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within the banks of the river, and highness that such an experiment level with its surface when at its would be attended with considerlowest decrease. In these caves able hazard to the lives of the he generally lived in the hot sea- men ; upon which the Vizir reson, and continued in them until plied, “Give yourself no concern the commencement of the rainy about thatbe you so good as season, when the increase of the to make a balloon." river obliged him to remove. He periment, however, was never then ascended another story, to tried. apartments fitted up in the form Besides his house at Lucknow, of a grotto; and when the further he had a beautiful villa about fifty rise of the river brought its sur- miles distant, situated on a high face on a level with these, he pro- bank of the Ganges, and surceeded up to the third story, as a rounded by a domain of almost ground-floor, which overlooked eight miles in circunference, the river when at its greatest somewhat resembling an English height. On the next story above park. Here he used occasionally that, a handsome saloon, raised to retire in the hot season. on arcades, projecting over the In the latter part of his life he river, formed his habitation in laid out a large sum of money in the spring and winter seasons. constructing a gothic castle, which By this ingenious contrivance he he did not live to finish. Beneath preserved a moderate and equal the ramparts of this castle he temperature in his house at all built casemates, secured by iron seasons: on the attic story he had doors, and gratings thick) a museum, well supplied with va- wrought. The lodgments with rious curiosities, and over the the walls are arched and barre whole, he erected an observatory, and their roofs completely bon which he furnished with the best proof. The castle is surroun astronomical instruments. Ad- by a wide and deer fort joining to the house there is a on the outer sid garden, not laid out with taste, and a regular but well filled with a variety of that the place i

th fine trees, shrubs, and flowers, tected to resist together with all sorts of vegeta- Asiatic power bles. In his artillery-yard, which he built a s was situated at some distance in which he from his house, he erected a on a marble steam-engine, which had been is engraved sent to him from England; and tiun, writt here he used to amuse himself in months be making different experiments with Here lie air-balloons. After he had ex- was born hibited to some acquaintances his He came first balloon, the Vizir Asoph-ud- and died Dou lah requested he would pre- Durin pare one large enough to carry his life twenty men. Martine told his with t)

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disliking to undergo the usual to form in his bladder ; and as he surgical operation for that com- did not choose to try the wire a plaint, his ingenuity suggested to second time, these continued to him a method of reducing the increase until the end of the year stone, so curious in itself, and so

1800, when they occasioned his difficult in its execution, that we death. should have doubted the fict, Though he lived so long among were it not attested by the most the English, he acquired but an positive evidence of several gen- imperfect knowledge of our lantlemen of the first respectability. guage ; notwithstanding this he He took a very fine stout wire of chose to write his will in Enabout a foot long, one end of glish, which is altogether a very which he cut in the manner of a singular production. It is too file. The wire thus prepared he long for insertion, but the followintroduced by a catheter, through ing are its principal bequests.the urethra, into the bottom of The amount of his fortune was the bladder, where the stone was thirty-three lacs of rupees, or seated. When he found the wire 330,000l. sterling. To his relastruck the stone, he gently work- tions at Lyons, he bequeathed ed the wire up and down, so as to 25,0001. as we have already nogive it the effect of a file ; and ticed ; and he left the same sum this he continued to do for four to the municipality of that city, or five minutes at a time, until for the purpose of appropriating the pain which the operation of it to the benefit of the poor within the wire produced, was

their jurisdiction, in whatever cruciating, that it obliged him to

manner they should think fit. withdraw it. But finding small For the same

purpose he beparticles of the stone discharged queathed 25,0001. to the city of along with the urine after the Calcutta, and the like sum to operation, he repeated it in the Lucknow. To the church at same manner from time to time, Chandernagore, in Bengal, he betill, in the course of twelve queathed 15,0001. as a fund, the months, he succeeded in com- interest of which is to be appropletely reducing the stone. priated to the support of the es

This circumstance exhibits a tablishment; and the like sum to curious and remarkable trait of be laid out in the same manner, the eccentricity of his character. for the benefit of the Romish The contrivance was in itself in- Chapel at Calcutta. He also left genious, but his patience and per- 15,000l. to endow an alms-house severance in carrying it into effect, for poor children at Lucknow. are so very extraordinary, that The remainder of his fortune we apprehend there are few men, (nearly one half) he left in legawho, in a similar situation, would cies to the women of his zenanah, not rather endure the complaint and his principal servants. The than have recourse to the remedy. will concludes with a curious ex

Some years after the operation, position of the principles by which gravelly concretions began again he regulated his conduct through

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life. He avows that self-interest he hopes this sincere confession was his sole motive of action, and of his wickedness will avail to obthat the sins of which he had tain. been guilty were very great and Such are the anecdotes which manifold; and he concludes by are related of this extraordinary praying forgiveness of God, which character.

