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is simple, branching, and not very ceeds one inch, while other leaves proliferous. The leaf is acerose, intermixed on every bough, do one tenth of an inch in width, not exceed a quarter of an inch. and three fourths in length, firm, The leaf has a small longitudinal stiff, and acuminate. It is tri- channel on the upper disk, which angular, a little declining, thick- is of a deep and glossy green, ly scattered on all sides of the while the under disk is of a whitbough, and springs from small ish green only: it yields but little triangular pedestals of soft, rosin. What is remarkable, the spongy, elastic bark at the junc- cone is not longer than the end of tion of the boughs. The bud- a man's thumb; it is soft, flexiscales continue to encircle their ble, of an ovate form, and prorespective twigs for several years. duced at the ends of the small Captain Lewis has counted as

twigs. many as the growth of four years The third species resembles in beyond the scales ; it yields but all points, the Canadian balsam little rosin, and we have never fir. It grows from two and a half been able to discover the cone, to four feet in diameter, and although we have felled several. rises to the height of eighty or

The second is a much more an hundred feet. The stem is common species, and constitutes simple, branching, and prolifeat least one half of the timber in rous : its leaves are sessile, acethis neighbourhood. It seems to rous, one eighth of an inch in resemble a spruce, rising from length, and one sixteenth in width, one hundred and sixty to one thickly scattered on the twigs, hundred and eighty feet, is from and adhere to the three under four to six in diameter, straight, sides only; gibbous, a little deround, and regularly tapering: clining, obtusely pointed, soft, The bark is thin, of a dark co- and flexible. The upper disk is lour, much divided in small longi- longitudinally marked with a tudinal interstices: the bark of slight channel, of a deep, glossy, the boughs and young trees is green; the under of a pale green somewhat smooth, but not equal and not glossy. This tree affords to the balsam fir: the wood is in considerable quantities, a fine white, very soft, but difficult to deep aromatic balsam, resembling rive: the trunk is a simple, the balsam of Canada in taste and branching, and diffuse stem, not appearance.

The small pistils so proliferous as the pines and filled, rise like a blister on the firs usually are. It puts forth trunk and the branches. The buds from the sides of the small bark that envelops these pistils, boughs, as well as from their is soft and easily punctured: the extremities : the stem terminates general appearance of the bark is like the cedar, in a slender point- dark and smooth : but not so reed top: the leaves are petiolate, markable for that quality as the the footstalks short, acerose, ra- white pine of our country. The ther more than half a line in wood is white and soft. width, and very unequal in length; The fourth species in size rethe greatest length seldom ex- sembles the second. The stem is

simple, rather porous.

simple, branching, ascending, and sion of its branches may result proliferous; the hark is of a red.. from its open situation, as it seldish dark brown, and thicker dom grows in the neighbourhood than that of the third species, di- of another tree. The cone is two vided by small longitudinal inter- and a half inches in length, and stices, not so much magnified as three and three quarters in its in the second species. The re- greatest circumference.

It talative position of the leaves re- pers regularly to a point, and is sembles those of the balsam fir, formed of imbricated scales, of a excepting that they are only two- bluntly rounded form. A thin thirds the width, and little more leaf is inserted in the pith of the than half the length, and that cone, which overlays the centre the upper disk is not so green of, and extends half an inch beand glossy. The wood yields no yond the point of each scale. balsam, and but little rosin. The The sixth species does not differ wood is white and tough although from what is usually denominated

the white pine in Virginia. The The fifth species in size re- unusual length of the cone seems sembles the second, and has a to constitute the only difference. trunk simple, branching, and It is sometimes sixteen or eighteen proliferous. The bark is of a thin inches in length, and is about dark brown, divided longitudinally four in circumference.

