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of rest. It might, therefore, be ways deem themselves in a state supposed to require a certainty of of warfare with the surrounding great gain, as an inducement to nations, and the Chupaos I have the Belooches to risk their lives described, form their system of in such desperate undertakings; carrying on hostilities. The Rinds but so entirely is this reversed, and Mughseés resemble the Nhathat the Chupaos are often un- rooés in size and stature; and successful, from the natives of like them, have good features the devoted districts having pre- and expressive countenances, but vious information, and taking are not capable of bearing an means to repel them; and again, equal portion of hardships and some that succeed in a partial labour. The climate of the counmanner, barely repay them for try, in which they chiefly now the cantels that die during or after reside, seems to have enervated it from over-work. At times, and deprived them of that energy however, the robbers reap the re- of mind and body which doubtward of their intrepidity, and less once appertained to them in Mihrab Khan Rukhshanee told their native mountains of Mukme that he himself once shared, ran, and which is still to be trafrom a Chupao into the Persian ced in the tribes already menprovince of Laristan, slaves and tioned as inhabiting the hills. They other spoil to the amount of six are darker in colour than the thousand rupees, a large sum in Nharvoés, a circumstance also to the estimation of a savage.

be attributed to the heat of the The Rinds and Mughsees are climate of Kutch Gundavee. The less predal in their habits and men of these two classes, or any mode of life than the Nharovés; of the tribes emanating from but whether that proceeds from them, whom I met with, either an innate detestation of such out- during my journey or since my rages, or a dread of the Khan of return to India, did not strike me Kelat, I am unable to pronounce as differing from each other in with certainty. I should, how- manners or appearance, and a ever, be inclined to suspect the stranger might readily have suplatter cause as operating more posed they were all of the same forcibly than the former ; for we class, which is not the case with find that the Muzareés, Direeshks, the Nharooé and its different raand other Rind tribes, who ve mifications ; but as I shall have in the hills, and are in a great an opportunity, in the course of measure out of the immediate

my na rative, of exemplifying the precincts of the Khan's authority, distinctions 1 perceived anongst infest the roads and commit the them, I now proceed to finish the most atrocious robberies and mur- sketch of the Belooche character, ders on travellers, a practice by describing those points in more to be reprobated than even which they all appeared to me to that pursued bi the Nharcoés; in correspond. extenuation of whom I may ob- With regard to religion, they serve, that as they never enter are, with a very few exceptions into any engagements, they al- to the westward, Soonee Moosul

mans,

mans, and inveterate in their ha- exceed twenty or thirty: they are tred and enmity against the Shee- commonly discriminated by a tias, under which persuasion, I am tular prelix, such as Umeerée, convinced, it would be more dan- Daodée, Surdaree, &c. to the gerous to appear in Beloochistan, word Kheil, as the Umeeree than even as a Christian.

Kheil, the noble society, Daodée The hospitality of a Belooche is Kheil, David's society, &c. &c. proverbial, and I found it equally This complicated subdivision of conspicuous in every part of the the tribes into Kheils, is likely to country which I visited. Among confuse a casual observer, and them pilfering is considered a more especially from their changmost despicable act; and when ing, as they often do, their disthey once offer, or promise to tinguishing titles with their places afford protection to a person who of residence. For example, when may require or solicit it, they will I was at Nooshky, on the borders die before they fail in their trust of the desert, there was a Kheil They obey their chiefs with alac- of Mingull Brahooés, (a people rity and willingness, but this obe- whose country is to the southdience seemed to me rather to ward of Kelat,) encamped about result from a confidence placed two miles off ; and, on my asking on the propriety of what they are one of them his tribe, he replied, ordered to perform, and a wish to Mingull, and his Kheil, Nooshuphold the respectability of their kyée, or the society of Nooshky. tribes, which depends much on It is right to add, that some of that of the Surdars or chiefs, the Belooches, particularly the than from any feelings of defer- Nharooé clans, prefer mud houses ence and respect that they enter- to tents, and even live in forts; tain towards the latter; for I ob- nor is it uncommon, in the westserved, that in many instances, ern parts of Beloochistan, to find even under their immediate eye, one half the Kheil residing in they acted as if they held them- Ghedans, and the other in huts ; selves scarcely amenable to their I believe that the preference which authority. In their domestic ha- is shewn to the latter, is on acbits, the Belooches are almost all count of the cold. pastoral; they usually reside in Their reception of guests is ** Ghedans,” or tents, made of simple, yet impressive. When a black felt, or

