisianski, and Langs- in the king's establishment for dorf, and much interest has been several months, he removed to excited respecting him; but none the house of Isaac Davis, a Welchof these navigators ever saw him. man, who had been on the island From volume recently pub-, about twenty years. Soon afterlished, " A Voyage round the wards a tract of land of about World, by Archibald Campbell,” sixty acres, on which fifteen fawe have some further account of milies residerl, was granted to Tamaahmaah, and from one who, him by the king. After having by residing with hiin, had every overhauled all the sails of the opportunity of personal observa- fleet, he managed to construct a tion. Campbell was a native of loom, and began to weave sail a village near Glasgow, and hav., cloth; and being by trade a ing escaped from an English: weaver, he succeeded in making man of war, entered himself on, some before he quitted the island. board an Indiaman. Whilst. at But in July 1910, a South-Sea
whaler, bound for England, hav- tions of life, are possessed of ing touched there, the desire of more intelligence or information, revisiting his native country, and and with the advantages common the hopes that the wound in his to his countrymen, he seems to legs (which had never healed have neglected no means of imsince amputation) might be cured, provement.” The greater portion he was tempted to abandon his of this book is occupied in a narpossessions, and leave his situa- rative of what occurred during tion of ease, for one which in his Campbell's stay at the Sandwich helpless situation must at least islands, and a description of them be precarious. On applying to and of the manners of the inhaTamaahinaah for permission to bitants. This is by far the most depart, he said, " if his belly interesting ; and we shall contold him to go, he was at liberty clude this article by a few exto do so." sending by hiin his tracts from that part of it. compliments to King George ; « The king's residence is built expressing, however, much asto- close on the shore, and is disnishment at hearing, that Camp- tinguished by the British colours, bell, together with many thou- and a battery of sixteen guns besands of others, his subjects, had longing to his ship, the “ Lilly never seen their sovereign. By Bird,” then unrigged in the harthe captain of the ship he sent a hour ; there was also a guardpresent to the king, of a feather house and powder-magazine, and cloak, accompanied by a letter, two extensive store-houses built which he dictated, reminding him of stone for the reception of Euof Captain Vancouver's promise ropean goods. His mode of life of sending a man of war, and re- is very simple, breakfasting at gretting that the distance pre- eight, dining at noon, and supping vented his assisting him in his at sun-set. His principal chiefs
From Wahoo, Campbell are always about his person. On went to Rio Janeiro, and after a concluding his meal he drinks residence there of two years, re: half a glass of rum, but the bottle turned to Scotland. On his return is immediately taken away, the he procured admission to the in- liquor being interdicted to the firmary, at Edinburgh; but was guests. At one period, it is said, at length discharged as incurable. he was much addicted to the use He was noticed by Mr. Smith on of spirits, but foreseeing the baneboard one of the steam boats on ful effects arising from indulging the Clyde, playing on the violin in their use, he made a resolution for the amusement of the steerage to abstain from them, and which passengers. Mr. Sinith took him he has since religiously mainhome, and struck with the intel- tained. The greatest respect is ligent manner and the interesting paid to his person by all: even nature of the incidents he related, when his meat and drink passes was induced to become the editor by, his subjects uncover themof his narration, and to publish selves, and stoop down by way of it for his benefit.
reverence. The white people, Mr. Smith, “ in the same situa. however, on the island, are not