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THE CUSTOMS TARIFF.
he schedule of import duties prescribed by the ordinance of July 901, was as follows:
le, porter, and beer.. irits...
ines, other than sparkling.
Vines, sparkling. obacco...
porting arms. unpowder..
..each.. 16. 00
..per kilo.. 2.50 121
foods of all kinds except those above mentioned..ad valorem (per cent).. Prohibitions were imposed by ordinance of August 31, 1907, upon importation of cacao seed and cacao plants from Ceylon and the tch East Indies. These commodities might be imported from er countries subject to license. The importation of all animals cept domestic animals was prohibited, except upon special permit, dinance of February 16, 1909). Domestic animals could be ported only upon exhibition of a certificate from quarantine thorities at the port of origin. The importation of air guns and stols was prohibited on and after January 1, 1912-doubtless as a easure of protection for wild birds.
The tariff of Samoa contained no list of articles exempted from port duties and no export duties.
SITUATION AND COMMERCE.
The German protectorate of Kiaochow comprised an area of about 00 square miles on the coast of the Chinese Province of Shantung. Germany's administrative jurisdiction also extended over the Bay f Kiaochow and small islands off the coast.) The population in 913 was 194,470, of whom 187,000 were Chinese and 4,470 Germans including the garrison).88
The commerce of Kiaochow consisted largely of transit trade. Table 14 shows the principal items of import and export in the fiscal rear ended September 30, 1913.
TABLE 14.-Trade of Kiaochow; chief commodities, 1912-13.
The extent to which Germany participated in the trade of Kiaoch in the years 1910-1913 is shown in Table 15:
TABLE 15.-Trade of Kiaochow with Germany, 1910-1913.
According to the agreement made between the Chinese and t German Governments on April 17, 1899, Tsingtao, the port of th colony, was to retain the characteristic privileges of a free port But certain new arrangements were made in order to prevent smu gling and to facilitate the payment of customs duties by the inhab tants of the protectorate. Goods in transit from the colony to the interior were not to be taxed until they crossed the border, and the same way goods from the interior were not subject to exper duties until they were shipped out of the colony. The Europes personnel of the customhouse in Tsingtao was to be composed Germans, members of the Chinese maritime customs service, des nated to the Tsingtao port by the inspector general, and approve! by the German minister at Peking.
This agreement was superseded by a later arrangement (Decen ber 1, 1905), according to the terms of which the German colony voluntarily restricted its free port area to the immediate vicinity the port, and the remainder of the territory was placed under the jurisdiction of the Chinese customs. In return the Chinese customs administration pledged itself to turn over to the Kiaochow govern ment one-fifth of the net yield of the customs revenue collected by it in the leased Territory.89
s See also chapter VII on Japanese colonial tariffs, p. 447.
The tariff rates in force were, therefore, those of the Chinese tariff, volving for most commodities, whether imports or exports, 5 per ent ad valorem with the possibility of commuting likin charges for n additional 2 per cent.
Commodities exempted from duty were: All articles for the armanent, equipment, and clothing of the German soldiers and marines, nachines and tools, building materials and equipment for public buildings, parcel-post packages of less than $1("Mexican") in value, and the personal baggage of travelers. All manufactured goods produced in the colony were to be dutiable at the rate at which. he raw materials composing them would have been dutiable. The trade in opium and in arms, gunpowder, explosives, and similar materials was regulated by orders of the German Government. Exportation of arms and ammunition from German to Chinese territory was permitted only upon special license.
This ordinance marks a new departure in China, which affords great satisfaction both to China and to the protectorate: both parties are assured of an income, and that without burdening trade and industry in the customs area (of the colony). The inhabitants of the colony, it is true, do suffer to the extent to which they consume imported goods. For them the customs duty operates as a tax.9
Barker, J. Ellis. The Value of the German Colonies. United Empire, New Series, Vol. VI, 1915.
Bonn, Moritz J. Die Neugestaltung unserer Kolonialen Aufgaben. Tubingen, 1911. Bonn, Moritz J. German Colonial Policy. A paper read before the Royal Colonial Institute, Jan. 13, 1914. United Empire, New Series, Vol. V, 1914.
Bouffard, Fernand. Le système financier des colonies allemandes. Questions diplomatiques et coloniales, vols. 26 and 27, 1906 and 1907.
Chéradame, Andre. Le colonisation et les colonies allemandes. Paris, 1905.
Dawson, William H. The Evolution of Modern Germany. London, 1908.
