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posing that portion of the globe noticed by the writers on Pegu, which is comprehended within Siam and Camboja, and adopted Polynesia and Austral Asia, our among many tribes of Borneo attention is arrested by the strik- and the Moluccas. Whatever may ing uniformity in habits and lan- have been the origin of this very guage which prevails through- singular custom, traces are to be out; and which induces the in. found, even in Java of the veneference, either of one common ration in which it once was held. origin, or of early and very ge- The practice of triumphing over neral intercourse.

a subduedi enemy may be common Such customs as the singular to the barbarous state in general; practice of filing the testh and but the deliberate system of mandying them black, noticed by the hunting, in order to procure heads authors who have written as a trophy of manliness and miPegu, Siam, Camboja and Ton- litary gallantry, however it may quin, and prevailing generally have originated in this feeling of thronghout the whole Malavan uncivilized nature, may be ranked archipelago; the practice of dis- among the peculiarities of this tending the perforated lobe of the portion of the globe. ear to an enormous size, noticed The language of the different in like manner to exist in the tribes of Borneo is ascertained to same parts of the peninsula, and bear a strong resemblance to that prevailing throughout the Archi- of the scattered tribes of Campelago, in a greater or less degree boja, Champa and Laos. The in proportion with the extension position maintained by Mr. Marsof Islamism ; the practice of tat- den, that the Malayan is a branch tooing the body, noticed ainong or dialect of the widely extended the Burmans and people of Laos, language prevailing through the common to many tribes in Bor- islands of the Archipelago to which neo, and particularly distinguished it gives name, as well as those of in some of the islands in the Pa- the South Sea, appears to be estacific Ocean, betray a common blished and confirmed as our inoriginal; and if it is recollect- formation advances; and, if we ed that this custom, as well as except the Papuas, and scattered that of plucking the beard, was tribes having curled hair, we find noticed in South America, the the general description given of question may arise, in what course the persons of the Siamese and or direction the tide of population the ruder population of the adjahas flowed. In a recent publica- cent countries, which have not tion, an idea has been started, in admitted any considerable admixreference to the similarity of the ture from the Chinese, to come languages, that the population of very near to the inhabitants of the Philippines and of the islands the Archipelago, who, in fact, may in the South Sea originally emi- be said to differ only in being of grated from America. It will not a smaller size, and in as far as be required of me to go into any foreign colonization and interdescription of those singular ap- course may have changed them. pendages to the virile member, To trace the sources whence this colonization and consequent original population of the islands civilization flowed, and the periods were doubtless of the Tartar race, at which it was introduced into and probably from the same stock different states, is a subject new as the Sianiese. The Javans (late to the historian, and not uninter- the commencement of their era esting to the philosopher. from the arrival of Adi Saka, the

If we admit the natural in- minister of Prabu Joyo Boyo, soference, that the population of the vereign of Hastina, and the fifth islands originally emigrated from in descent from Arjuno the favothe continent, and, at the same · rite of Krisna, and the leailing time, the probability, that the hero of the B'rata Yud'ha. This country lying between Siam and epoch corresponds with that of China, is the immediate source the introduction of a new faith from whence such emigration ori- into China, and the further peginally proceeded, the history of ninsula, by Saka, Shaka, or Sakia, the Eastern Islands may, with as he is differently termed, and reference to that of Java in parc with the chronology of the Hinticular, in which a powerful Hindu dus, as explained by Sir William government was without doubt Jones, in which Saka is supposed early established, be divided into to have reigned seventy-nine years five distinct periods.

subsequent to the ci inmencement The first division would include of the christian era. But whether the period commencing with the Saka himself, or only some of his earliest accounts of the popula- followers, assuming this name, tion, down to the first establish- found their way to Java, may be ment of a foreign colony in Java, questionable; and it is not imof which the written annals of the possible that the Javanese may country make mention. The date have subsequently adopted the of this is pretty accurately ascer- era, on a more extended intertained, and may be fixed at about course with the further peninsula. the commencement of the sixth A connection would at any rate apcentury of the Javanese era, or pear to have existed between Java A. D. 600; at which time only the and Siam ; as this Adi Saka is not period of authentic history can be only represented to have founded considered to commence.

