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The external branches are short, meter of at least ten feet, and have several unequal bends, and where the regularly round and are covered with a brown bark. straight stem began, the extent

The leaves are alternate, ob- of at least ten feet between the long, heart-shaped, somewhat points of two opposite appendages narrower towards the base, entire, at the surface of the ground, its with a waving or undulated mar- diameter was full three feet. I gin, which sometimes has a few have since found a very tall tree irregular sinuosities. The longi- in Passooroowang, near the bountudinal nerve divides the leaf dary of Malang, and very lately

somewhat obliquely, and the in- I have discovered several young , ferior division is generally the trees in the forests of Japara, larger. The point is irregular, and one in tree in the vicinity of some are rounded at the end, Onarang In all these places, others run off almost abruptly to though the inhabitants are unaca short point. The upper surface quainted with the preparation and is shining and nearly smooth: effect of the poison, they distinsome widely dispersed short villiguish the tree by the name of are observed on it; the inferior Antshar. From the tree I found surface is slightly rough, reticu- in the province of Passooroowang lated, and marked with oblique I collected some juice, which was parallel veins. The petiole is nearly equal in its operation to short. The flowers are produced that of Blambangan. One of the towards the extremity of the outer experiments to be related below branches, in a few scattered cat- was made with the Oopas prekins. The common peduncle of pared by myself, after my return the males is slender and long, to the chief village. I had some that of the females is shorter. difficulty in inducing the inhabi

Previous to the season of flow- tants to assist me in collecting the ering, about the beginning of juice, as they feared a cutaneous June, the tree sheds its leaves, eruption and inflammation, rewhich re-appear when the male sembling, according to the acflowers have completed the office count they gave of it, that proof fecundation. It delights in a duced by the Ingas of this island, fertile and not very elevated soil, the Rhus vernir of Japan, and the and is only found in the largest Rhus radicans of North America; forests. I first met with it (the but they were only affected by Antshar) in the province of Poe- a slight heat and itching of the gar, on my way to Banjoowangee; eyes. In clearing the new grounds in the province of Blambangan in the environs of Banjoowangee I visited four or five different for cultivation, it is with much trees, from which this description difficulty the inhabitants can be has been made, while two of made to approach the tree, as them furnished the juice for the they dread the cutaneous eruption preparation of the Oopas. The which it is known to produce largest of these trees had, where when newly cut down. the oblique appendages of the But except when the tree is stem entered the ground, a dia. largely wounded, or when it is

felled,

felled, by which a large portion state. It is a large winding of the juice is disengaged, the shrub. effluvia of which, mixing with the The root extends creeping to a atmosphere, affects the persons considerable distance, parallel to exposed to it, with the symptoms the surface of the earth, sending just mentioned, the tree may be off small fibres at different curves, approached and ascended like the while the main root strikes perother common trees in the fo- pendicularly into the ground. rests.

In large individuals it has a The Antshar, like the trees in diameter of two or three inches ; its neighbourhood, is on all sides it is covered with a reddish brown surrounded by shrubs and plants; bark, containing a juice of the in no instance have I observed same colour, of a peculiar, punthe ground naked or barren in its gent, and somewhat nauseous immediate circumference.

odour. From this bark the poison The largest tree I niet with in is prepared. Blambangan was so closely en- The stem, which in general is vironed by the common trees and shrubby, sometimes acquires the shrubs of the forest in which it size of a small tree; it is very grew, that it was with difficulty I irregular in its ascent and districould approach it. Several vines bution: having made several large and climbing shrubs, in complete bends near the surface of the health and vigour, adhered to it, earth it divides (at long intervals) and ascended to nearly half its into numerous branches, which height. And at the time I visited attach themselves to the neighthe tree and collected the juice, I bouring objects and pursue a was forcibly struck with the winding course at no great disegregious misrepresentation of tance from the ground and nearly Foersch. Several young trees parallel to it. In some instances spontaneously sprung from seeds the stem rises to the top of large that had fallen from the parent, trees; its forın is completely cyreminded me of a line in Dar- lindrical, and it is covered with a win's Botanic Garden, “ Chained grey spotted bark: at his root two scion demons The lesser branches arise from dwell;"-while in recalling his the stem in pairs (opposite) and beautiful description of the Oopas, are very long, slender, cylindrical, my vicinity to the tree gave me divergent or spreading, and coreason to rejoice that it is founded vered with a smooth grey shining on fiction. The wood of the bark ; on these the leaves are Antshar is white, light, and of a placed opposite, in single pairs spongy appearance.

