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for what reason we never could kindle small fires under it for the learn, the prairie buffaloe, is a purpose of drying: it needs no native of these plains, as well as previous preparation of gutting, those on the Missouri : they are and will be cured in twenty-four of the same size, and much the hours : the natives do not appear same in appearance as the black to be very scrupulous about eatlizard : the belly is however ing them when a little fætid. broader, the tail shorter, and the action much slower : the colour is generally brown, intermixed Account of the late Earthquake in with yellowish brown spots : the

Scotland. animal is covered with minute scales, interspersed with small (From Thompson's Annals of Philosophy, horny points, like blunt prickles

Vol. VIII.) on the upper surface of the body: At Inverness, which was certhe belly and throat resemble tainly the focus of its action, the those of the frog, and are of a carthquake not only produced the light yellowish brown : the edge most violent effects, but also creof the belly is likewise beset with ated the greatest alarm. In the small horny projections, impart- article from that town the coning to those edges a serrate ap- vulsion is distinctly stated to have pearance: the eye is small and laste) about 20 seconds, and to dark : above and behind the eyes have been really very tremendous. there are several projections of The bells in many houses rung that bone, and their extremities for more than a minute, and sealso being armed with a firm veral of the inhabitants who had black substance, resemble the ap- retired to rest were fairly tossed pearance of horns sprouting from out of bed. The concussion on the head : these animals are found the houses was dreadful; and in great numbers in the sandy such was the terror it inspired, open plains, and appear in the that they were all in one moment greatest abundance after a shower evacuatech Infants were torn of rain : they are sometimes found from the cradle : and men, wobasking in the sunshine, but con- men and children, of all

ages

and ceal themselves in little holes of ranks, many of them just as they the earth in much the greatest had risen from their beds, and proportion of the time : this may almost naked, were seen rushing account for their appearance in into the streets, which were insuch numbers after the rain, as stantly filled with the most doletheir holes may thus he rendered ful female shrieks and lamentauntenantable.

tions. Under the dreadful ap9. The anchovy, which the prehension of a second and more natives call olthen, is so delicate vjolent shock, which might pera fish that it soon becomes tainted, haps bury them under the ruins unless pickled or smoked: the of their houses, the motley and natives run a small stick through terror-struck groups of inhabithe gills and hang it up to dry in tants crowdled in various streams the smoke of their lodges, or through the different outlets lead

ing towards the country, where the north-west. This circummany of them remained all night stance appears to be very

satisfacin the fields. Partly from fear, torily accounted for by a gentleand partly from curiosity, few I man at Inverness, who remarks, believe occupied their homes or that “the motion of the undulatheir beds until day-break, and tion towards the south-east being many did not return to them till communicated to the lower soonnext evening. By fortunate ac- er than to the higher parts of the cident, the streets had been almost building, those parts of the latter deserted on the night of the earth- whose cohesion was not sufliciquake, and before the shock, at an ently strong would naturally be unusually early hour ; and it was

left behind, and projected in a equally lucky that the violence of north-west direction.” It is not the concussion was in a great impossible, however, that electri.. measure over before the people city, which, if not sometimes the had time to crowd into them cause of the sensation of earthagain ; for so very thick was the quake, at least appears very geneshower of large stones which rally to accompany such convulwere precipitated from the chim- sions, might have had some share ney tops, as well as of slates and in producing this injury. Nottiles, which were shaken in great withstanding its vicinity to Innumbers from the roofs of the verness, and although it was agihouses, that, if the streets had tated during the great earthquake not been empty, many deaths and of Lisbon, yet there is no account dreadful accidents must have oc- of Loch Ness having been affected curred. The thundering noise on the late occasion. But it is made by the stones in falling ad- not unlikely that it may have disded to the other horrors of the played some commotion, though night; many of them were pro. from the lateness of the hour it jected completely across to the would necessarily escape observaopposite side of the way. It is rather tion. Three gentlemen who at remarkable, that it was chietly the time of the earthquake hapfrom the newer houses that the pened to be approaching Inverstunes were thus thrown; many ness from the west, when at a of the older ones having entirely considerable distance from the escaped this dilapidation. It was town, distinctly heard the large not, however, until the morning's bell toll twice. This circum: light that the inost decisive proof stance was entirely unnoticed by of the violence of the shock was those who were in the streets or displayed. No sooner had day houses of the place; people of dawned than the beautiful spire every description having been too which is attached to the county much alarmed, and too much oc. jail was observed to have been cupied in providing for the safety rent through, at the distance of of themselves and their families, several feet from the top: and the to remark it. It appears to have part which was above the frac- been admitted by many gentleture appeared twisted round se- men of Inverness, who had residveral inches in a direction towards ed long in foreign countries, par