the present era of Java, but to The origin of all nations is bu- have introduced the original letried in obscurity; and, unless we ters of the Javanese alphabet, by may succeed in obtaining new a inodification of the letters used lights from Siam or China, we in Western India, and in Siam. shall have but little to guide us, It does not appear that either he during the early part of this divi- or his followers established themsion, beyond conjecture, and such selves in any authority; and we general inferences as may be can trace but little with certainty drawn from a similarity in per- during the following five centuson, language and usages, still ries. Some of the Javanese acfound to prevail among the less counts refer to the arrival of vacivilized tribes. According to the rious settlers during this period; division of Sir William Jones, the but we find no traces either of a government having existed, or of that which includes the consethe establishment of any extensive quences of the invasion of India colony, until the commencement by Alexander the Great. That of the sixth century. I should ob- the fabulous history of Rama as serve, in this place, that the Ja- well as the exploits of Alexander, vanese year corresponds pretty have been current in the Malayan nearly with the Sindu year of Sa- Archipelago from time immemolivarna ; and that the word Saka, rial, cannot be questioned ; and in Sanscrit, means an epoch or it may be remarked, that while era, and is applied to the founder the Javans use the term Rama for of an era.

father, the Malays universally atThe Javanese occasionally use tempt to trace their descent from the numerals for recording dates; Alexander or his followers. Subut more generally, and parti- matra was long considered to have cularly in dates of importante, been the Taprobanè of the anthey adopt an hieroglyphical in- cients; and, when we advert to vention, termed “Chondro Sang- the circumstance, that this kolo," in which the different nu- was said to be a country in which merals, from one to ten, are re- the north polar star was not visipresented by particular objects. ble, or only partially, we must This is either effected, in build still doubt the correctness of the ings and sculpture, by the actual modern conclusion in favour of representations of these objects; Ceylon. The eastern islands furor, in writing, by the insertion nish that peculiar kind of produce of their names, the meaning fre- which has from the earliest times quently having some allusion to been in demand by continental the fact which the date records : nations, and the same avidity with thus, the date of the destruction which, in modern days, Europeans of Majapahit, in the Javanese contended for the rich products of year 1400, is recorded as follows, the Moluccas, actuateil, in all prothe order of the numerals being bability, at a much earlier period, reversed :

adventurers from Western India. Sirna ilang Kertaning—Burni. Traces of intercourse with EthioGone-gone-- is the work-of the land. pia may be found at this day, in 0 0 4

the scattered tribes of the woolly. Anterior to this supposed ar- haired race peculiar to Africa, rival of Adi Saka, the two most which are to be found in the eventful periods in the history of Andamans, in the southern part these countries of which tradition of the further peninsula, and and history make mention, are throughout the Archipelago; and first, that which includes the ex- that the Hindus were at one pecursions of the far-famed race, riod an enterprizing and comwhich have been supposed to have mercial nation, may, I think, be peopled South America, and ac- established, with little difficulty, cording to Sir William Jones, from the incontestable proofs “imported into the furthest parts which at this day exist in Java, of Asia, the rites and fabulous and the traffic which still exists history of Rama;'' and secondly, in native vessels and on native



capital between the Coromandel testimonies of tradition, and the coast and the Malayan penin- written compositions of the counsula. If any country, therefore, try, the numerous inscriptions in the Archipelago, lays claim and dates, on stone and copper, to this distinction inore than the characters of which we are another, it is Java ; but, proba- now able to decypher, as well as bly, it was rather to the Eastern the ancient coins, would lend esIslands generally, than to one sential aid in establishing a cor. island in particular, that the ap- rect chronology. On the one pellation was given. Both Pro- hand, it would be our task to lemy and the Arabians would direct our inquiries to the history seem to have distinguished the of the various continental nations islands by one general name. whence these foreigners may have By the one they were termed proceeded; and, on the other, to Jabadios Insulæ ;" hy the the nature and extent of the esothers, “ Jau or Jawa ;” and tablishments, intercourse, and cihence, probably, the confusion vilization introduced by them into in the travels of Marco Polo, the different islands. and the still disputed question, This period will commence from between Java Major and Java the arrival of Awap, the reputed Minor.