It grows by interstices, and scaling off in on the north side of the Columthin rolling flakes. It yields but bia, near the ocean. little balsam : two-thirds of the The seventh, and last species, diameter of the trunk in the cen- grows in low grounds, and in tre presents a reddish white; places frequently overflown by the remainder is white, porous, the tide, seldom rising higher and tough : the twigs are much than thirty-five feet, and not more longer and more slender than in than from two and a half to four either of the other species; the in diameter : the stem is simple, leaves are acerose, one-twentieth branching, and proliferous : the of an inch in width, and one inch bark resembles that of the first in length ; sessile, inserted on species, but more rugged: the all sides of the bough, straight, leaves are acerose, two-tenths of and obliquely pointing towards an inch in width, three-fourths the extremities. The upper disk in length, firm, stiff, and a little has a small longitudinal channel, acuminated : they end in short and is of a deep green, and not pointeil tendrils, gibbous, and so glossy as the balsam fir. The thickly scattered on all sides of under disk is of a pale green. the branch, though they adhere

We have seen a species of this to the three under sides only : fir on low marshy grounds, re- those inserted on the under side sembling in all points the fore- incline sidewise, with upward going, except that it branches points, presenting the leaf in the more diffusively. This tree is shape of a sithe : the others are generally thirty feet in height, pointing upwards, sessile, and like and two in diameter. The diffu- those of the first species, grow



from the small triangular pedes- by four deep lines, resembling tals, of a bark, spongy, soft, and those of the palm, and considerelastic. The under disk is of a ably lobate : the lobes terminate deep glossy green, the other of a in from three to five angular pale whitish green: the boughs points, and their margins are inretain the leaves of a six years dented with irregular and somegrowth: the bud scales resemble what circular incisures : the petithose of the first species : the cone ole is cylindrical, smooth, and is of an ovate figure, three and a seven inches long; the leaf itself half inches in length, and three in eight inches in length, and twelve circumference, thickest in the in breadth : this tree is frequentmiddle, and tapering and termi- ly three feet in diameter, and nating in two obtuse points : it rises from forty to fifty feet : the is composed of small, flexible fruit is a winged seed, somewhat scales, imbricated, and of a red- resembling that of the maple. dish brown colour. Each of these In the same part of the counscales covers two small seeds, try there is also another growth, and is itself covered in the centre resembling the

white maple, by a small, thin, inferior scale, though much smaller, and is selacutely pointed: these scales pro- dom to be seen of more than six ceed from the sides of the bough, or

inches in diameter. as well as from its extremities. It These trees grow in clusters, from was nowhere seen above the Wap- fifteen to twenty feet in height, patoo. The stem of the black from the same bed of roots, alder arrives to great size. It spreading and leaning outwards : is simple, branching, and diffuse : the twigs are long and slender, the bark is smooth, of a light the stem simple and branching, colour, with white spreading the bark, in colour, resembling spots, resembling those of the the white maple, the leaf is petibeech : the leaf, fructification, olate, plain, scattered, nearly cir&c. resemble precisely those of cular, with acute, angular inthe common alder of our country: cisures round the margin, of an the shrubs grow separately from inch in length, and from six to different roots, and not in clus- eight in number: the acute anters, like those of the United gular points so formed, are creStates. The black alder does not nate, three inches in length and cast its leaf until the first of De- four in width : the petiole is cycember. It is sometimes found lindric, smooth, and an inch and growing to the height of sixty or a quarter in length, and the fruit seventy feet, and is from two to is not known. four in diameter.

The undergrowth consists of There is a tree common to the honeysuckles, alder, seven bark Columbia river, below the en- or pine bark, huckleberry, a shrub trance of Cataract river, when like the quillwood, a plant like divested of its foliage, much re- the mountain-holly, a green briar, sembling the ash. The trunk is the fern. simple, branching, and diffuse: 1. The honeysuckle common to the leaf is petiolate, plain, divided the United States we found in this



neighbourhood. We first disco- have since been seen elsewhere : vered the honeysuckle on the wa- they grow in rich dry grounds, ters of the Kooskooskee, near the usually in the neighbourhood of Chopunnish nation, and again some water-course : the roots are below the Grand rapids.

creeping and cylindrical: the stem 2. The alder, which is also of the first species is from a foot

to our country, was to eighteen inches in height, and found in great abundance in the about as large as an ordinary woodlands, on this side of the goose quill: it is simple, unRocky mountains. It differs in branched, and erect : its leaves are the colour of its berry: this being cauline, compound, and spreadof a pale sky blue, while that of ing: the leaflets are jointed, and the United States is of a deep oppositely pinnate, three pair, and purple.

terminating in one sextile, widest 3. The seven bark, or, as it is at the base, and tapering to an usually denominated, the nine acuminate point: it is an inch bark of the United States, is also and a quarter in its greatest common to this country.