or on a common footstalk, pin

nate in two or three pair3 ; they Description of the Tschettik.

are egged, spear-shaped, entire, The fructification of the Tshet- terminating in a long narrow tik is still unknown ; after all point, completely smooth and possible research in the district shining on the upper surface, where it grows, I have not been with a few parallel veins beneath. able to find it in a flowering The petioles are short and some

what

moon.

what curved. Toward their ex- wards the margin of the cup, with tremity the shoots produce cirrhi a perceptible commotion on the or tendrils, which appear without surface of the liquor, which conany regular distribution opposite tinued about one minute. Being to the leaflets; and some branches completely at rest, the same quanare entirely without them : they tity of pepper was again added, are about an inch long, slender, and another seed of the capsicum compressed and spirally turned laid on as before: a similar comback (recurvati); at their end near motion took place in the fluid, the base a small stipula is found. but in a less degree, and the seed

The Tshettik grows only in was carried round with diminished close, shady, almost inaccessible rapidity. The addition of the forests, in a deep, black, fertile, same quantity of pepper was revegetable mould. It is very rarely peated a third time, when a seed met with, even in the wildernesses of the capsicum being carefully of Blambangan.

placed in the centre of the fluid, Preparation 1st of the Antshar. remained quiet, forming a re-This process was performed for gular circle about itself, in the me by an old Javanese, who was fluid, resembling the halo of the celebrated for his superior skill in

This is considered as a preparing the poison. About sign that the preparation of the eight ounces of the juice of the poison is complete. Antshar, which had been collected The dried milk of the Antshar the preceding evening in the usual having been preserved close a manner, and preserved in the considerable time, can still be prejoint of a bamboo, was carefully pared and rendered active. A strained into a bowl. The sap of quantity which I had collected the following substances, which about two months before, was had been finely grated and bruised, treated in the following manner was carefully expressed and poured by the same person who prepared into it, viz. Arum, Nampoo (Ja- the fresh juice. Being infused in vanese) Kæmpferia Galanga, as much hot water as was barely Kontshur, Amomum, Bengley, (a sufficient well to dissolve it, it was variety of Zerambed) common carefully stirred till all the partionion and garlic, of each about cles soluble in water were taken half a dram ; the same quantity up; a coagulum of resin reof finely powdered black pepper mained undissolved; this was was then added, and the mixture taken out and thrown away. The stirred.

liquor was now treated with the The preparer now took an en- spices above-mentioned, the peptire fruit of the Capsicum frutico- per and the seed of the capsicum, sum or Guinea pepper, and having in the same manner as the fresh opened it, he carefully separated juice. The same whirling motion a single seed, and placed it on occurred as above described, on the Huid in the middle of the the seed being placed in the bowl.

centre. Its activity will appear The seed immediately began to from one of the experiments to reel round rapidly, now forming be related. a regular circle, then darting to- 2d. Of the Tshettik.--The bark

of

of the root is carefully separated, manufacture of salt, and at a disand cleared of all the adherent tance looked like a large village. earth ; a proportionate quantity Alighting we went to the Bluof water is poured on, and it is dugs, as the Javanese call them. boiled about an hour, when the They are situated in the village of fluid is carefully filtered through Kuhoo, and by Europeans are a white cloth; it is then exposed called by that name. We found to the fire again and boiled down them to be on an elevated plain to nearly the consistence of an of mud, about two miles in cirextract; in this state it much re- cumference, in the centre of sembles a thick syrup. The fol- which immense bodies of salt lowing spices, having been pre- mud were thrown up to the pared as above described, are height of from ten to fifteen feet, added in the same proportion as in the form of large globes, to the Antshar; viz. Kæmpferia which, bursting, emitted volumes Galanga, (Kontshur,) Soonty, &c. of dense white smoke. These Dshey, for common onion, garlic, large globes or bubbles, of which and black pepper.

