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the last article of clothing, or bouring nations assemble. The even the last blue bead is won inhabitants of the Columbian from the desperate adventurer. plains, after having passed the
In traffic they are keen, acute, winter near the mountains, come and intelligent, and they employ down as soon as the snow has left in all their bargains a dexterity the valleys, and are occupied in and finesse, which if it be not collecting and drying roots, till learnt from their foreign visitors, about the month of May. They may show how nearly the cun- then crowd to the river, and fixning of savages is allied to the ing themselves on its north side, little arts of more civilized trade. to avoid the incursions of the They begin by asking double or Snake Indians, continue fishing, treble the value of their merchan- till about the first of September, dise, and lower the demand in when the salmon are no longer proportion to the ardor or expe- fit for use. They then bury their rience in trade of the purchaser; fish and return to the plains, and if he expresses any anxiety, where they remain gathering quathe smallest article, perhaps a mash, till the snow obliges them handful of roots, will furnish a to desist. They come back to the whole morning's negociation. Columbia, and taking their store Being naturally suspicious, they of fish, retire to the foot of the of course conceive that you are mountains, and along the creeks, pursuing the same system. They, which supply timber for houses, therefore, invariably refuse the and pass the winter in hunting first offer, however high, fearful deer or elk, which with the aid of that they or we have mistaken the their fish, enables them to subsist value of the merchandise, and till, in the spring, they resume therefore cautiously wait to draw the circle of their employments. us on to larger offers. In this During their residence on the way, after rejecting the most ex- river, from May to September, or travagant prices, which we have rather before they begin the re offered merely for experiment, gular fishery, they go down to they have afterwards importuned the Falls, carrying with them us for a tenth part of what they skins, mats, silk grass, rushes had before refused. In this re- and chappelell bread. They are spect, they differ from almost all here overtaken by the ChopunIndians, who will generally ex- nish, and other tribes of the Rocky change in a thoughtless moment mountains, who descend the most valuable article they Kouskooskee and Lewis's river, possess, for any bauble which for the purpose of selling bearhappens to please their fancy. grass, horses. quamash, and a
These habits of cunning, or few skins which they have obtainprudenie, have been formed or ed by hunting, or in exchange increased by their being engaged for horses with the Tushepaws. in a large part of the commerce At the Falls, they find the of the Columbia ; of that trade, Chilluckittequaws, Eneeshurs, however, the great emporium is Echeloots, and Skilloots, which the Falls, where all the neigh- last serve as intermediate traders
or carriers between the inhabit- people of our immediate vicinity. ants above and below the Falls. The traffic is wholly carried on by These tribes prepare pounded fish water ; there are even no roads for the market, and the nations or paths through the country, exbelow bring wappatoo roots, the cept across the portages which fish of the sea-coast, berries, and connect the creeks. a variety of trinkets and small But the circumstance which articles which they have procured forms the soul of this trade, is from the whites.