blanket, visitor arrives at a Toomun, a stretched over a frame of wicker

carpet is spread in front of the work, formed from the branches door of the Mihman Khanu, or of the Guz (Tamarisk) bush : an house for guests, of which there asseinblage of these Ghedars con- is one in every town or village in stitute a Toomun, or village, and Beloochistan; the Sirdar, or head the inhabitants of it a Kheil, or of the Kheil, immediately appears, society, of which, from the nature and he and the stranger having of their formation, it is clear embraced, and mutually kissed there may be an unlimited num- hands, the followers of the latter ber in one tribe ; and I know half successively approach, and the a dozen of instances where they Sirdar gives them his hand, which

they

coarse

they press to their foreheads and roast or stew in butter, raw or lips. So far the reception is con- clarified. They usually limit ducted in profound silence, and the themselves to one or two wives, parties now sit down, on which the and their chiefs four ; but this chief addresses the stranger, and totally depends on choice. I saw asks hiin, four several times, how men of the lowest station, who he does, to which the other an- had seven or eight living, and, swers in the usual complimentary Mihrab Khan, chief of the Rukhterms; he then inquires in the shanees, had just espoused his same manner for his family and sixteenth when I was at his capifriends, and even for the health tal. They treat their women with of his followers who are present, attention and respect, and are not to whom the visitor turns, as if so scrupulous about their being to appeal for information; they seen by strangers as most other all nod assent to being in good Moosulmans, although they by health ; and the ceremony con

no means allow them to appear in cludes, by the new-comer making public at all times. an equal number of inquiries for The Belooches keep great numthe welfare of the family, Kheil bers of slaves of both sexes, the or society, followers, and friends fruits of tlaeir Chupaos, whom of the Sirdar. By nature the they treat with a kindness and liBelooches are extremely indolent, berality thist is quite gratifying to and, unless occupied by some fa- sce. Whe a first taken, they look vourite amusement, they will upon then selves as the most unspend whole days in lounging fortunate beings in existence, from one Ghedan to another, and, to say the truth, the treatsmoking and gambling,; many of ment they then experience, is of them are addicted to the pernici- the harshest and most discouragous custom of chewing opium and ing descı iption; they are blindBhung, but I neither met with, folded and tied on camels, and in or heard of a single instance of that man aer transported, to prehabitual ebriety, from spirituous vent the possibility of their knowliquors or wine; in fact that spe- ing how to return; the women's cies of the vice of drunkenness hair, and, men's beards, are also seems to be unknown amongst shaved-off, and the roots entirely them. Their various foods are destroyed by a preparation of wheaten and barley cakes, rice, quicklime, to deter them from dates, cheese, sweet and sour any wish to revisit their native milk, which last they infinitely soil; but they shortly get reconprefer ; soup made from dholl, or eiled to their fate, and become peas, and seasoned with red pep- very fai thful servants. I shall reper, and other heating herbs, and late an anecdote, which will best flesh-meat whenever they can exemp lify the footing on which procure it, including that of young they li ve with their masters. Capcamels, and every kind of game : tain Christie, speaking on this of vegetables they prize onions, subje ut, expressed his surprize to garlic, and the leaves and stalk of Eidel Khan Rukhshanee, the Sirthe asafætida plant, which they darof Nooshky, that the numerous slaves which he had, should work on their heads they seldom wear so diligently, without any person any thing except a small silk or to look after them. “li hy not,” cotton quilted cap, which is made said he, “they are clothed, fed, to sit to the shape of the skull, and treated like the other mem- and over this, when in full dress, bers of my family, and if they do they add a turband, either checknot labour, they are well aware ed or blue, and a Kummurbund that bread will be scarce, and or sash, of the same colour, round they must then suffer as well as their waists. The chiefs and their ourselves; it is their interest to relatives likewise appear in winter have plenty, because they know with an Ulkhaliq, or tunic, of whatever may fall to my lot, they chintz, lined and stuffed with get a share of it.” Captain Chris- cotion; and the poorer classes, tie assented to the justness of when out of doors, wrap themthese observations, but added, selves up in a surtout made of a that he should have thought them peculiar kind of cloth, manufaclikely to run away. Nothing tured from a mixture of goat's of the kind,” replied the old Sir- hair and sheep's wool. The wodar, they are too wise to at- men's attire is very siunilar to that tempt it: in the first place, they of the men, their shifts are usualdon't know the way to their own ly cotton cloth, dyed red or brown, country; but even adı nitting they very long, quite down to the did, why should they wish to re- heels, open in front below the turn? They are much happier bosom, and as they wear nothing here, and have less worldly cares; under them, their persons are were they at hone, they must considerably exposed; their trowtoil full as hard as they now do; sers are preposterously wide, and beside which, they would have to made of silk, or a fabrication think of their clothes, their houses from that and cotton mixed. The and their foud . situated as they young women, both inarried and now are, they look to me for all unmarriert, have a very ingenious those necessaries ; and, in short, method of fastening their hair up, that you may judge yourself of by dividing it into different locks, their feelings, I need only in twisting them round the head, form you, that the severest pu- and inserting all the ends in a nishment we can intlict on one of knot on the crown; it looks very them, is to turn him about his tidy, and at a short disiance I rebusiness."

