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On the other hand, in a case where 3,000 of the patented articles had been made in the country and 300,000 imported during the same period, and the 3,000 turned out to be the simpler variety, while the more complicated variety made abroad was forbidden to the German licensee, the patent was declared void for want of sufficient working.

Where a part only of the invention has been duly worked, the rights to the unworked part may be declared forfeited. In other cases offers to grant licenses (the inventor not importing articles in accordance with the invention) were held a sufficient working, though no working really took place.

Protection of Useful Designs. These are granted for new or improved tools, or instruments and improvements in the form of usual devices or of parts thereof, but cannot be made to cover processes, or abstract ideas, or principles. There is no examination as to novelty, and no oppositions to grant are allowed, and where an application for a full German patent of invention for an arrangement of machinery or involving form is likely to be refused, it is a very common and useful resource to apply for a design protection. This protection, however, if the invention be old, can be upset in a court of law. Duration three years, renewable for three years

more.

These design patents are becoming very popular in Germany, and are obtained in large numbers.

Actions for infringements of these patents are extremely cheap, and the Court can award either a punishment or a fine not exceeding £250, or an imprisonment of not exceeding one year, and the publication of the particulars of the action and the sentence of the Court at the expense of the infringer. Or, in addition to the above penalty, on the application of the patentee, it can decree damages not

exceeding £500, for which all the infringers-if there be more than one-are jointly liable.

Illegal Marking.-Any one marking goods or providing objects (or the packing of the same) with any marking indicating that the objects are patented, or even in his advertisements, business cards, or paper, using words or marks falsely indicating or likely to induce the belief that a thing is patented when it is not, is liable to a fine of £50.

Publication. As German patents are published often immediately after application, and are granted irrespective of the duration of foreign patents, it is best in all cases to apply for Russian, Hungarian, and Austrian, and other patents before or simultaneously with the German one. Printed copies of his own patent specifications and drawings can be obtained by a patentee soon after grant at almost cost price.

In December, 1904, the number of patents of invention or addition issued since the opening of the Patent Office at Berlin, July, 1877, had reached 158,000, and nearly three times as many more had been applied for and refused. The Author's firm has, however, obtained about 80 per cent. of all its applications, probably through carefully weeding out unlikely cases, and framing the German applications specially for Germany, instead of following the usual practice with too many patent agents of using the same draft specification for each country.

Usual costs: Original patent, or Patent of Addition, £15.

Design Registration, £5 to £8.

for three years, £4.

Renewing it

Taxes end of first year, £3 10s.; end of second year, £6; and so on, increasing £2 10s. each year.

Appeals, from £5. Amendments, £2.
Registering a trade mark, £6 10s.

GIBRALTAR-GOLD COAST-GREECE.

GIBRALTAR.

(Population of Town, 20,000.)
(Population of Garrison, 6,000.)

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The Governor can, by ordinance, on the fulfilment of the requisite formalities, extend the scope of a British patent to Gibralter. Cost about £15.

GOLD COAST.

(Population, white, about 3,000.)
(Population, coloured, about 1,000,000.)

Substantially the present English law, altered as regards administrative details to suit the colony, was enacted in 1900 with these exceptions. The assignee, or, in the case of an inventor resident abroad, his agent, can obtain a patent. Opponents must file security for costs, and costs are awarded in case of oppositions to the successful party. Patents obtained in any other country can be extended to this colony if the invention be not yet worked there. The colony has joined the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property.

The taxes are those ruling under the British law of 1852, namely, £50 at the end of four years, £Ico at the end of seven, or annual taxes before the commencement of the fifth and subsequent years of £10, £10, £10, £10, £15, £15, £20, £20, £20, £20 respectively. Agency fee, I IS. Usual costs: Patent, Provisional, £6.

Completing same, £12; or complete at start, £16. Registration of trade mark, £12.

GREECE,

(Population, 2,500,000.)

A special Act of Legislature is required to obtain à patent. Very few are applied for. Greece has now

joined the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property. The cost varies from £60 to £80. Trade marks, £10.

GRENADA AND THE GRENADINES. (Population, 66,000.)

The patent law is almost word for word with the British, but altered so as to substitute colonial officials and institutions for British.

Usual costs: Patent, provisional, £5; completing, £12; or complete at start, £16.

Taxes, including agency, end of fourth year, £5 ; increasing £1 annually.

Three months' grace allowed for paying taxes. Cost, £1 10s., £3 10s., and £5 10s. respectively.

GUATEMALA.

(Population, 1,500,000.)

Patents of from five to fifteen years are granted only to inventors resident in the country. Subjects or citizens of countries with which Guatemala has at the time a convention, and who have obtained patents in their own country, can obtain a Guatemalan patent of importation to expire with the original one, but in no case to exceed fifteen years' duration.

Models or specimens are required where the case admits of it.

Working must be commenced in the realm within a year of the grant of the patent, and must not be discontinued for a complete period of twelve months on pain of forfeiture.

An annual tax, assessed by the Patent Office in each case (according to the supposed value of the invention), has to be paid on pain of forfeiture. This tax varies from 1 to £10.

GUATEMALA GUIANA-HAWAII-HAYTI.

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It is a criminal offence to knowingly infringe a patent.

Special concessions are also granted by the Executive with the sanction of the Legislature, and, for a limited period, to any one establishing a new industry, which, though not worked previously in Guatemala, is well known abroad, and by mere publications, or the sale of the produce thereof, in the realm. These concessions may include exemption from taxation, exemption of the concessionnaire and his employés from military service, grant of public land for works purposes, and in some cases money grants.

Usual costs: Patent, including the first year's tax, £60.

Special concessions can only be obtained by persons resident in the country, and must be applied for personally.

Trade mark registration, £16 for 10 years.

GUIANA.

See "British Guiana." French Guiana is covered by a French patent. In Dutch Guiana there is no patent law.

HAWAII.

This is now a part of the United States, and comes under the United States law. The few patents granted by the late Governments are, however, unaffected by the change.

HAYTI.

(Population, 1,300,000.)

A patent can be obtained by a Special Act of Legislature. Cost, £95.

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