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devoted to this employment, and nearly two months, produces from who are called Huragueros, are 1000 to 1600 weight of Urao, embodied at the residence of the which is the quantity consumed Teniente visitador. The Indians in two years at Venezuela ; but employed at this work are easily if more were required, the lake distinguished by their hair be- would probably furnish upwards coming red. Being embodied, of four times that quantity. The they proceed, in presence of the difficulty of extracting the Urao Gens d'armes, to sound the lake may easily be imagined, but what with a long pole, at the end of is much worse, considerable danwhich is fixed a bar of iron, which ger attends it. If the Indian serves to break the mineral. diver happens to lose his hold of Having by these ineans found his pole, or if some other accithe parts where the Urau is most dent prevent his rising promptly copiously deposited, they divide to the surface of the water, and themselves into different parties indeed the Indians of Lalagunilla (quadrillas), for the sake of faci- are in general but indifferent dilitating their labour. Each party, vers, he is in danger of swallowcomposed of eight, ten, or more ing more or less of the alkaline Indians, fixes a pole in the centre solution. If the quantity drank of the district allotted to them. be inconsiderable, the bad conseSupported by this pole, the Hura- quences may be tritling; but if gueros plunge into the lake, and he happen to drink largely, he beginning by separating a bed of cannot survive it inany days. Oil earth which covers the mineral, has been had recourse to in vain. they proceed to break the Urao. Acetic acid might, perhaps, in When they suppose that a consi- such cases be administered with derable part of the Urao is sepa- better effect. Father Rendon prorated from the mass, they dive posed, in 1808, to the Captainfor it, and then rising again above general of Caraccas, to effect the the water, place it in very small extraction of the Urao by sinking canoes (piraguitas), which float a caisson, which when properly round the spot. As there are se- secured should be opened at botveral Indians who explore the tom to get at the soda.

This prosame mine, the work goes on ject, which undoubtedly at low without interruption, but the water might be realised at a same Huraguero is not able to small expense, was rejected as plunge many times successively. impracticable. The work, which begins early, When the extraction of the and always in presence of the Urao is completed, the superinGens d'armes, who are stationed tendant of the tobacco, who reon the borders of the lake, ceases sides at Merida, repairs to Lalaat six o'clock in the afternoon, gunilla, accompanied by the Tewhen the produce of the day's viente visitador and others. The labour is deposited in the royal salt is weighed, and paid for in magazine, and is afterwards ex- the proportion of about one real posed to the heat of the sun. of plata (about seven-pence) the The extraction, which lasts pound. It is then conveyed into


the general storehouse for tobacco The sale of tobacco, the Mò at Guanare, in the province of dulce, and Chimè, in the CapCaraccas, whence it is distributed taincy-general of Venezuela, proto the lesser warehouses.

duced, in 1804, 700,000 piasters If a heap of tobacco leaves after every expense attending it covered with the green leaves was paid. of other plants be exposed to the I had the honour of transmitsun for a few days, the tobacco ting last year to Baron Humboldt begins to ferment. If then put in Paris, a specimen of the Urao, into a press a red liquor may be which Colonel Duran brought to drawn from it, the exhalations of Europe. It was analysed by M. which are intoxicating, and its Guy Lussac, who pronounced it taste very pungent. This juice to be natron, in no respect difdrawn from the tobacco is called ferent from that found in the Anvir, but when reduced to a lakes of Egypt and Fezzan. The syrup, by evaporation, it is term- mass neither contains sulphuric ed Mo. If the Mò be mixed nor boracic acid, but a little subwith the Urao when dried, corbonate of ammonia. On comroasted, and pulverised, it forms paring the Urao with common the Mò dulce, if the proportions subcarbonate of soda we find that be preserved of an ounce of it contains more carbonic acid and Urao to a pound of Md, or less water. otherwise Chimd, if two or more In the environs of Lalagunilla, ounces of Urao be mixed with a as well as in the roads to Merida, pound of Md.

and especially near the river AlIn the province of Venezuela, barregas, there are some mounand especially in Barinas and part tains which are very distinguishof Caraccas and Maracaybo, Mdable among the others by their is much used, and likewise Chi- superior verdure, and by the mò, which is kept in small horn abundance of some plants, prinhoxes, and occasionally persons cipally the Rosa de Muerto, and put a little into their mouths. precisely the same species of verThe Md, and especially the Chi. dure and the same plants are mò, produces a copious salivation, found on the mountains where stimulating at the same time the are the mines of rock salt at Zi. nervous system, which in these paquira, and at Enemocon of climes, where the senses Cundinamarca in New Granada. blunted by the excessive heat, is Finding these similarities, I may productive of a degree of plea- venture to form a conjecture, sure.

that in the environs of LalaguIt is likewise used in medicine nilla there must likewise exist for spasmodic complaints, which muriate of soda, and this being in these countries are both fre- ascertained it would perhaps conquent and dangerous. It is said tribute to explain the formation that a little Chimd held in the of natron at such a considerable mouth protects swimmers from height above the level of the sea, the electric power of the cramp which is more than sixty leagues fish (Trembladores).

distant from Lalagunilla.







the large quantities of corn which,

during the last harvest, have been THE following letter at this housed in a damp state, and on

time deserves particular at the great importations which are tention; the scientific author, expected, with the extreme proMr. Hatchett, is well known to bability that a considerable part be one of the most eminent chy- may have contracted must, and mists in Europe.

that thus the object of importation may be partially frustrated by the

destruction of a large portion of BANKS, BART. G. C. B. P.R.S. &c.

