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superior healthiness of Washing- tion, and open to it all the trade ton to those cities. In European of the west, it is impossible that cities, the annual deaths are, one it can avoid becoming the most to 28, making a vast difference in wealthy and eligible territory in favour of Washington.

the Union. PopulaTION.—The population MANUFACTURES.--Its manufac. of the district of Columbia, at tures are in a flourishing condithe last census (1810,) amounted tion, and are daily increasing in to 24,023-now, in all probabi- variety and capital. lity, 30,000. The city contained ConstituTION AND LAWS.8,209, Georgetown 4,948, and By the constitution of the United Alexandria 7,227; Washington States the national legislature have county 2,315, and Alexandria the power to exercise exclusire lecounty 1,325 inhabitants.

gislation over this territory, and Commerce.--Its commercial to enact such laws in relation to importance has, perhaps, never it, as may be deemed necessary been duly appreciated. From its and proper. Whether Governcentral situation, surrounded by ment could assume this right, a rich, fertile, and flourishing consistently with the nature and country, commanding the most principles of our political instituextensive internal resources, it tions, and thus exclude a large must soon become one of the population from the privileges of richest commercial territories in freemen, we shall not now pause the United States. In 1813, it to examine. It is, however, cerexported, in domestic productions tain, we are for many years desand manufactures, to the amount tined to be deprived of the right of 1,387,000 dollars ; thus sur- of suffrage ; a privilege so much passing in exports alone, both and so highly prized by our counConnecticut and Vermont; and trymen. in 1803 it paid in duties on im- The laws of Virginia and Maryports 143,000 dollars. Its rising land, prior to the year 1800, are prosperity is marked and percep- still in force in the district, extible; and though it has been op- cepting such as have been repealposed by all the violence of pre- ed or modified by the national lejudice, and all the obstacles of gislature, who have exclusive juconflicting interests, it has risen risdiction over it. Congress with great rapidity, and promises have, however, lately passed a to be of vast political and com- law authorizing the Judges of the mercial importance to the United Circuit Court, in conjunction States Its natural advantages with the Attorney General of the are calculated to promote that ob- United States, to form a code of ject: Situated on the great post- laws for its government, which road from the northern to the we trust will obviate all those southern extremities of the Uni- difficulties hitherto experienced ted States, and almost equi-distant from the various and conflicting from the Atlantic on the one side statutes of the adjacent States, and the Ohio on the other, which and from the inconvenient organyield it every facility of naviga- ization of the District Courts.

WASHINGTON WASHINGTON City.—The city naturally elegant. The avenues of Washington, which forms an are called after the different states important section of the district which constituted the union at the of Columbia, was selected by Ge- time the city was laid out, and are neral Washington, from whom it from 130 to 160 feet wide, inclutakes its name, as the metropolis ding a pavement of 10 feet, and a of the United States ; and no se- gravel walk of 30 feet, planted on lection could have been more ju- each side with trees. The other dicious or excellent. Its central streets are from 90 to 110 feet situation—the romantic and pic- wide, and are named numerically turesque beauty of its site-the when they run froin north to salubrity of its climate—and the south, and alphabetically when excellence of its water--all com- from east to west. The Eastern bine to render it the most desira. Branch, or Anacostia river, affords ble spot in the United States. It from the depth of its channels, comprises a square of four miles and its security from storms, one in extent, and is watered by the of the safest and most commodiPotomac and Anacostia rivers, ous harbours in the United States, which add to its natural beauty, and will unquestionably become, and will contribute to the facility from the convenience which the of its commerce.

