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opinion of the general terin were all cases where no evidence was presented as to the commercial value of the right or franchise in question, and the decision was, that in the absence of such evidence it could not be presumed to have a particular value. The just inference from them is, that if such proofs had been submitted the court might have considered them as the basis of an allowance: People v. Genesee Valley Canal R. R. Co., 95 N. Y. 666; Conaughty v. Saratoga Co. Bank, 92 N. Y. 401; Heilman v. Lazarus, 12 Abb. N. C. 19.
The order of the general term granting a new trial must be reversed, and the judgment entered upon the report of the referee affirmed, with costs in all courts.
The order denying the motion for an additional allowance should be reversed, with costs, and the motion remitted to the supreme court to be there heard upon its merits.
CORPORATIONS, LIABILITY OF, TOR Acrs Done ULTRA VIRES: T'insman v. Belvidere etc. R. R. Co., 26 N. J. L 148; 69 Am. Dec. 565.
STREET-RAILWAY COMPANIES. — POWER TO ADOPT IMPROVED APPLIANCES: Easton etc. R’y Co. v. Easton, 133 Pa. St. 505; 19 Am. St. Rep. 658.
TELEPHONES ARE CLASSED WITH TELEGRAPHS, FOR WHAT PURPOSES: Soe note to Central Union Telephone Co. v. Falley, 10 Am. St. Rep. 128, 129.
POWER OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATION TO REGOLATE THE USE OF STREKTS: See cases cited in the note to Wood v. Mears, 74 Am. Dec. 229.
TELEPHONE COMPANIES, Rights Or, to Use or STREETS: Cincinnati eta Ry Co v. Telegraph Au'n, 48 Ohio St. 390; 29 Am. St. Rep. 550.
PEOPLE V. Cross.
(135 NEW YORK, 636.] HITRADITED FUGITIVE TRIABLE FOR CRIME OTHER THAN THAT NAMED IN
WARRANT WHEN. - A fugitive from justice, surrendered to the author. ities of this state upon their demand, pursuant to the constitntion and laws of the United States, by the governor of another state, may be held and tried here for a crime other than that charged in the warrant by virtue of which he was arrested and surrendered in the state to which he had fled, when the criminal act for which he was extradited and that
for which he is indicted and held is the same. OBLIGATION OF STATES OF UNION TO EXTRADITE NOT FOUNDED ON Com.
ITY OR TREATY, BUT ON FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. The obligation of the states of the Union to surrender to each other persons charged with crime is not founded upon comity or treaty, but upon the provisions of the federal constitution, and is not limited to specific offenses, but em. braces all crimes. The constitution contains no express condition that the state to which a fugitive is surrendered cannot try him for any
other offense than that charged in the warrant of extradition, and no such condition can be implied. Where, therefore, in habeas corpus pro ceedings, it appears that the relator has been extradited from the state of Wisconsin upon a requisition of the governor of this state, stating that the relator stood charged with grand larceny, and that after his return to this state the indictment for grand larceny was quashed, and he was held upon an indictment for robbery in the first degree, both indictments being based upon the same acts, no principle of comity between the states, por any legal right secured to the relator, is violated by his detention. HABEAS CORPUS. The opinion states the case. John H. Gleason, for the appellant. James W. Eaton, district attorney, for the respondent.
O'BRIEN, J. The relator, George W. Post, in his petition, alleges that he is unlawfully restrained of his liberty, and imprisoned in the county jail of the county of Albany by the sheriff. Upon his application, a writ of habeas corpus was issued to inquire into the cause of the imprisonment, and having been served upon the sheriff in whose custody the relator was, a return was made thereto, in substance, that the relator was held by him in custody, as such sheriff, by virtue of a bench-warrant issued and delivered to him by the district attorney of the county of Albany, upon an indictment duly found in the court of oyer and terminer, whereby the relator was charged with the crime of robbery in the first degree. To this return the relator answered, denying that the imprisonment was legal, as alleged by the sheriff, and also set forth the following facts as constituting the true cause of the detention; that in February, 1889, the relator was indicted in the court of sessions of Albany County for the crime of grand larceny in the first degree; that afterwards, and in October, 1891, when the relator was a resident and inhabitant of the state of Wisconsin, and sojourning therein, he was arrested upon a warrant issued by the governor of that state, upon the requisi. tion of the governor of New York, in which requisition it was stated that the relator stood charged, upon an indictment in the state of New York, with the crime of grand larceny in the first degree, committed in the county of Albany, and that the relator bad fled from the state having jurisdiction of the crime charged, and had taken refuge in the state of Wiscon. sin, and demanding the return of the relator, pursuant to the constitution and laws of the United States; that after such arrest, upon the warrant of the governor of Wisconsin, the relator was delivered to an agent, appointed by the governor of New York for that purpose, and conveyed to Albany for trial upon the indictment; that afterwards he was arraigned upon the indictment and pleaded not guilty, and committed to the custody of the sheriff, by whom he was held and imprisoned till about the 21st of April, 1892, when the indictment for grand larceny in the first degree, upon which the relator was arrested in Wisconsin, was set aside and quashed; that on the same day, the district attorney issued a bench-warrant to the sheriff upon the indictment for robbery, which was found subsequent to his extradition from Wisconsin, and that by virtue of that warrant alone the relator was detained in custody at the time of his application for the writ of habeas corpus. The district attorney admitted the facts stated in the answer or traverse of the relator to the return, except some immaterial allegations with reference to the first indictment, and upon what was virtually a demurrer to the relator’s traverse, the question was submitted to the judge before whom the writ was made returnable, who dismissed it, and denied the prayer of the