ticularly

ticularly in the West Indies, other places intervening between where such convulsions are very this and the river Tay, the earthfrequent, that they had never be- quake seems to have been generfore felt so smart a shock. ally felt, with equal violence, ma

From Tain, Dingwall, Dor- king allowance for variety of sinoch, Wick, and all the towns to tuation. At Aberdeen, a person the northward of this, there were who had been present during the similar accounts to those given of earthquake in Lisbon on June 6, Forres, and the other towns al 1807, described the late shock as ready mentioned. I had several exactly resembling the commencevery interesting and intelligent ment of it. In many houses the letters from Sutherland. One bells were set aringing, and the gentleman describes the sensation wires continued to vibrate for he and his party felt, to have some time after their sound had been just as if they had been all ceased. The houses were shaken suddenly launched in a boat from to their foundations, and the dry land to sea. At first he sup- heaviest articles of furniture were posed, for a moment, that one moved. A second, but more side of his chair, and the wall slight and partial shock, was felt against which he was leaning about half an hour after the first; had suddenly given way. The and this was also remarked by hens made a prodigious noise on some individuals in almost every their roost; and a pointer dog quarter where the chief one had howled for a considerable time been experienced. At Parkhill, afterwards. On looking out im- the seat of General Gordon, near mediately afterwards, this gentle. Aberdeen, a circumstance occurman remarked that the night was red which deserves particular atwarm, and quite clear, but rather tention. The sluice-gate of a dark; the atmosphere heavy, and piece of water, weighing several forming one cloud, except on the tons, was raised from its foundaeastern and south-east horizon, tion about 12 inches : and some where it had the appearance ge- large stones having accidentally nerally observable before sun- rolled underneath it, kept it up rise. Another gentleman, who in that situation till most of the was on the road near Brora, in a waters escaped before it could be gig, writes me that he was not in replaced. Several instruments the least sensible of any thing, been from time to time proand was quite ignorant of the posed for measuring the degree of shock, until he heard of it on force of the shock of earthquakes ; reaching home, where he found but here was one perfectly fortuhis family had been alarmed. A itous, which, though perhaps it lad who was standing on a rock did not mark the utmost extent in the middle oỉ the country, at of its energy, proved that the the time of the convulsion, de- power of the late one had been at clared that it moved up and down least equal to an elevation of 12 under hini like a quaking bog. inches. In the neighbourhood of

At Aberdeen, Montrose, Dun- Montrose a very amusing occurkell, Perth, Pitmain, and the rence happened. Two excsemen

sea.

having lain down, in concealment, fore the latc shock occurred, he on the ground, to watch for an distinctly felt a slight concussion; expected party of smugglers, which, from the recollection of when the shock took place, one what he had experienced abroad, of them started up, exclaiming to gave him very considerable alarm, his comrade, “There they are ! but which he did not wish to for I feel the ground striking un- communicate to his friends at the der their horses feet.” In the time. This gentleman was also town of Montrose, the inhabi- perfectly sensible of the second tants felt their beds move, first in and slighter shock, which followa horizontal direction, and then ed on August 13, at an interval of return to their former situation ; half an hour after the more deafter which a tremulous motion cided convulsion. In this fawas felt, as when a body, after mily, too, we all of us felt this being agitated, settles gradually second concussion. But although upon its basis. Some compared we noticed it to each other at the it to the slight rolling of a ship at time, yet I then suspected it to