There are on canal, now nearly completed, will each side of those rivers, and, in- afford, the most commercial pordeed, in almost every possible di- tion of the metropolis. rection, the most beautiful eleva- The capitol is a large and mastions, calculated for the residence sy edifice of free-stone, built acof private gentlemen, of those cording to the Corinthian order, who may wish to retire from and situated on a beautiful elevathe turmoil and bustle of the tion of ground, equidistant from town. These heights command the Eastern Branch and the Preextensive and variegated pros- sident's house. But two wings of pects of the district, of the sur- this elegant edifice have yet been rounding country, and of the me- completed, and these were unanderings of the Potomac, a3 fortunately very much injured far as the eye can reach : while by the rude hand of our late their convenience to the neigh- foe. They are, however, in a fair bouring towns of the district en- way to be speedily repaired, and ables them to afford every advan- restored to more than their pristage and pleasure that can result tine beauty and elegance : which from a union of town and coun- will be augmented when the catry. The city is divided into pitol square, lately authorized to squares by streets running north be graduated, shall have been laid and south, east and west ; but to off into walks, planted with trees, destroy the sameness and insipid- and decorated with taste. The ity which this plan would produce wall around the square is nearly there are diagonal streets, or ave. completed; the coping of stone nues, leading from one public is now on one third of it, and a place to another, which tend to portion of the iron-railing will go diversify and variegate prospects on this season. A delightful ave


nue leads from the capitol to the depth and excellence of the harPresident's house, another elegant bour, and its security from deedifice, built also of free-stone, struction by storms and enemies, according to the lonic proportions. particularly when the Chesapeake, This, like its companion, the ca- which is now in contemplation, pitol, has been partially de- shall be properly and effectually stroyed by the hand of our late defended, contribute to render it enemy. The barbarous and ab- an essential object of governniensurd policy of waging a savage talattention. In this yard, near its and destructive warfare against entrance, the officers of the navy the productions of art cannot be have erected a monument to the sufficiently reprobated. We had memory of Wadsworth, Israel, hoped that at this period of the &c., those gallant young men world, when the refinements of who voluntarily sacrificed themcivilization had introduced a libe- selves on the altar of freedom, rarality of sentiment and generosi- ther than become the slaves of ty of feeling into modern war, despotic barbarians. This monusuch arts of Vandalism would ment, which is of marble, was have been avoided. We had executed in Italy, by eminent arhoped, that a nation that had so tists. It has not yet, however, frequently boasted of her refine. received its last polish, and still ment, and of the encouragement remains for the hand of the masand protection she has afforded to ter. It is a small column of the the productions of human ingenu- Doric order, with emblematical ity, would have been the last to embellishments, and crowned have cast the firebrand amid the with an eagle in the act of flying. monuments of those arts she af- This pillar rests on a base, sculpfects to be solicitous to protect tured in basso-relievo, representing and defend.

Tripoli, its fortresses, the MediThe next object in the city to terranean, and our fleet in the which the attention is attracted is fore-ground; and on each corner the naval yard. This establish- stands an appropriate figure, element is at present resuscitating gantly executed. The one reprefrom the smouldering ruins of sents Columbia, directing the atwar, and will, from the attention tention of her children to History, Government seems to pay it, soon who is recording the daring and surpass the flourishing condition intrepid action of the American which it had once attained. They heroes; the third represents have now nearly completed the Fame, with a wreath of laurel in line of battle ship, and promise to one hand, and a pen in the other; be speedily able to build vessels and the fourth represents Merof any magnitude less than a 74. cury, or the God of Commerce, There is, perhaps, no situation in with his cornucopia and caduceus. the United States better calculated These are the principal monuthan this for a national establish- ments of art which Washington ment of this kind. The facility contains. We must not, howwith which materials and muni- ever, neglect to mention, among tions of war can be procured, the other curiosities of the metropolis,

