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required to pay these honours. them were convicts who had esDavis and Young, the two per- caped from New South Wales. sons before noticed, are much Many inducements are held outfavoured by the king, and are to sailors to remain ; if they conraised to the rank of chiefs, and duct themselves with propriety, have extensive grants of land. they rank as chiefs, and are at all The lands are in the highest state events certain of being mainof cultivation. The island of tained, as the chiefs are always Wahoo, though only secondary anxious to have white men about in size, is one of the most im- them. Many artificers are in the portant on account of its fertility, king's employ; all that are inand because it possesses the only dustrious are well rewarded by secure harbour to be met with in him; many, however, are idle the group. During the thirteen and dissolute, particularly the months Campbell was at Wahoo, convicts; the latter have introabout twelve ships touched there. duced distillation into the island, The navy, in 1809, was about and give themselves up to drinksixty vessels : these were then all ing. Davis, a Welchman, who hauled on shore, and preserved was very industrious, so puzzled with great care, it being time of the natives, that they could only peace : these were chiefly sloops account for his singularity by and schooners under forty tons, supposing him one of their own built by native carpenters under countrymen, who had gone

to the direction of Boyd. The “ Lilly Cahiete, or England, and after Bird" is, however, about two his death had returned to his hundred tons; but this vessel was native land. Most of the whites bought from the Americans. In- have married native women, by dian corn and many garden re- whom they have families, but getables are cultivated with suc- no attention is paid by them to cess ;

and in a short time the their education or religious inbreed of cattle, horses, and sheep, struction. The chiefs about the left there by Captain Vancouver, king have each a separate office will be abundant. The king has assigned to him--as treasurer, &c. several horses, and is fond of The king is entirely absolute. riding. Many individuals have Though the people are under large flocks of sheep: and in the dominion of some chief, for some of the large islands there whom they work or cultivate the are considerable herds of wild ground, and by whom they are cattle. The chiefs are proprie- supported in old age, they are by tors of the soil, and let the land' no means to be considered as in small farms to the lower slaves attached to the soil, but orders, who pay rent in kind; are at liberty to change masters the chiefs pay a rent and other when they think fit. The prinsubsidies to the sovereign. There cipal duty of the executive is enwere at Wahoo at one time, during trusted to the priests, and by our author's stay, about sixty them the revenue is collected and whites, chiefly English, left by the laws enforced. They believe American vessels; severalamongst in a future state, when they will


be rewarded or punished for their with muskets and bayonets : in conduct in this world. There were their exercises, rapidity is more no missionaries on the islands. regarded than precision. All the

“ The use of ava is now giving natives are trained to arms, and way to that of ardent spirits ; are bound to attend the king's they are very fond of smoking person in his wars. Although he tobacco, which grows in great is anxious to induce white people abundance. Many of the natives to remain, no encouragement is who are employed as carpenters, given to deserters; nur are those coopers, blacksmiths, and tailors, who wish to depart detained. In do tlieir work as skilfully as Eu- 1809, says Campbell, the king ropeans; and at the king's forge seemed about 50, stout and well none but natives were employed. made; the expression of his counAll dealings are conducted by tenance agreeable; mild and affabarter; they know, however, the ble in his manners, and appeared value of dollars, and take them to possess great warmth of feelin exchange ; but these are rarely ing; and though a conqueror, is brought out again into circula- very popular amongst his subjects : tion: vessels are supplied with he has amassed by trade a confresh provisions, live-stock, salt, siderable store of goods, and treaand other articles of out-fit, sure in dollars. ile encourages giving, in return, fire-arms and his subjects to make voyages in allother European articles. Sandal the ships which touch at the wood, pearls, and mother of pearl, island : and many have been to the procluce of these islands, are China, and even to the United frequently purchased for the China States, and has amongst the namarket. It is probable that the tives many good sailors. His reRussians will in future derive. sidence was built in the European from hence the principal supplies style. He had two wives, and for their settlements on the Fox was about to take a third. islands, and north-west coast of We shall conclude our extracts America, and even Kamschatka. from this book, with the followWhilst the author was with the ing description of the author's Russians, it seems it was in con- journey to take possession of his templation to establish a settle- farm. " We passed by foot paths mentat one of these islands, though winding through an extensive this project was afterwards aban- and fertile plain, the whole of doned; and it is obvious that at which is in the highest state of no very distant period, these cultivation; every stream was islands must become objects of carefully embanked to supply great importance to America. water for the taro beds; where Provisions, from the frequent there was no water, the land was arrival of ships, are not cheap. under crops of, yams and sweet

