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valley, which extends from near reddish brown colour, while the Quicksand river for seventy miles younger branches are red where westward, and is a principal arti- exposed to the sun, and green cle of trade between the inhabi- elsewhere. The leaf is three tants of that valley and those of fourths of an inch in length, and the sea coast.

two and a half in breadth ; of an The shrub rises to the height oval form; the upper disk of a of four or five feet;, the stem glossy deep green, the under of a simple and much branched. The pale green; the fruit is a deep bark is of a reddish dark brown ; purple berry, about the size of a the main stem somewhat rough, common black cherry, oval and while that of the bough is smooth; rather bluntly pointed; the perithe leaf is about one tenth of an carp is divided into five acute aninch long, obtuse at the apex, gular points, and envelops a soft and acute and angular at the in- pulp, containing a great number sertion of the pedicle. The leaf of small brown seeds. is three fourths of an inch in 2. The solme is a small, pale, length, and three eighths in red berry, the production of a width, smooth, and of a paler plant, resembling in size and green than evergreens generally shape that which produces the are. The fruit is a small deep fruit, called in the United States, purple berry, and of a pleasant Solomon's sealberry. The berry favour; the natives eat the berry is attached to the stem in the when ripe, but seldom collect sanie manner. It is of a globular such quantities as to dry for win- form ; containing a soft pulp, ter use.

which envelops four seeds about the size of the seed of the common

It grows amongst The native fruits and berries in the woodland moss, and is, to all use among the Indians, are what appearance, an annual plant. they call the shallun; the solme; 3. The cranberry is of the low the cranberry; a berry like the and viny kind, and grows in the black haw; the scarlet berry of marshes or bogs of this neighthe plant called sacacommis; a bourhood : it is precisely the same purple berry, like the huckle- as the cranberry of the United berry.

States. 1. The shallun is an evergreen

4. The fruit, which, though plant, abounding in this neigh- rather larger, resembles in shape bourhood, and its leaves are the the black haw, is a light brown favourite food of the elk. It is a berry, the fruit of a tree about thick growth, cylindrically rising the size, shape, and appearance to the height of three, and some- in every respect, of that of the times five feet, and varying from United States, called the wild the size of a goose quill, to that crab-apple. The leaf is also preof a man's thumb. The stem is cisely the same; as also the bark simple, branching, reclining, and in texture and colour. The berpartially fluxuose, with a bark ries grow in clumps at the end of which, on the elder part, is of a the small branches; each berry



small grape.

supported by a separate stem, ever inclement the climate, the and as many as from three to root puts forth a great number of eighteen or twenty in a clump: stems which separate near the the berry is ovate, with one of its surface of the ground; each stem extremities attached to a peduncle, from the size of a small quill to where it is to a small degree con- that of a man's finger: these are cave, the wood of which is ex- much branched, the branches cessively hard. The natives make forming an acute angle with the their wedges of this wood, in stem, and all more properly prosplitting their boards, their fire- cumbent than creeping: although wood, and in hollowing out their it sometimes puts forth radicles canoes; the wedge when driven from the stems and branches, into solid dry pine, receives not which strike obliquely into the the slightest injury. Our party ground: these radicles are by no made use of it likewise for wedges means general or equable in their and axe-handles. The fruit is distances from each other, nor do exceedingly acid, and resembles they appear calculated to furnish the flavour of the wild crab. The nutriment to the plant: the bark pericarp of the berry contains a is formed of several layers of a soft pulpy substance, divided into smooth, thin, brittle and reddish four cells, each containing a substance easily separated from single seed; the outer coat of the the stein: the leaves with respect pericarp, is a thin, smooth, though to their position are scattered, yet firm and tough pellicle.