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curiosity of literature which it parent evil; and the truth of this possesses. The national library, aphorism is exemplified by the formerly the library of Mr. Jeffer- late calamity which the city ex90n, is an object calculated to at- perienced from the invasion of the tract the attention and gratify the late enemy. Great prejudices had curiosity of the enlightened tra- existed in the legislative branch veller. It contains almost all the of the Government against this rare and valuable works in litera- place, and many powerful efforts ture and science; and though had been maile to remove the seat much has been objected to it by of Government without success. ignorunt men, it is not perhaps The shock it received by its resurpassed in literary value, selec- cent destruction had a tendency tion and arrangement by any in- to further the object of its enestitution of the same character mies. An attempt was therefore and extent in Europe. This li- made with every prospect of sucbrary was purchased of Mr. Jef- cess; but that attempt also failferson for a sum trifling in com- ed, and now there scarcely reparison with the real value of the mains a single doubt of its stabicollection, to supply the loss of lity, or of the disposition of Conthe former library of Government, gress to abandon every effort that destroyed by the British, While inay lead to the removal of the the liberality of Congress was so seat of Government. The invamunificently extended to them- sion and destruction of the city, selves, it ought not to have esca- though an event in itself to be deped them, that an institution like plored, has yet been productive of this, so beneficial in its moral and much benefit, by begetting a conintellectual tendencies, was enti- fidence in the permanency of the tled to their most serious atten- seat of Government, and production. It became them, in a pecu- ing a disposition, on the part of liar manner, as a body of enlight-' Congress, to afford it every assistened men, to foster and encou. ance and encouragement within rage, by every possible means, an their power. It is not necessary establishment calculated to re- to look far forward to see this the flect so much honour on the coun- most flourishing city in the Unitry: and, instead of the petty ap- ted States. From the rapidity propriation now made, at least with which it has recently infive thousand dollars should have created, in the value of its probeen annually bestowed, in order perty, the number and respectato increase the establishment, and bility of its population, and exrender it worthy of a free and en- tension of its internal commerce, lightened nation.

we cannot avoid beholding the It rests with us now to make a brilliant destiny to which it is few remarks on the prospects of hastening ; and in its progress to future greatness, prosperity, and that elevation to which it is cerpermanence held out to this city. tain, at no distant period, to atIt has been said, that much good tain, it has our warmest and most often originates from much ap- cordial wishes.

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brick wall. The side facing the

wind slopes off with a gradual (From Pottinger's Travels.)

declivity to the base (or near it)

of the next windward wave. It March 31st. We were on our again ascends in a straight line, camels this morning by four in the same extraordinary manner o'clock, and moved five miles

as above described, so as to form west by south to a well, where

a hollow or path between them. we filled every thing that would I kept as much in these paths a3 contain water preparatory to en- the direction I had to travel in countering the desert. This well would admit of, but had neverwas at least one hundred and fifty theless exceeding difficulty and feet deep, nearly square, and not fatigue in urging the camels over more than six feet in diameter :

the waves when it was requisite the sides of it, for two fathorns to do so, and more particularly below the surface, at which depth where we had to clamber up the the strata became firm and hard, leeward or perpendicular face of were propped by split date tre them, in which attempt we were vertically placed, and held in that many times defeated, and reduced situation by the pressure of the to go round until an easier place ends of pieces of the same wood or turn in the wave offered. On running horizontally across the the oblique or shelving side the pit. An aperture was left at one camels got up pretty well, as their corner to admit a small bucket or

broad feet saved them from sinkcopper vessel for drawing the ing deeper than we did ourselves, water, which I was both sur- and the instant they found the prized and disappointed, consi- top of the wave giving way from dering the deepness of the well, their weight, they most expertly to find so brackish as to be barely dropt on their knees, and in that palatable.

posture gently slid down with the We quitted this well just as sand, which was luckily so unthe sun rose, and proceeded the connected, that the leading canel greater part of the way on foot, usually caused a sufficient breach twenty-seven miles farther, over for the others to follow on foot. a desert of red sand, the parti- All symptoms of vegetation had cles of which were so light, that ceased for the latter ten miles of when taken in the hand they were my journey this day, except a few scarcely more than palpable : the stunted bushes of the Taghuz whole is thrown by winds into an and a hardy little plant called by irregular mass of waves princi- the Belooches Sirrikoh, bearing a pally running east and west, and purple flower with a very powervarying in height from ten to ful odoriferous smell. My guide twenty feet; most of these rise appeared to be chiefly regulated perpendicularly on the opposite in his movements by a chain of side to that from which the pre- mountains that were at times just vailing wind blows (north-west), discernible to the southward. I and might readily be fancied, at did not halt until it was almost & distance, to resemble a new dark, being desirous of getting


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