petitioner, and remanded him to the custody of the sheriff. This order has been affirmed at the general term. It was admitted in the courts below, and is here, that the relator is held in custody for the same criminal act which constituted the ground of the requisition by the governor of this state upon the governor of Wisconsin, and of his extradition from that state. In the warrant of the governor of Wisconsin, and in the requisition of the governor of this state, that act was designated as grand larceny in the first degree, while in the indictment and warrant under which the relator was held when he applied for the writ of habeas corpus it was designated as the crime of robbery in the first degree, and the question is, whether a fugitive from justice, surrendered to the authorities of this state upon their demand, pursuant to the constitution and laws of the United States, by the governor of another state, can be held or tried here for any other crime than that charged in the warrant by virtue of which he was arrested and surrendered in the state to which he had fled, although the act for which he was extradited and that for which he is now indicted and held in this state is the same. The obligation of independent nations to surrender fugitives from justice to each other when demanded rests either upon international comity or the stipulations of express treaty. When upon the former, there is and can be no general rule as to the duty of
the government upon which the demand is made, save its own sense of justice and regard for what is due to its neighbors. When upon the latter, the obligation is discharged by the surrender of persons properly charged with the specific offenses provided for in the treaty. Whether fugitives from justice extradited from foreign countries for offenses against the United States or any of the states could be tried when brought within the proper jurisdiction for any offense except that charged in the papers upon which the accused was surrendered by the foreign government was, until quite recently, a question that produced much conflict of judicial authority. The supreme court of the United States has settled the question, so far as concerns the obligations due to foreign nations, or to persons surrendered by thom, upon the demand of the federal government pursuant to treaty stipulations: United States v. Rauscher, 119 U. S. 407.
In that case it appeared that Rauscher was surrendered by the government of Great Britain to the United States, upon its demand, for murder committed upon the high seas, an offense of which its courts had jurisdiction, and that he was subsequently tried and convicted of another and minor offense, namely, the cruel and inhuman punishment of the same seaman, and thus the act for which he was extradited and tried was the same.
It is urged by the learned counsel for the relator that this is a controlling authority in the case at bar. But we think that there is a material distinction between the facts and circumstances of that case and those disclosed by the record before us. It must be noted in the first place that much stress was laid in that decision, and very properly, upon the fact that, by the act of Congress relating to extradition from foreign nations upon the application of the federal government, it is expressly provided that the person surrendered shall not, when brought to this country, be tried for any other or different offense. This is the construction given to the act in the case last cited: 119 U. S. 443; U.S. Rev. Stats., sec. 5275. The act of Congress passed in pursuance of the federal constitution is the supreme law of the land, and this law protected Rauscher from trial for any other offense than the one upon which he was surrendered to this government by the British authorities. Moreover, the laws of Great Britain, from which jurisdiction the fugitive had been extradited, forbid the surrender, by that government, of persons charged with crime in other jurisdictions, to countries under whose laws the person demanded was liable to be tried for some other or different offense than that charged in the application for extradition: 33 & 34 Vict., c. 52; Adriance v. Lagrave, 59 N. Y. 115; 17 Am. Rep. 317. And therefore when the United States took the fugitive from the protection of those laws, its faith and honor was pledged, at least impliedly, to the effect that it would not permit its courts to try him for any other offense, even though it might be of a lesser grade than that upon which he was surrendered. Furthermore, the offense for which Rauscher was actually tried was not one which Great Britain had bound itself by the terins of the treaty with this country to surrender him. It may very well be that had he been charged in the application for extradition with only the offense for which he was tried, that the government within whose jurisdiction he was found would have refused to surrender him to the authorities of the United States. It would therefore seem to be clear that his trial for another offense was in violation of the faith and honor of the government, as well as of an express law of Congress. These considerations are not applicable to the case now before us. The obligations of the states of this Union to surrender to each other persons charged with crime is not founded upon comity or treaty, but upon the plain provisions of the federal constitution, found in article 4, section 2, as fol. lows: “A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state ftom which he bas fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.” The obligation thus imposed upon the states is not, like treaties between independent nations, limited to specific offenses, but embraces all crimes, and if the demanding state, when the fugitive is surrendered to it, cannot try him for any other offense than that charged in the warrant of extradition, that is a condition that must be implied, as it is not expressed in the instrument creating the obligation. Whether a fugitive from justice can be tried in the state from which he has fled, and to which he has been surrendered, for any other offense than that charged in the application to the governor of the surrendering state, is a question upon which much conflict of author. ity is to be fonnd in the courts of the several states, and in the inferior courts of the United States, as the federal supreme court has not yet, so far as I am informed, passed upon the