the visit of the whites. They The trade then begins. The arrive generally about the month Chopunnish, and Indians of the of April, and either remain until Rocky mountains, exchange the October, or return at that time; articles which they have brought during which time, having no for wappatoo, pounded fish, and establishment on shore, they anbeads. The Indians of the plains chor on the north side of the bay, being their own fishermen, take at the place already described, only wappatoo, horses, beads, and which is a spacious and commoother articles, procured from dious harbour, perfectly secure Europeans. The Indians, how- from all, except the south and ever, from Lewis's river to the south-east winds; and as they Falls, consume as food or fuel all leave it before winter, they do the fish which they take ; so that not suffer from these winds, the whole stock for exportation which, during that season, are is prepared by the nations between the most usual and the most viothe Towahnahiooks and the Falls, lent. This situation is recomand amounts, as nearly as mended by its neighbourhood to could estimate, to about thirty fresh water and wood, as well as thousand weight, chiefly salmon, to excellent timber for repairs. above the quantity which they use Here they are immediately visited themselves, or barter with the by the tribes along the sea-coast, more eastern Indians. This is by the Cathlamahs, and lastly by now carried down the river by the Skilloots, that numerous and the Indians at the Falls, and is active people, who skirt the river consumed among the nations at between the marshy islands and the mouth of the Columbia, who the Grand rapids, as well as the in return give the fish of the sea- Coweliskee, and who carry down coast, and the articles which they the fish prepared by their immeobtain from the wbites. The diate neighbours the Chilluckitteneighbouring people catch large quaws, Eneeshurs, and Echeequantities of salmon and dry loots, residing from the Grand rathem, but they do not understand pids to the Falls, as well as all or practise the art of drying and the articles which they have propounding it in the manner used at cured in barter at the market in the Falls, and being very fond of May. The accumulated trade of it, are forced to purchase it at the Columbia now consists of high prices. This article, indeed, dressed and undressed skins of and the Wappatoo, form the prin- elk, sea otter, the common otter, cipal subjects of trade with the beaver, common fox, spuck, and
tiger cat. The articles of less im- medium of trade with all the naportance, are a small quantity of tions on the Columbia. dried or pounded salmon, the biscuits made of the chappelell roots, and some of the manufactures of the neighbourhood. In return they receive guns (which are prin- (From Pottinger's Travels.) cipally old British or American muskets) powder, ball, and shot, The Belooches, who form the copper and brass kettles, brass great bulk, or perhaps, very tea-kettles, and coffee-pots, blank- strictly speaking, the whole of ets, from two to three points, the population throughout Beloocoarse scarlet and blue cloth, chistan, are a people whose origin plates and strips of sheet copper is so obscure, and whose history, and brass, large brass wire, knives, like that of all other barbarous tobacco, fish-hooks, buttons, and tribes, is so blended with romana considerable quantity of sailors' tic fiction and tales of wonder, hats, trowsers, coats and shirts. that I have found it exceedingly But as we have had occasion to difficult to reduce either the one remark more than once, the ob- or the other to any credible form, jects of foreign trade which are They are divided into two great the most desired, are the common classes, severally known by the cheap, blue or white beads, of appellations of Belooche and Braabout fifty or seventy to the penny hooé, and these two are again weight, which are strungon subdivided into such an infinite strands a fathom in length, and number of tribes, who take their sold by the yard or the length of names from the most trivial cirboth arms :
of these the blue cumstances, that it is morally beads, which are called tia com- impossible to account for them : mashuck, or chief beads, hold the the chief under whom they serve, first rank in their ideas of relative the district or country to which value: the most inferior kind they belong, or the tradition are esteemed beyond the finest whence they derive their descent, wampum, and are temptations are the most common designawhich can always seduce them to tions they assume. Between these part with their most valuable two superior classes, the leading cffects. Indeed, if the example distinctions that I observed were of civilized life did not completely in their languages and appearance; vindicate their choice, we might and unquestionably they constiwonder at their infatuated at- tute the greatest that can exist tachment to a bauble in itself so between men of the same colour worthless. Yet these beads are, and inhabiting the same nation. perhaps, quite as reasonable ob- The Belooche or Beloocheekee jects of research as the precious (so the language of the Belooches metals, since they are at once is called), partakes considerably beautiful ornaments for the per- of the idiom of modern Persian, son, and the great circulating and at least one half its words
are borrowed from that language, gate population is exclusively but greatly disguised under a cor- known by the name of Belooches, rupt and unaccountable pronun- which adheres to one of the two ciation: the similarity of sound classes it diverges into; but as is, however, so very striking, they must be considered separatethat during my journey amongstly, I shall henceforward always these people, I latterly understood, distinguish each as Belooches or from my knowledge of Persian, Brahocés. almost every sentence that I heard The Belooches, from the most spoken in Beloochee. The Bra- accurate information I could achooékee is, on the contrary, so quire on this perplexing subject, dissimilar in its sound and for- branch, in the first instance, mation, that I never recollect to from the original class of that have remarked in it a single ex- name, into three principal tribes, pression in any way approaching called Nharooés, Rinds, and the idiom of Persian. It contains Mughsees. The former, the Nhaan extensive portion of ancient rocés, principally inhabit that Hinduwee words, a circumstance portion of Beloochistan which lies which will be explained in the to the westward of the desert, historical account of this class, and there are likewise Kheils, or and as it strikes the ear,
societies, of them at Nooshky, a strong resemblance to Punjaubee, village north-west of Kelat, and the dialect spoken in that part of in Seistan : the other two tribes, India called the Punjaub.
