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(Population about 5,000,000.) Law and costs substantially the same as (British) India. Gold, precious stones, and tea are its chief products.


(Population, white, 60,000.)

(Population, coloured, 1,000,000.) The law, based on the British patent law of 1852, is very similar to the English. There are, however, no compulsory licensing or working clauses; and a patent falls with the first-expiring prior foreign patent for the same invention. Usual costs : Patent including agency:

Provisional protection, six months £10
Completing patent (14 years)

£17 Or complete at start

4.24 Third year renewal fee.

£8 Seventh year renewal fee

£13 Six months' grace to pay tax. Cost, £3 extra. Registering a trade mark



(Population, 96,000.) British patents can be extended to this state at any time for the remainder of their duration. Cost, £27.


See Holland.


(Population, 220,000.) Duration of patent fourteen years, but it is lawful

for the Governor in Council to extend it for a further term of seven years. Patents are only granted to the actual inventor, his assignees, or legal representatives. A model must also be provided if the case admits of one, and specimens and ingredients if the invention be for a composition of matter ; but in some cases these are dispensed with on the petition of the inventor.

The invention must not have been introduced into public or common use in the colony prior to the application, and it must be worked in Newfoundland within two years of the date of the patent, or it will be deemed to be forfeited.

In cases where the invention has been previously patented in other countries, the duration is limited to that of the first foreign patent. It cannot be validly patented in Newfoundland after the expiration of a foreign patent for the same invention.

Notice of the intended application for a patent must be advertised in the Royal Gazette, and in another newspaper in the colony, for at least four weeks before the formal application, and this notice must include a description in general terms of the invention.

The application is referred to the Attorney-General, who hears any opposition that may be entered, examines the case, and if he judges it to be a good and proper subject for a patent, and the application in order, he certifies the same, and the patent is issued by the Governor in Council. Re-issues are granted as in the United States, but at any date of the duration of the patent, and patents of addition can be obtained.

Penalty for infringing a patent is three times the actual damage sustained by the patentee, and is recoverable by action in any superior court of the island.

Average costs : Original Patent
Patent of Addition .
Registration of trade mark

£41 £25 £11

(Now under the Australian law.)


(Population, 900,000.) Any one being the true and first inventor or his assignee, nominee, or, in case of death, his legal representative (within six months of decease), can apply for and obtain a patent.

The law as to what is patentable is the same as the British. An invention can be provisionally protected for nine months, or by a complete specification at start as in England. The procedure is nearly identical, but, in addition to the English grounds for opposition, want of novelty, and that the communicator is not the actual inventor or his legal representative or assignee can also be urged against the patent.

The law as regards amendments, compulsory licenses, exhibiting in authorised exhibitions, rights of the crown, actions for infringements or for revocation, use of patent on foreign ships, rights under the Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, extension of term of patent and using illegal threats, is substantially the same as the British (colonial officials being substituted for British ones). Any one illegally using the words “Patent,” “Patented," etc., is liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds or imprisonment not exceeding six months at the option of the judge. The patent is liable to a tax at the end of the fourth and of the seventh 162 NEW ZEALAND- NICARAGUA --NORTH BORNEO.

year on pain of forfeiture, but a delay of three months is allowed, in cases of accidental omission, on paying an additional tax. No one can practise as a patent agent without being first registered as such.

Average costs: Provisional Protection,
nine months.

Completing same

£12 Or Complete at start

£18 Tax before end of fourth year £7 Before end of seventh year

£12 Three months' grace to pay tax in case of accident, £6 10s. extra.

Registration of trade mark, £7.


(Population, 310,000.) Patents for inventions not known in the realm are granted for five to ten years.

There is an annual tax of from twenty to one hundred pesas at the option of the Patent Office, payable on the ist of January. Patents must be worked within one year on pain of forfeiture.

Cost from £20 to £25; agency fee for paying annual tax, £1.

The Government is, as a rule, rather uncertain, and the cost of patents or monopolies correspondingly so, but is usually about £75.

Cost of protecting trade mark by official advertisement, £15.


(Population, 175,000.) Law and costs substantially the same as Straits Settlements.


(Population, white, 500.) (Population, coloured, 30,000,000.) The English law verbally altered to suit the colony has been adopted almost in its entirety, but the Government fees, and also the annual taxes, are very much greater_about double what they are in Great Britain.

Average costs : Patent, provisional. £9 1os.
Completing same

Or complete at start



(Population, 2,300,000.) Kinds and Duration of Patents.-Patents of invention are granted for fifteen years, subject to an annual tax. Patents of improvement are granted for the term of the original patent, expiring with it, and are not subject to annual taxes.

Who can Patent.—The first inventor, or his legal representative, alone can obtain a patent for invention.

The inventor has the sole right for two years of patenting improvements on his invention. Other applicants can, however, file applications for patents for such improvements, but these are kept secret till the two years have expired.

What is Patentable.-All new inventions, useful in industry, and not contrary to law, morality, or public order can be patented, except articles of food, beverages, and medicines. Methods of manufacturing these, and apparatus therefore can, however, be secured.

Novelty.-By new is meant not known in the

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