there were two, continued throwThe expressed juice of these is ing up and bursting seven or poured into the vessel, which is eight times in a minute by the once more exposed to the fire a watch. At times they throw up few minutes, when the prepara

two or three tons of mud. We tion is complete. The Oopas of got to leeward of the smoke, and both kinds must be preserved in found it to smell like the washing very close vessels.

of a gun-barrel. As the globes burst, they threw the mud out from the centre, with a pretty loud noise, occasioned by the falling of the mud upon that which surrounded it, and of which the

plain is composed. It was diffi1 (By T. S. Goad, Esq. of the Hon. Com

cult and dangerous to approach pany's Bengal Civil Service.)

the large globes or bubbles, as

the ground was all a quagmire, Having received an extraordi- except where the surface of the nary account of a natural pheno- mud had become hardened by the menon in the Plains of Grobogan, sun; upon this we approached fifty pals or miles N.E. of Solo, cautiously to within fifty yards of a party, of which I was one, set the largest bubble, or mud-pudoff from Solo on the 8th of Sep- ding, as it might very properly be tember, 1815, to examine it.

called, for it was of the consisOn approaching the village of tency of a custard-pudding, and Kuhoo, we saw, between two of very considerable diameter ; trees in a plain, an appearance here and there, where the foot like the surf breaking over rocks, accidentally rested on a spot not with a strong spray falling to sufficiently hardened to bear, it leeward. The spot com- sunk, to the no small distress of pletely surrounded by huts for the the walker.

We

VOLCANIC

ERUPTIONS

OF

MUD

AND SALT

IN THE ISLAND OF

JAVA.

was

up

We also got close to a small the water was quite cold, and globe or bubble (the plain was tasted bitter, salt, and sour, and full of them of different sizes) had an offensive smell. About and observed it closely for some thirty yards from the lake stood time. It appeared to heave and the mud hillock, which was about swell, and when the internal air fifteen feet high from the level of had raised it to some height, it the earth. The diameter of its burst and fell down in concentric base was about twenty-five yards, circles, in which shape it remained and its top about eight feet and quiet until a sufficient quantity of in form an exact cone. The top air was again formed internally is open, and the interior keeps to raise and burst another bubble. constantly working and heaving This continued at intervals from up mud in globular forms, like about one-half to two minutes. the Bludugs. The hillock is enFrom various other parts of the tirely formed of mud which has quagmire round the large globes flowed out of the top ; every rise or bubbles, there were occasion of the mud was accompanied by ally small quantities of mud shot a rumbling noise from the bottom

like rockets to the height of of the hillock, which was distwenty or thirty feet, and accom- tinctly hearil for some seconds panied by smoke. This was in before the bubbles burst. The parts where the mud was of too outside of the hillock was quite stiff a consistency to rise in globes firm. We stood on the edge of or bubbles. The mud at all the the opening and sounded it, and places we came near was cold on found it to be eleven fathoms the surface, but we were told it deep. The mud was more liquid was warm beneath. The water than at the Bludugs, and no which drains from the mud is smoke was emitted from the lake, collected by the Javanese, and by hillock, or pools. being exposed in the hollows of Close to the foot of the hillock split bamboos to the rays of the was a small pool of the same sun, deposits crystals of salt. water as the lake which appeared The salt thus made is reserved exactly like a pot of water boiling exclusively for the Emperor of violently; it was shallow, except Solo. In dry weather it yields in the centre, into which we thirty dudjins of one hundred cat- thrust a stick twelve feet long, ties each, every month, but in wet but found no bottom. The hole or cloudy weather less.

not being perpendicular we could In the afternoon we rode to a not sound it with a line. place in a forest calierl Ramsam, About two hundred yards from to view a salt lake, a mud hillock, the lake were several large pools and various boiling or rather bub- or springs, two of which were bling pools. The lake was about eight and ten feet in diameter. half a mile in circunference, of a They were like the small pool, dirty looking water, boiling up all but boiled more violently, and over in gurgling bodies, but more smelt excessively. The ground particularly in the centre, which around them was hot to the feet, appeared like a strong spring; and the air which issued from

them

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