width, and three inches and a 4. The huckleberry. There is quarter in length: each point of a species of huckleberry, common the margin is armed with a subuto the highlands, from the com- late thorn, and from thirteen to mencement of the Columbian val

seventeen in number : are veined, ley to the sea-coast, rising to the glossy, carinated and wrinkled : height of six or eight feet, branch- their points obliquely tending toing and diffuse : the trunk is cy- wards the extremity of the comlindrical, of a dark brown colour; mon footstalk : the stem of the the collateral branches are green, second species is procumbent, sinooth, and square, and put forth about the size of that of the first a number of alternate branches of species, jointed and unbranched : the same colour, and from the its leaves are cauline, compound, two horizontal sides only. The and oppositely pinnate: the rib is fruit is a small deep purple berry, from fourteen to sixteen inches in held in much esteem by the na- length, cylindric and smooth : the tives : the leaf is of a pale green, leaflets are two inches and a half and small, three-fourths of an long, and one inch wide, and of inch in length, and three-eighths the greatest width half an inch in width, oval, terninating more from the base : this they regularacutely at the apex than at the in- ly surround, and from the same sertion of the footstalk: the base point tapering to an acute apex : is nearly entire, and but slightly this is usually terminated with a serrate : the footstalks are short; small subulate thorn: they are their relative position is alternate, jointed and oppositely pinnate, two-ranked, and proceeding from consisting of six pair, and termithe horizontal sides of the boughs nating in one: sessile, serrate, only.

and ending in a small subulate 5. There are two species of spire, from twenty-five to twentyshrubs, first seen at the Grand ra- seven in number: they are smooth, pids of the Columbia, and which plain, and of a deep green, and Vol. LVIII.

2 N



all obliquely tending towards the water. In the former situation extremity of the footstalk : they the stem is frequently of the size retain their green all winter. The of a man's finger, and rises perlarge leafed thorn, has a leaf pendicularly four or five feet : it about two inches and a half long, then descends in an arch, becomes which is petiolate, and conjugate: procumbent, or rests on some the leaflets are petiolate, acutely neighbouring plants : i- is siinpie, pointed, having their margins cut unbranched, and cylindric: in the with unequal and irregular inci- latter situation it grow's much stres: the shrub, which we had smaller, and usually procumbent: once inistaken for the large leaf- the stem is armed with sharp and ed thorn, resembled the stem of forked briars: the leaf is petiothat shrub, excepting the thorn : kate, ternate, and resembles in it bears a large three healed leaf': shape and appearance that of the the briaris of the class polyandria, purple raspberry, so common to and order poligynia: the flowers the Atlantic states : the fruit is a are single: the peduncle long berry resembling the blackberry and cylindrical : thc calyx is il pe- in all points, and is eaten when rianth, of one leaf, five cleft, and ripe by the natives, which they acutely pointed : the perianth is hold in much esteem, although it proper, erect, inferior in both pe- is not dried for winter consumptals and gernien: the corolla tion, This shrub

first consists of five acute, pale scar- discovered at the entrance of let petals, inserted in the recep

Quicksand river: it gruis so tacle with a short and narrow abundantly in the fertile valley of cleft: the corolla is smooth, mo- Columbia, and the islands, that derately long, situated at the base the country is almost impenetraof the germen, permanent, and in ble: it rctains its verdure late in shape resembling a cup: the sta- summer. mens and filaments are sulu- 8. Besides the fern already delate, inserted into the receptacle, scribed, as furnishing a nutritious uncqual and bent inwards, con root, there are two other plants cealing the pystilium : tlie anther of the same species, which may is two lobed and influted, situated be divided into the large and the on the top of the filament of the small: the large fern rises three pystilium : the germ is conical, or four feet. the stem is a cominbricated, superior, sessile and mon frotstalk, proceeding immeshort : the styles are short, com- diately from the radix, somewhat pared with the stamen, capillary, fiat, abont tire size of a man's smooth and obtuse : they are dis- arm, and covered with innumer. tributed over the surface of the able black coarse capillary radicles germ, and deciduous without any issuing from every part of its surperceptible stumen.

face: one of these roots will send 7. The green

briar grows most forth from twenty to furty of these abundantly in rich dry lands, in common footstalks, bending outthe vicinity of a water-course, and wards from the conimon centre: is found in small quantities in the ribs are cylindric, and markpir.y lands at a distance from the ed longitudinally their whole


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