“ There is no regnlar armed potatoes ; the roads and numerous force, except about tifty men. of houses are shaded by cocoa-nut the guard, who constantly do duty trees, and the sides of the mounabout the king's residence; twenty tains covered with words to a mounting guard each day, armed great height; we halted two or



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three times, and were treated by against him, and transmitted to the natives with the utmost hos- France; and many officers of dispitality. Fifteen persons with tinction resigned their appointtheir families resided on my farm, ments. He, nevertheless, perseand they cultivated the ground vered in his injudicious system of as my servants; there were three discipline, with an unremitting houses on the property, but I strictness, unmindful of the refound it more agreeable to live presentations of some officers who with one of my neighbours, and were in his confidence, and totally get what I wanted from my own blind to the dangers he was thus land."

foolishly drawing on himself, till it was too late to avert them.

Though he must have been sensiAuthentic Anecdotes of the Life of ble that he had lost the affections Major-General Claude Martine. of the army, yet he seemed not

aware of the consequences to General Martine, a

which that loss might lead. The well known in India, both by his troops were so dissatisfied, that eccentricity and his riches, was when the English army laid siege the son of a silk-manufacturer at to Pondicherry, great numbers Lyons in France, in which city he deserted from the garrison ; and was born, and in which some of at last his own body-guard went his father's family still reside. over in a body to the enemy, car

At an early age he expressed a rying their herses, arms, &c. dislike to follow his father's in- along with them. This corps was active profession, and determined well received by the English comto choose one more congenial to manders, by whom Martine was his disposition. He accordingly soon noticed for the spirit and enlisted in the French army, and ability which he displayed on many soon distinguished himself so occasions. On the return of the much, that he was removed from British army to Madras, after the infantry to the cavalry, and the surrender of Pondicherry, afterwards appointed a trooper in Martine obtained perinission of Count Lally's body-guard, a small the Madras government to raise corps of select men, that was a company of Chasseurs from formed for the purpose of accom- among the French prisoners, of panying that officer to Pondicher- whom he got the command, with ry, of which place he had then the rank of ensign in the Combeen appointed governor.

pany's service. Soon after Lally's arrival at A few weeks after he received Pondicherry, he began to exercise this appointment, he was ordered his power with such oppressive to proceed with his Chasseurs to severity, and to enforce the disci- Bengal. On their passage, the pline of the army with such a ri- ship in which they were embarked gid minuteness, that his conduct sprung a leak, and Martine, by excited the disgust and detestation great fortitude and perseverance, of the whole settlement. Several but with much

saved remonstrances were drawn up himself and some of his men, in Vol. LVIII.

& I


one of the ship's boats. The ship of his being permitted to retain foundered off Point Guadawar, his rank, and to continue in the the promontory which separates service of the Nabob Vizir. This the coast of Coromandel from proposal was complied with; and that of Orissa ; and thence Mar- from this his subsequent prostine and his men proceeded in the perity commenced. ship's boat to Calcutta, which He was

now admitted into place they reached, after sur- the confidence of the Vizir ; and mounting many dangers and great in the different changes which hardships.

took place in the councils of his He was received with much Highness, as well as in the various kindness by the Bengal govern- negociations with the English goment, and appointed a cornet of vernment, he was his secret adcavalry, in which service he con- viser ; he seldom however aptinued until he had risen by re- peared at the Durbar; and he gular succession to the rank of never held any ostensible situacaptain in the line, when he got tion in the administration of the a company of infantry.

