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Syndicates are mentioned above. For small capitalists, or men not having the leisure to work or negotiate the sale of patents, but with money to invest in them, the joining of a syndicate to engage in this traffic is frequently a very good thing. These syndicates, if properly managed, are very lucrative affairs. We do not mean to say they are usually successful in all their ventures-the cleverest of them fail in doing any good with some of their venturesbut if the risks are small, taken with due professional advice, and spread over a considerable number of patents (not all their eggs put in one basket), they are almost certain of a most lucrative business. The Author and his firm make it a point of business to keep themselves acquainted with the character and antecedents of all companies or syndicates professing to deal in patents, and can generally assist inventors materially. Another way in which patent speculators have succeeded, especially in America, is to buy up or obtain a large interest in one or more patents, and, instead of selling them out and out in lump sums, to go round the country or engage smaller men to travel on commission, selling "shop-rights" and territorial rights-that is, the right of working the invention in a given manufactory only, or the exclusive rights to work the invention in a given town, city, country, or district.

A useful practice of some of these syndicates confining themselves to one branch of trade, is to order of a Patent Agent copies of all the British, American, German, and other printed specifications on their particular subject. These can be obtained, when all of one particular class are ordered, in the case of British specifications, at one shilling each; Americans at sixpence each; and German, three shillings each, including agent's charge for picking out and ordering them; and will be found invaluable in investigating

into the validity and value of patents, and also as a prompt introduction to new inventions that it may be valuable for them to negotiate for.

Many of the most thriving and progressive manufacturing firms in this country and in the United States also adopt this plan, with very great advantage to their business, and we have rarely known a client who has once adopted it ever give it up again--they find it too valuable.

It is a remarkable fact, too, that nearly all the great industrial houses in this country, on the Continent, and even in America, attribute their success to the taking up of some one or more patents; and probably not in one instance in three were any of the partners in the firm the original patentees, but were only the purchasers of the patents thus worked. They purchased or licensed them, often at a very small cost, from the original patentees.

We are always glad to assist investors in obtaining good patents, as by so doing we can benefit not merely the investor, but the client also who has employed us to secure the invention. In investing in a patent, however, great caution is requisite. First of all, the question of its validity should be thoroughly gone into; secondly, the patent records should be searched and full inquiry made, to ascertain whether the invention be really the best device for the purpose, and not covered by prior patents.

REGISTRATION OF DESIGNS.

Any person, the proprietor of a design not previously published in the United Kingdom, can protect the same by registration for five years. Any design applicable to any article of manufacture, or to any substance natural or artificial, or partly natural and partly artificial, whether the novelty be in the general shape

or pattern, or the ornamentation (or two or all of these), and whether it be formed by printing, painting, embroidery, weaving, sewing, modelling, casting, engraving, or otherwise, can be thus protected. Sculpture is, however, protected without registration under the Sculpture Copyright Act, 1814. The Comptroller has the power of refusing to register a design, subject to appeal to the Board of Trade, and where a principle of mechanics is sought to be protected under the designs registration, he is very apt to refuse registration. With every registration a special number is given to the proprietor, and he is bound to mark all articles made in accordance with the registered design with the word "Rd." or "Regd." and said number, or, if the nature of the article forbids such marking, then he must mark the package-and if he does not do so the copyright of the design ceases, unless he shows that he took all proper steps to ensure the marking of the article. During its five years of copyright, the registered design is not open to inspection of the public-except by special order (in each specific case) from the proprietor of the design, or from the Comptroller, or from a court of law; but after the expiration of the five years it can be inspected at the Patent Office, and copies made for a prescribed fee. If, however, any one during the period of copyright wishes to know whether a particular design has been registered under a given number for a given class of goods, or by a given person at a given day, he can obtain this information for a prescribed fee. If a registered design be used in any foreign country, and is not used in this country within six months of the date of registration, the copyright in the design ceases. A register of proprietors of designs is kept at the Patent Office, and all assignments, changes of address, or licenses can be recorded therein for a prescribed fee -such registration is primâ facie evidence of owner

ship. The rule applicable to patents, in the case of International Exhibitions, set forth on page 32, is equally applicable to designs.

Any person who during the continuance of copyright in a design-without the consent of the proprietorapplies the design, or any fraudulent or obvious imitation thereof, to any article or substance in the class in which the design is registered, or publishes or exposes for sale, or sells such article or substance, with such design, knowing that the same has been applied without the consent of the registered proprietor, is liable, for each offence, to forfeit the sum of £50 to the registered proprietor of the design, who may recover such sum, as a simple contract debt, by action in any court of competent jurisdiction. Or in lieu of this, the proprietor of the design can enter an action for damages, and obtain an injunction as in the case of patent infringement.

Goods are divided into fourteen classes, and a separate registration is required for each class in which it is desired to secure the design; and in case of doubt in which class a design ought to be registered, the Comptroller may decide the question.

The classes are arranged according to the material of which the goods are chiefly or wholly composed as follows:

Ist Class, metals, not gold, silver, plated goods, or jewellery.

2nd Class, jewellery, gold, silver, and plated goods. 3rd Class, vegetable or animal solid substances. 4th Class, glass, clay goods, earthenware, cement, and other mineral non-metallic solid substances.

5th Class, paper, except paper-hangings.
6th Class, leather, book-binding materials.
7th Class, paper-hangings.

8th Class, carpets, rugs, floorcloths, oilcloths.
9th Class, lace and hosiery.

10th Class, millinery, wearing apparel, boots,

hats.

needlework on textile

fabrics.

11th Class, ornamental

12th Class, goods not included in other classes. 13th Class, printed or woven designs on textile piece goods.

14th Class, printed or woven designs on handkerchiefs, shawls, and towels.

The cost in each of the first twelve classes, when four representations of the design are furnished to us on paper, is £1 Is., or in the case of a mechanical contrivance, or set of articles such as chessmen, about £2 10s. including drawings. For registering a single printed or woven pattern or design in lace or in Class 13 or 14, the cost is 7s. 6d. ; for a number of series of six or more the cost is 5s. each.

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“PATENT MEDICINES."

It is customary to style all proprietary medicines patent medicines "though they are rarely the subject of a patent. It is indeed hardly ever desirable to patent a medicine, as a mere prescription cannot validly be patented, but patenting it simply explains its manufacture for the benefit of imitators. The best mode of protecting a medicine is to get a distinctive name, and register that name as a trade-mark.

Proprietary medicines must bear a Government medicine stamp on every package or bottle, the price of which stamp is 1d. for 1s. of the selling value, 3d. for 2s. 6d., 6d. for 4s., and more for higher prices, while the seller must be the holder of a license. This license costs 5s. a year. The Government stamp does not convey a right in the nature of a patent, but is a duty imposed by law on these proprietary medicines or specifics.

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