MANNERS,

MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.

OF

NATIONS AND CLASSES OF PEOPLE.

THE SHOSHONEE INDIANI.

T

and as that fish disappears on the

approach of autumn, they are (From Lewis and Clark's Travels.) obliged to seek subsistence else

where. They then cross the ridge HE Shoshonees are a small to the waters of the Missouri,

tribe of the nation called down which they proceed slowly Snake Indians, a vague denomi- and cautiously, till they are joined nation, which embraces at once near the three forks by other the inhabitants of the southern bands, either of their own nation parts of the rocky mountains and or of the Flatheads, with whom of the plains on each side. The they associate against the comShoshonees with whom we now mon enemy. Being now strong are, amount to about one hundred in numbers, they venture to hunt warriors, and three times that buffaloe in the plains eastward of number of women and children. the mountains, near which they Within their own recollection they spend the winter, till the return formerly lived in the plains, but of the salmon invites them to the they have been driven into the Columbia. But such is their termountains by the Pawkees, or the ror of the Pawkees, that as long roving Indians of the Sascatcha- as they can obtain the scantiest wain, and are now obliged to visit subsistence, they do not leave the occasionally, and by stealth, the interior of the mountains; and as country of their ancestors. Their soon as they collect a large stock lives are indeed migratory. From of dried meat, they again rethe middle of May to the begin- treat, thus alternately obtaining ning of September, they reside on their food at the hazard of their the waters of the Columbia, where lives, and hiding themselves to they consider themselves perfectly consume it. In this loose and secure from the Pawkees, who wandering existence they suffer have never yet found their way the extremes of want: for twoto that retreat. During this time thirds of the year they are forced they subsist chiefly on salmon; to live in the mountains, passing whole weeks without meat, and cause, or it may be formed by, the with nothing to eat but a few fish nature of their government, and roots. Nor can any thing which is perfectly free from any be imagined more wretched than restraint. Each individual is his their condition at the present own master, and the only control time, when the salmon is fast re- to which his conduct is subjected, tiring, when roots are becoming is the advice of a chief, supported scarce, and they have not yet ac- by his influence over the opinions quired strength to hazard an en- of the rest of the tribe. The chief counter with their enemies. So himself is in fact no more than insensible are they, however, to the most confidential

whole

person these calamities, that the Shosho- among the warriors, a rank neinees are not only cheerful, but ther distinguished by any extereven gay; and their character, nal honour, nor invested by any which is more interesting than ceremony, but gradually acquired that of any Indians we have seen, from the good wishes of his comhas in it much of the dignity of panions, and by superior merit. misfortune. In their intercourse . Such an officer has therefore strictwith strangers they are frank and ly no power; he may recommend communicative, in their dealings or advise or influence, but his perfectly fair; nor have we had commands have no effect on those during our stay with them, any who incline to disobey, and who reason to suspect that the display may at any time withdraw from of all our new and valuable wealth their voluntary allegiance. His has tempted them into a single shadowy authority, which cannot act of dishonesty. While they survive the confidence which suphave generally shared with us the ports it, often decays with the little they possess, they have al- personal vigour of the chief, or is ways abstained from begging any transferred to some more fortuthing from us. With their live- nate or favourite hero. liness of temper, they are fond of In their domestic economy, the gaudy dresses, and of all sorts of man is equally sovereign. The amusements, particularly of games man is the sole proprietor of his of hazard; and, like most Indians, wives and daughters, and can barfond of boasting of their own war- ter them away, or dispose of them like exploits, whether real or fic- in

any manner he

may think protitious. In their conduct towards per. The children are seldom ourselves, they were kind and corrected; the boys, particularly, obliging, and though on one oc- soon become their own masters; easion they seemed willing to they are never whipped, for they neglect us, yet we scarcely knew say that it breaks their spirit, and how to blame the treatment by that after being flogged they newhich we suffered, when we re- ver recover their independence of collected how few civilized chiefs mind, even when they grow to would have hazarded the comforts manhood. A plurality of wives or the subsistence of their people is very common ; but these are for the sake of a few strangers. not generally sisters, as among This manliness of character may the Minnetarees and Mandans,

but

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