grain, and the consequent increase Read before the Royal Society, Dec. in the price of the remainder, I 5, 1816.

think it incumbent on me, by My Dear Sir,— The very addressing this letter to you, to great loss which this country lose no time in publishing a proformerly experienced by a con- cess, by which corn, however siderable part of imported grain musty, may be completely purihaving become contaminated by fied, with scarcely any loss of must, induced me several years quantity, with very little expense, past to direct my attention to- and without requiring previous wards discovering some simple chymical knowledge or chymical and economical method by which apparatus. this taint could be removed, and The experiments which I you well know that iny endea- made were confined to wheat, as vours were successful; but as being of the greatest importance; circumstances at that time, and but there can be no doubt that since, did not appear to require oats and other grain may be rethat great publicity should be stored to sweetness with equal given to this process, I contented success : and I have also addimyself with describing it to you tional satisfaction from being enand a few of my other friends. abled to state, that the efficacy of Now, however, when I reflect on the process may be ascertained by



any person, in any place, and even the most musty corn (on upon any quantity of grain, how. which ordinary kiln-drying had ever small.

been tried without effect) thus “From my experiments I am became completely purified, whilst inclined to believe, that must is a the diminution of weight caused taint produced by damp upon the by the solution of the tainted part amylaceous part of the grain or was very inconsiderable. starch: that the portion of starch I have the honour to remain, nearest to the husk is that which

Dear Sir Joseph, is first tainted; and that the Your most faithful and greater or less degree of must is

obedient servant, in proportion to the taint having

CHARLES HATCHETT." penetrated more or less into the Mount Clare, Roehampton, substance of the grain. In most Dec. 4, 1816. cases, however, the taint is only superficial; but, nevertheless, if not removed, it is sufficient to contaminate the odour and flavour of the whole, especially when The two following interesting converted into flour.

stories are extracted from the “ After various experiments, I Report of the Society for betfound the following method to be tering the Condition of the Poor :" attended with success :

they are well worth the attention “ The wheat must be put into of those country gentlemen who any convenient vessel capable of have a sincere wish to ameliorate containing at least three times the condition of their indigent the quantity, and the vessel must labourers.-(Times.) be subsequently filled with boiling Twenty years ago there stood a water; the grain should then be small cottage by the road side, occasionally stirred, and the hol- near Tadcaster, which for its sin. low and decayed grains (which gular beauty, and the neatness of will float) may be removed; when its little garden, attracted the nothe water has become cold, or, in tice of every traveller.' The regeneral, when about half an hour markable propriety which appearhas elapsed, it is to be drawn off. ed in every part of this tenement It will be proper then to rince the made Sir Thomas Bernard curious corn with cold water, in order to to learn the history of the owner, remove any portion of the water and he obtained it from his own which had taken up the must; mouth. Britton Abbott (such after which, the corn being com- was the owner's name) was pletely drained, is, without loss day-labourer: beginning to work of time, to be thinly spread on with a farmer at nine years old, the floor of a kiln, and thoroughly and being careful and industrious, dried, care being taken to stir and he had saved nearly 401. by the to turn it frequently during this time that he was two-and-twenty. part of the process.

With this money he married and “ This is all that is required; took a farm at 301. a year ; but and I have constantly found that the farm was too much for his

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means, and before the end of the Though my visit,' says Sir second year he found it necessary Thomas, was unexpected, and to give it up, having exhausted he at the latter end of his Saturalmost all his little property. He day's work, his clothes were neat then removed to a cottage, where and sufficiently clean. His counwith two acres of land and his tenance was healthy and open; right of cominon he kept two he was a little lame in one leg, cows, and lived in comfort for the consequence of exposure to nine years : at the expiration of wet and weather. He said he that time the common was en- had always worked hard and well; closed, and he had to seek a new but he would not deny but that habitation with six children, and he had loved a mug of good ale his wife ready to lie-in again. In when he could get it. - When I this state he applied to Mr. Fair- told him my object in inquiring fax, and told him that if he would after him, that it was in order let him have a little bit of ground that other poor persons might by the road side he would show have cottages and gardens as neat him the fashions on it.' The slip as his, and that he must tell me of land for which he asked was all his secret how it was to be exactly a rood; Mr. Fairfax, done, he seemed extremely pleasafter inquiring into his character, ed, and very much affected : he suffered him to have it; the said, 'nothing will make poor neighboul's lent him some little folks more happy than finding assistance in the carriage of his that great folks thought of them : materials ; he built his house, en- that he wished every poor man closed the ground with a single had as comfortable a home as his row of quickset, which he cut own,-not but that he believed down six times when it was young, there might be a few thoughtless and planted the garden. The fellows who would not do good manner in which he set to work, in it.' and the way in which the work Britton Abbot was at this time was performed, pleased Mr. Fair- sixty-seven, and had lived happily fax so much, that he told him he with his wife for five and forty should be rent-free. His answer, years. He earned from twelve to as Sir Thomas Bernard justly eighteen shillings a week by task says, deserves to be remembered work, but to be sure,' he said,

Now, Sir, you have a pleasure 'I have a grand character in all in seeing my cottage and garden this country!' Five of his children neat; and why should not other were living, and having been well squires have the same pleasure in brought up, were thriving in the seeing the cottages and gardens world. Upon his rood of ground as nice about them? The poor he had fifteen apple trees, one would then be happy, and would green-gage, two winesour plumlove them, and the place where trees, two apricot trees, currants, they lived: but now every nook gooseberries, and three beehives; of land is to be let to the great he reared also from this garden farmers, and nothing left for the abundance of common vegetables, poor but to go to the parish,' and about forty bushels of pota

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