peatedly mistook it for a cap. The common dress of the Be- The old woinen tie handkerchiefs lunches is a course white or blue round their heads, flowered with calico shirt, open about fourteen worsted or silk. When they go inches down the front, buttoning abroad, both young and old mutrou d the neck, and reaching he- tle up their faces so as not to be low the knee; their trousers are seen, but in their houses they made of the sanie cloth, or are not, as I have already stated, striped kind of stuff called Goosee, at all particular ; and when I and puckered round the ancles : was at the village of Nooshky, I

was

a

was frequently in the Sirdar's ter purpose, they bestow a vast Ghedan, when his whole family deal of attention on the training was present.

of their greyhounds : a good one A Belooche soldier, when arm- is valued at two or three camels, ed cap-a-pee, makes a very for- or even more, and I was informed midable display. He carries a that the Khan of Kelat has been matchlock, sword, spear, dagger, known to pay to the value of four and shield, besides a multiplicity hundred rupees for one dog. Firof powder flasks, priming horns, ing at marks, cudgelling, wiestand pouches; the latter crammedling, practising with swords, and with balls, slugs, flints, tinder throwing the spear, are likewise, boxes, and other warlike appara- all favourite diversions with them; tus, which, on active service, musť and neighbouring Kheils cope encu'nber hira beyond conception; with each other at these exercises ; they do not, however, seem to the four latter they understand mind it, and a warrior's prowess scientifically, and at the former, is often estimated by the weight some of them are so incredibly of his accoutrements. They are expert, that I am assured they all capital marksmen, and on that can invariably hit a target, not account in battle, avoid as much more than six inches square, off a as possible, coming to close com- horse at full gallop; and I can bat; but when they have no al- positively affiro, that the different ternative, they either throw away guides I had during my journey their fire-arms, or sling them by killed, at the distance of fifty or the side of the camel, or horse on sixty yards, every small bird, such which they are mounted. The as larks, sparrows, &c. they fired best and most prized warlike at with a single ball; nor did weapons they have, are of foreign they appear to consider this as manufacture. Matchlocks, swords, any signal proof of their dexterity and drygers, they get foom Per- as marksmen. Before I close this sia, Khorasan, and Hindoostan : enumeration of their diversions, shields from the laiter country; I may describe a very hazardous, and for spears they are generally though popular one among all indehteil to their neighbours the cla-ses, which they perforın on Sindians. At Kelat there is an horseback, and call Nezub Baarmoury for matchlocks, swords, zee, or spear play. A wooden and spears, belonging exclusively stake of moderate thickness is to the Khan, but the workman- driven into the ground, and a ship I saw from it was bad and horseman at full speed, pierces it clumsy.

with the point of his spear in such The amusements of the Be- a manner, as to force it out of the looches are such as we should ex- earth, and carry it along with pect to find among a wild and un- him; the difficulty and danger in civilized people : they are enthu- accomplishing this feat, is evisiastically fond of every species of dently augmented or decreased, field sports; and much of their according to the depth that the time is passed in shooting, hunt- stake is in the ground; but in its ing, and coursing, for which lat- easiest form, it requires a violent Vol. LVIII.

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