the Rinds and Mughsees, are The contour of the people of settled in Kutch Gundava, a low these two classes is as unlike in country to the eastward, at the most instances as their languages, base of the mountains, to which provided they be the descendants fertile plain they have emigrated of a regular succession of ances- at different periods, from the protors of either; but the frequent vince of Mukran, and have beintermarriages which take place come incorporated with the Jeths, among them, have tended to such or cultivators of the soil, as the a degree to blend together the subjects of the Khans of Kelat; peculiar characteristics of both, a few of them likewise reside in that in many families, and even the hills to the north-eastward of whole tribes, they have ceased to Kutch Gundava, and on the skirts exist; and, therefore, the off- of the desert north of Kelat. spring of such unions form third class, who may, perhaps, often differ to a trisling extent in appearance, from their progenitors, although they are incorpo
(From the same.) rated into one or other of the classes. I conceive it here ne
The Nharooés are commonly a cessary to state again, what I tall, handsome, active race of have done at the commencement men, not possessing great physical of this chapter, in order to pre- strength, but adapted and inured vent confusion, that the aggre- to changes of climate and season;
and accustomed to undergo every few miles of the point whence the species of fatigue. They are fear- Chupao is to commence, and then less of death, and, in battle, said halt in a jungul or some unfreto fight with great gallantry, only quented spot, in order to give requiring a leader to direct them their camels rest.
On the apto the proper point for a display proach of night, they mount of their impetuous valour. Bound again; and as soon as the inby no laws, and restrained by no habitants have retired to repose, feelings of humanity, the Nha- they begin their attack by burnrooés are the most savage and ing, destroying, and carrying off predatory class of Belooches; and, whatever comes
in their way. while they deem private theft dis- They never think of resting for honourable and disgraceful in the one moment during the Chupao, extreme, they contemplate the but ride on, over the territory on plunder and devastation of a coun- which it is made, at the rate of try with such opposite sentiments, eighty or ninety miles a day, unthat they consider it an exploit til they have loaded their camels deserving of the highest commen- with as much pillage as they can dation ; and, steeled by that feels possibly remove ; and, as they ing, they will individually recount are very expert in the managethe assistance they have rendered ment of those animals, each man on such occasions, the numbers on an average, will have charge of men, women and children they of ten or twelve: if practicable, have made captives and carried they make a circuit, which enaaway or murdered, the villages bles them to return by a different they have burned and plundered, route from the one they came : and the flocks they have slaugh- this is attended with the advantered when unable to drive them tage of affording a double prosoff.
pect of plunder, and also misThe lawless incursions, during leads those who pursue the robwhich these outrages and cruel bers, a step generally taken,
, ties are committed, are here call- though with little effect, when a ed Chupaos; and as they are al- sufficient body of men can be col. most always conducted under the lected for that purpose. immediate superintendance and From this description of Chuorders of the chiefs, they form a paos, which was given me by severy considerable source of profit veral different Belooches who had to them. The depredators are been upon them, they are eviusually mounted on camels, and dently services of great peril and furnished, according to the dis- danger Many of the marauders, tance they have to go, with fvod, who are separated from their consisting of dates, sour cheese, companions in the night and left and bread; they also carry water behind, are seized, mutilated, and in a small leathern bag, if requi- murdered in the most cruel mansite, which is often the case in ner by the exasperated inhabitthe midst of their deserts.
When ants ;
others are killed in the all is prepared they set off, and skirmishes which take place, and march incessantly till within a some die from fatigue and wrnt