son of Balia Aucha, sovereign of The second division would in- Kudjirat, who came in search of clude the period between this first a celebrated country, described regular establishment from West- in the writings of Saka; and ern India, and the decline and who, under the name of Sewelo fall of the first Eastern Empire in Cholo, established the first reJava, which may be fixed with gular monarchy of which the tolerable accuracy at about the Javanese annals make mention ; Javanese year 1000, or

A.D. and include the adventures of the 1073.

celebrated Panji, the pride and During this period, by far the admiration of succeeding ages. most eventful in the history of Our attention would also be diJava, we shall find that colonies rected, in a particular manner, to of foreigners established them- the intercourse between Java and selves, not only in Java, but in the other islands, and the nature various other islands of the Ar- and extent of the foreign estachipelago ; that the arts, parti- blishments formed by Java. Tracularly those of architecture and dition, and the popular romances sculpture, flourished in a of the country, represent, not perior degree, and that the lan- only the kingdoms of Goa and guage, literature and institutions Luhu in Celebes, but even the of the continent of India were kingdom of Menangkabaú, in Su. transfused in various directions matra, to have been established through the oriental islands. It about the conclusion of this pewas during this period, that the riod, by princes from Java. principal temples, of which the The third division would inruins now exist in Java, were clude the period from the above built ; and, beside the concurring date to the final overthrow of the

second that


second Eastern Empire, in the where we find that notwithstandJavane-e year 1400. Some idea ing attempts to make proselytes may be formed of the power and were as early as the commenceopulence of this second empire, ment of the twelfth century, such established at Majapahit, from was the attachment of the people the extensive ruins of that city, to their ancient faith and instistill extant. These I took an op- tu'ions, that these efforts did not portunity of visiting during niy effectually succeed till the latter late tour; and I believe I am end of the fifteenth century of within the mark, when I repre- the Christian era. sent the walls to have enclosed a A fourth division would comspace of upward of twenty miles mence with the establishment of in circumference.

the Mahometan government in Within this period will be in- Java, and might be brought down cluded the establishment of the to the establishment of the Dutch Western Empire at Pajajaran, the in the Eastern Seas, which miay subsequent division of the island be taken as A. D. 1600; and a under the princes of Majapahit ifth, anił by no means uninterand Pajajaran, the eventual su- esting perioil, might include the premacy of Mijapahit, and the bistory of the European establishfinal overthrow of the government ments, down to the conquests by and ancient institutions of the the British arms in 1811. country, by the general establish- The further prosecution of this ment of the Mahometan faith. extensive inquiry would lead me

It is dwing this period that beyond the limits at present preJava may be said to have risen to scribed; and I must, therefore, the highest pitch of her civiliza- conclude with drawing your attion yet known, and to have com- tention to the striking similarity manded a more extensive inter- between the early state of Greece, course, throughout the Archipe- and that of the Malayan islands. lay), than at any former period. Change but the names, and the Colonies from Java were sticces- words of Mitford's Introduction sively pla: teil in Sumatra, the tn his History of Greece will be Malayan peninsula, Borneo and found equally applicable to this Bali, the princes of which coun- more extensive Archipelago. tries still trace their descent from “Thus," he observes, "Greece the house of Majapahit ; and that in its early days, was in a state of adventurers from Western India. perpetual marauding and pira from Siam, from Champi, from tical warfare ; cattle, as the great China and from Japan, frequented means of subsistence, were first Java in the greatest number. But the great object of plunder: then, the object of the first importance as the inhabitants of some parts will be, to trace the introduction, by degrees settled to agriculture, progress and final establishment men, women and children were of the Mahometan faith in the sought for as slaves. But Greece various countries where it now is had nothing more peculiar than acknowledged as the esiablished its adjacent sea, where small religion, and particularly in Java, islands were so thickly scattered,

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