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regulations of that country. The author during this period has the sole right to make and sell copies of the work; but short quotations therefrom, and even abridgments of the work, can be published by other parties. · The author publishing in Great Britain, or registering at Stationers' Hall, is obliged to supply certain libraries with copies.

Newspapers can be protected in similar manner by registering the first number; this protects subsequent numbers. The title is only protected under common law, which will protect an author from another person using his title in such manner as to be calculated to deceive and cause him damage. Cost of copyright, £i is., and six copies of the work which have to be supplied to certain public libraries.

MUSIC AND THEATRICAL PRODUCTIONS. Till these are printed or performed in public the author has a perpetual copyright.

After being once performed in public the author (if duly registered) has the sole right of performance for forty-two years, or for his life and seven years after, whichever be the longest term. Until they be printed he has the sole right of multiplying copies, but on being published they are considered books, and they can be protected from publication by others by registration, for forty-two years from the day of publication, or till seven years after the author's death, whichever term be the longest. Cost of copyright, £r is.

If a piece of music be printed with the author's sanction, and without an express notice printed on the title-page that the right of public performance is reserved, any one purchasing a copy can perform it. It is an infringement of copyright to import a copyright work, and the same can be seized at the Custom House and the importer fined £10 and double the value of the book. Half the fine goes to the officer making the seizure. Cost of copyright, £i is.

Prints of engravings to be the subject of a copyright must be engraved or etched in Great Britain or Ireland. Both date of publication and name of proprietor of copyright must appear on the face of the engraving; in other respects they come under the book copyright law, and if they form part of a book the above stipulation does not apply. Cost, £ 1 is.

Paintings, drawings, and photographs, till a copy be sold, are the copyright of the author; and even when eventually registered the copyright period of forty-two years dates from the date of production. Infringement before registration is not actionable, and the registration must be effected by the actual artist or photographer making the picture.

When the author first sells his picture, or a copy thereof (except where it was expressly made as a commission for the purchaser), unless he expressly reserves his rights in writing, or conveys them to the purchaser in writing, the copyright is forfeited. Why this rule was made, it passeth the wit of man to understand. Cost of registration, 175. 6d.

Sculptures are protected for fourteen years with a further term of fourteen years if the original sculptor be then living, by the simple act of placing them in a public position, and marking them with the name of the sculptor in each case before being exhibited or sold.

COLONIAL Copyright. A British copyright extends to the colonies, and vice versa, but the colonies can allow the importation of foreign reprints into their territories on paying a small fee for each reprint to the British author. The Dominion of Canada did this till December, 1894, but then passed an Act stopping the collection of said fees.

INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT.

Belgium, the British Empire, France, Germany, Hayti, Italy, Luxemburg, Monaco, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, Tunis, and Japan, form the Copyright Union, and copyright in any one country of the union gives copyright in the others. The United States and England have a copyright treaty, and simultaneous publication in the two countries (the printing being done in each case from type set in that country), and registering in accordance with the law protects the copyright in both countries. France, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, also have a similiar understanding with the United States.

FOREIGN PATENTS.

As inventions valuable in this country are usually equally so in foreign states and colonies, we append, as a second part of this work, a brief epitome of the law of each country—longer for the more important ones than for those of less importance. In this we have endeavoured to give, in a concise form, those parts of the respective laws most valuable to a patentee.

FOREIGN PATENT LAWS.

AFRICA.

NEARLY all the British Colonies, no matter how small, have a separate patent law which may be looked for under the name of the respective colonies. The German, French, Italian, and Portuguese dominions respectively are covered by patents of the mother country. Tripoli is covered by the Turkish patent, while Congo Free State, Egypt, and the Soudan (British and Egyptian) have independent Patent laws. Madagascar also has separate registration. These will be found under the headings of the respective states.

AMERICA (NORTH).

See Canada, Mexico, Newfoundland, and United States.

AMERICA (CENTRAL).

See British Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, Panama, and the various West Indian Islands.

AMERICA (SOUTH).

See Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, Colombia, Ecuador, Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela.

ARGENTINA.

(Population 4,500,000.) Only inventions still unpublished at home and abroad (or, in the case of patents of importation, inventions not yet worked in the realm)and generally such as would be patentable in England, except medicines, can be protected in the Argentine Confederation.

There are four kinds of patents :(1) Invention. Granted for new inventions, not

patented in any country previously, and granted for five, ten, or fifteen years, according to wish of applicant and merit of invention. If a patent for five or ten years be applied for, it cannot afterwards be

extended to the fifteen. (2) Certificates of Revalidation. Granted for inven

tions already patented abroad and expiring with the original foreign patent. These are not granted in any case for more than ten years. Inventions already at work in the

realm cannot be validly protected. (3) Improvement. Granted for improvements on an

existing patent, and usually expiring with it. (4) Provisional. These are of little value except

to residents. They are kept secret, and

can be renewed from year to year. Patents can be opposed by interested parties on the ground that they have previously applied for the same invention, or that it is provisionally protected by them. In such case, if the two applications are found to be identical, both are refused till the parties can come to an agreement.

The invention must be worked in the Republic within two years from the grant of the Letters Patent, and working in the realm must not be entirely

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