The bells in houses were be nothing more than the sensarung, and the furniture shaken, tion of the first shock, which still as in other places, and the great remained with us; as one is acest alarm prevailed. A vivid Hash customed to think he feels the of lightning was observed to fol. motion of the waves of the sea for low after the shock.

a good while after he has landed The article from Perth speaks from a ship. There cannot be any of two distinct shocks, the second doubt, however, of the reality of occurring at an interval of a mi- this second movement of the earth; nute after the first. In other re- it having been noticed by some inspects the effects there appear to dividual or other, and at the same have been similar to, and nearly interval of time, in almost every as powerful as, those at Aber- quarter where the more intense deen and Montrose. At Dun- shock was experienced. keld, a young man, who

There is one fact which I constepping into bed at the moment ceive to be so peculiarly striking, of the shock, was nearly thrown that I cannot allow it to escape down on the floor ; and in one notice, having not only been very house the liquor in the glasses sensible of it in my own person, was nearly spilt by the concus- but having also learned, by insion. A small meteor was seen quiry of others, that the feeling to pass from east to west just was by no means a solitary one, abuut the time of the earthquake. but remarked pretty generally by

A gentleman who has been for a number of individuals. Immesome time on a visit to this neigh- diately after the shock of the bourhood, who has resided long earthquake commenced, I felt in Italy, and who tells of him myself assailed by a kind of faintself that he has always had a kind ishness, which did not altogether of luck for meeting with earth- leave me until after I was asleep quakes, asserts that, whilst sitting in bed, about two hours afterat breakfast, about three days be- wards.

This sensation was per

fectly

was

ness.

fectly different from that general- decidedly of that character. We ly attending the apprehension of have hardly any data to enable us immediate danger. Indeed, no to say whether the primitive or such feeling could possibly be the floetz rocks yielded most easipresent with me; for I no sooner ly to the vibratory motion. But knew it to be an earthquake, than the alluvial site of the town of all sense of dread was absorbed Inverness, under which I believe in the delight I felt in being so there is also a great deal of peat very lucky as to have my curiosi- moss, seeins clearly and decidedly ty satisfied by the actual experi- to have manifested by far the ence of so rare a phenomenon, most violent appearances of conthe extent of which I naturally vulsion ; which, if any information supposed, at the moment, might be correct, was even by no means perhaps be confined to the narrow so great on the eminences in the district around me. I have known immediate neighbourhood. As we several persons, quite incapable have thus the most prominent exof being influenced by fear of any ample of the power of the earthkind, who have remarked a simi

quake, displayed upon an alluvial lar sensation in themselves during deposit ; so we have reason to dethe time of a thunder-storin. This

cide, from the body of the evifaintish feeling, on the late occa- dence, that almost all alluvial posion, was in some people attended sitions were in general more vioby a very slight degree of sick- lently convulsed than the more

stable formations in their close Perhaps it might not have been vicinity; although at the same altogether without its use to have time we find several anomalies given in this place a slight and militating against such a conclugeneral geological sketch of the sion. various rocks composing the dif- Upon the cause of earthquakes, ferent parts of the extensive range to find it perfect solution of which of country throughout which the has been a matter of difficulty to late earthquake was experienced philosophers of all ages and counin the greatest intensity. But if tries, I do not dare to throw out I could even venture to draw

any new speculation. I am, howmore largely on your patience, in ever, rather inclined to adopt that order to make such an attempt, I explanation which assigns it to do not feel sufficiently confident the rarefaction, and conversion in possessing ability or informa- into steam, of large bodies of wation enough to enable me to do ter, at considerable depths bejustice to the subject. I may only neath the earth's surface. It is remark, that every geognostica general remark, in all countries denomination of country seems where earthquakes are common, to have submitted to the influence that they are preceded by the fall of the ilgitating power : that of copious rains. Such, for exrocky positions have in general ample, was the case with that of been much shaken, and in some Lisbon, as well as with those of instances (as in that of this very Calabria. In the domestic inhouse) more so than those less stance in question, too, we have

had

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