Vizir's government; but there is Shortly after this promotion, reason to believe, that few meahe was employed by government sures of importance were adopted to survey the north-east districts without his advice being preof Bengal, being an able drafts- viously taken. Hence his influman, and in every respect well ence at the court of Lucknow bequalified for that purpose. When came very considerable, not only he had completed his journey to with the Vizir, but with his ma the north-east district, he was nisters, and that influence was sent to Oude, in order to assist in the source of the immense fortune surveying that province. While which he amassed. Besides employed in this service, he re- large salary with extensive persided chiefly at Lucknow, where quisites annexed to it, he used to he amused himself in showing his receive from the Nabob frequent ingenuity in several branches of presents of considerable value ; mechanics, and his skill in gun- and when any of the Nabob's minery, which gave the Nabob Vizir nisters, or other men of conseSujah-ud-Dowlah'so high a no- quence about the court, had any tion of the value of his services, particular measure to carry with that he solicited and obtained per- their master, or personal favour mission from the Governor and to ask of him, it was their custom council of Calcutta, to appoint to go privately to Martine, and bim superintendant of his artil- obtain his interest in their cause, lery park and arsenal. Martine which, if he was at times induced was so well satisfied with his ap- to refuse, he took due care to pointment, and with his prospects procure for them ultimately, by in the service of the Nabob Vizir, other means and with adequate that he proposed to the Governor compensation and council, to relinquish his During the reign of Asoph-udpay and allowances in the Com- Dowlah, father of the present pany's service, on the condition Vizir, Martine made a consider

able 2 1 2


able sum of money by encoura- But the principal object of his amging that prince's taste for the bition, and wish of his heart, productions of Europe, with which seems to have been to amass imhe undertook to supply him. An- mense treasures in order to graother mode by which he realized tify himself by the possession of money was, by establishing an them while he lived ; and by beextensive credit with the shroffs, queathing almost the whole of or bankers, in Oude, and the ad- them on his death, to the support jacent provinces; so that no pub- of pious institutions, and public lic loan could be made without his charities, to leave behind him the having a share in it. The extra- reputation of a philanthropist. ordinary degree of favour and Meanwhile every sensible reader credit which he thus acquired in will judge of his title to that the Vizir's dominions, induced all name, not from the bequests of descriptions of people to repose his will, but from the actions of in him such an implicit confidence, his life. that in times of public commotion, After having lived twenty-five they flocked to him from all quar- years at Lucknow, he had attainters, to deposit their moveable ed by regular succession the rank property, which on the condition of Lieutenant-Colonel in the of paying him twelve per cent. on Company's service. its full value, he engaged to ge- At the commencement of the cure and return them on demand. war with Tippoo Sultan in 1790, This alone must have been a he presented the Company, at his source of immense profit, in a private expense, with a number country where, for upwards of of fine horses, sufficient to mount twenty years of his residence in å troop of cavalry. He was soon it, personal property was 90 often afterwards promoted to the rank exposed to danger.

of Colonel in the Company's army, The vast riches which he ac- which object the present of horses cumulated by these various and was obviously designed to obtain. singular modes, he does not ap- In 1796, when the Company's pear to have laid out with a very officers received brevet rank from generous spirit. He is said, in- his Majesty, Martine was included deed, to have been hospitable to in the promotion of colonels to the English gentlemen who re- the rank of Major-General: sided at Lucknow, but bis table Some years before this he had was little calculated to invite his finished a spacious dwelling-house acquaintance to it, either by the on the banks of the river Goomelegance of the entertainment, or tee, in the building of which he the conviviality that presided at had long been employed.

This it. Very few instances have come curious edifice is constructed ento our knowledge of his private tirely of stone, except the doors bounty and benevolence. He is and window-frames. The ceilings said to have assisted his family at of the apartments are formed of Lyons, by occasionally remitting elliptic arches, and the floors made small sums of money; and by his of stucco. The basement-story will he has left thein 25,0001. comprises two caves or recesses


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