closely arranged, and particularly The plant called sacacommis by near the extremities of the twigs : the Canadian traders, derives its the leaf is about three fourths of name from this circumstance, an inch in length; oval, pointed that the clerks of the trading and obtuse; of a deep green, companies are generally very fond slightly grooved ; and the footof smoking its leaves, which they stalk is of proportionable length: carry about with them in a small the berry is attached in an irrebag. It grows generally in an gular manner to the small boughs open piny woodland country, or among the leaves, and always on its borders. We found this supported by separate, small and berry in the prairies bordering on short peduncles : the insertion the Rocky mountains, or in the produces a slight concavity in the more open woodlands. It is in- berry, while its opposite side is discriminately the growth of a slightly convex. The outer coat very rich or a very poor soil, and of the pericarp is a thin, firm, is found in the same abundance tough pellicle : the inner coat in both. The natives the consists of a dry, mealy powder, western side.of the Rocky moun- of a yellowish white colour, envetains are very fond of this berry, loping from four to six large, although to us it was a very taste- light brown seeds: the colour of less and insipid fruit : the shrub the fruit is a fine scarlet : the nais an evergreen, and retains its tives eat these berries without any vei lure in the same perfection preparation : the fruit ripens in the whole season round. How- September, and remains on the





bushes all winter unaffected by them in large loaves, weighing the frost : they are sometimes from ten to fifteen pounds : the gathered and kung in the lodges bread keeps very well for one in bags, where they are dried season, and retains its juices betwithout further trouble.

ter by this mode of preparation 6. The deep purple berry, like than any other : this bread when the huckleberry, terminates blunt- broken is stirred in cold water, ly, and has a cap or cover at the until it acquires the consistency end : the berries are attached se- of soup, and then eaten. parately to the sides of the boughs by a short stem, hanging underneath, and they often grow very The trees of a larger growth near each other, on the same are very abundant ; the whole bough: the berry separates very neighbourhood of the coast is easily from the stem; the leaves supplied with great quantities of adhere closely : the shrub rises excellent timber. The predomito the height of six or eight feet, nating growth is the fir, of which and sometimes grows on high we have seen several species. lands, but moi e frequently on low There is one singular circummarshy grounds: the shrub is an stance attending all the pine of evergreen, and about ten inches

this country, which is, that when in circumference, divides into consumed it yields not the slightmany irregular branches, and

est particle of ashes. The first seldom

than one stem species grows to an immense size, springs from one root, although and is very commonly twentythey associate very thickly : the seven feet in circumference, six bark is somewhat rough and of a feet above the earth's surface : reddish brown colour : the wood they rise to the height of two is very hard : the leaves are al- hundred and thirty feet, and one ternate and attached by a short hundred and twenty of that height footstalk to the horizontal sides without a limb. We have often of the boughs : the form is a long found them thirty-six feet in ciroval, rather more acute towards cumference. One of our party the apex than at the point of in- measured one, and found it to be sertion : its margin slightly ser- forty-two feet in circumference, rate, its sides collapsing, thick, at a point beyond the reach of an firm, smooth, and glossy: the ordinary man. · This trunk for under surface is of a pale or whit- the distance of two hundred feet ish green, and the upper of a fine was destitute of limbs : this tree deep green. This beautiful shrub was perfectly sound, and at a retains its verdure throughout moderate calculation, its size may the year, and is more peculiarly be estimated at three hundred beautiful in winter. The natives feet. The timber is throughout, sometimes eat the berries without and rives better than any other preparation : sometimes they dry species; the bark scales off in them in the sun, and at others in flakes irregularly round, and of a their sweating kilns : they very reddish brown colour, particularly frequently pound them, and bake the younger growth : the trunk

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near reddish brown colour, while the wles younger branches are red where L'arti- exposed to the sun, and green

nabi- elsewhere The leaf is the • use of furths of an inch in length, 2.1.

two and a half in breadth ; of 2 the height oral form; the upper disso.

the stem glossy deep green, the under led. The pale green; the fruit is

brown; purple berry, about the size hat rough, common black cherry, I is smooth; rather bluntly pointed: the 12 unth of an carp is divided into frue S the apex, gular points, and excess at the in- pulp, containing ages

The leaf of small brown seeck an inch in 2. The solmeises

cighths in red berry, the price d of a paler plant, resembling 3 en generally shape that whic

small deep fruit, called in the of a pleasant Solomon's

eat the berry is attached -eldom collect sanie mums

e, to dry for win- form;

Fentywhid the

surface :

of two Waits and berries in the

15 and one dians, are what

that height lun; the solme;

We have often berty like the



-six feet in cirme of our party

nd found it to be in circumference, O the reach of an

This trunk for two hundred feet of limbs this trer

sound, and at a ulation, its size may

at three hundred timber is throughout, better than any other the bark scales off in rregularly round, and of a

brown colour, particularly ounger growth the trunk


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