Germany, Kolonialamt. Die Deutschen Schutzgebiete in Africa und der Südsee. Amtliche Jahresberichte. Last issue, 1910-1911.
Germany, Kolonialamt. Deutsches Kolonialblatt. 1890-1914.
Germany, Reichsamt des Innern. Die Handelsverträge des Deutschen Reichs. Eine Zusammenstellung der Geltenden Handels-, Zoll-, Schiffahrts- und Konsularverträge des Reichs. 1906.
Germany, Reichsschatzamt. Haushaltsetat für die Schatzgebiete. 1913 und 1914. Germany, Statistischesamt. Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich. 1915. Giordani, Paolo. The German Colonial Empire, Its Beginning and Ending. Translated by Mrs. Gustavus Hamilton. London, 1916.
Grünfeld, E. Hafenkolonien und Kolonieähnliche Verhältnisse in China, Japan, und Korea. Jena, 1913.
Harris, John H. Dawn in Darkest Africa. New York, 1912.
Johnston, Sir H. H. The German Colonies. Edinburgh Review, October, 1914. Köbner, Otto. Einführung in die Kolonialpolitik. Jena, 1908.
Kolonialblatt, Berlin, semi-monthly.
Koloniale Rundschau. Monthly. Berlin, 1909-1915.
90 Grünfeld, E.: Hafenkolonien und Kolonalähnliche Verhältnisse in China, Japan, und Korea, Jena, 1913, p. 80. The description of the tariff situation in Kiaochow has been taken largely from Grünfeld's work.
Kuhn, Hellmuth. Die Deutschen Schutzgebiete. Berlin, 1913.
Patzig, C. A. Deutsche Kolonial-Unternehmungen und Postdampfer-Subvention
Radlauer, Ernst. Finanzielle Selbstverwaltung und Kommunalverwaltung
Raffalovitch, A. La politique coloniale allemande. Journal des Économist
Statistik des Deutschen Reichs. Vol. 261B. Auswartiger Handel im Jahre 3
Westphal, Alexandre. Les Origines de la Colonisation Allemande. Montpel 1887.
Zimmermann, Alfred. Geschichte der Deutschen Kolonialpolitik. Berlin, 1914. Zimmermann. Alfred. Kolonialpolitik. Leipzig, 1905.
Zoepfi, G. Kolonieen und Kolonialpolitik. In Konrad's Handwörterbuch der Sta swissenschaften, vol. 5, 3d ed., 1910.
See list given on page 834.
TEXTS OF TREATIES.
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IV.
PRESENT STATUS OF FORMER GERMAN COLONIES AND OF OTHER MANDATED TERRITORIES.
CESSION OF GERMAN COLONIES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION.
The treaty of peace signed at Versailles June 28, 1919, transferred the title of all German overseas possessions to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, but provided that their administration should be by or under the control of mandatories whose administration of the territories should be, in turn, supervised by the League of Nations. The provisions relative to mandates are contained in article 22 of the treaty and will be found on page 11, above. The other relevant articles of the treaty are as follows:
ARTICLE 118. In territory outside her European frontiers as fixed by the present treaty, Germany renounces all rights, titles, and privileges whatever in or over territory which belonged to her or to her allies, and all rights, titles, and privileges, whatever their origin, which she held as against the Allied and Associated Powers.
1 The Turkish territories of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine were similarly ceded by the treaty of Sèvres to the Principal Allied Powers. This treaty has been ratified by none of the signatories, but the final settlement will probably be along the lines laid down therein, and the articles concerning these territories are therefore relevant.'
ART. 132. Outside her frontiers as fixed by the present treaty Turkey hereby renounces in favor of the Principal Allied Powers all rights and title which she could claim on any ground over or concerning any territories outside Europe which are not otherwise disposed of by the present treaty.
Turkey undertakes to recognize and conform to the measures which may be taken now or in the future by the Principal Allied Powers, in agreement where necessary with third Powers, in order to carry the above stipulation into effect.
ART. 91. The High Contracting Parties agree that Syria and Mesopotamia shall, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of article 22, Part I (Covenant of the League of Nations), be provisionally recognized as independent States subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. * * **
ART. 95. The High Contracting Parties agree to intrust by application of the provisions of article 22 the administration of Palestine, within such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied Powers, to a mandatory to be selected by the said Powers. The mandatory will be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November 2, 1917, by the British Government, and adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favor of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. *
ART. 96. The terms of the mandates in respect of the above territories will be formulated by the Principal Allied Powers and submitted to the Council of the League of Nations for approval.