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reach Metz, was retreating before the Germans under the crown prince of Prussia, was surprised, defeated, and driven across the Meuse at Mouzon, 30 Aug. 1870. The French loss included about 7000 prisoners, many guns, and much camp equipage. The victory was chiefly gained by the Bavarians.

BEAUNE-LA-ROLLANDE, a village in the Loiret, France. Here the French army of the Loire, under General D'Aurelle de Paladines, was defeated by the Germans, under prince Frederick Charles, in an attempt to march in the direction of Fontainebleau to relieve Paris, 28 Nov. 1870. The French loss_was reported by the Germans to be 1000 dead, 4000 wounded; above 1700 prisoners. Their own loss was heavy.

BEER-HOUSES, laws respecting, amended in 1869, 1870.

BELGIUM (p. 94). New ministry (under M. Frère-Orban); liberal; dispute with the French' government ar3 Jan. 1868 ranged

May, 1869 Serious riots in the mining districts; put

International rifle meeting, held at Liège, down by the military; 10 lives lost,

19 Sept. 25-29 March, , Resignation of the Frère-Orban ministry, Monument to Charlemagne at Liège inaugurated,

about 19 June, 1870 26 July, M. D'Anethan's ministry announced

3 July, The crown prince Leopold Ferdinand, duke of Treaty for the neutrality of Belgium between Brabant, died

22 Jan. 1869 Great Britain and Prussia, signed 9 Aug. ; Concession of a Luxembourg railway to a French and France, signed

11 Aug. railway company,

without the assent of the Warm gratitude to Great Britain expressed by state, prohibited by the assembly, 13 Feb. ; the king and people

8 Aug. BERMUDAS (p. 98), a large iron dry dock, which cost 250,000l. for its construction, was towed here from the Medway, in June and July, 1869.

BETTING (p. 99). A Pari-mutuel, or mutual betting machine, was declared illegal by the magistrates Aug. 1870. The “ Knightsbridge Exchange," a betting company, declared illegal, 2 Nov., 1870.

BEVERLEY, E. Yorkshire, the Saxon Beverlac, or Beverlega. St. John of Beverley, archbishop of York, founded a stately monastery here, and died 721; and on his account the town received honours from Athelstan, William I., and other sovereigns. It was disfranchised for corruption in 1870 after a long investigation.

BIBLE MSS. The Codex Sinaiticus, probably written in the 4th century, was discovered by M. Constantine Tischendorf at St. Katherine's monastery in 1844 and 1859, and presented to the present czar of Russia, at whose cost a splendid edition was published in 1862.

BIBLE TRANSLATIONS (p. 101). The revision of the English version now in use was recommended by the bishops in convocation, 10 Feb. 1870. The committee, including eminent scholars of various denominations, appointed in May, held their first meeting at Westminster Abbey 22 June, 1870.

BILLS OF MORTALITY (p. 102). Births in England and Wales : in 1866, 753,870; in 1867, 768,349; in 1868, 786,858; in 1869, 772,877. Deaths in England and Wales : in 1866, 500,689; in 1867, 471,073; in 1868, 480,622; in 1869, 495,086.

BIRMINGHAM (p. 103). First annual horse show

1866 Explosion at Kynoch's cartridge-factory, WitMeeting of National Social Science Association, ton, many deaths and injuries 17

7 Oct. 1868 Explosions at Messrs. Ludlow's cartridge-factory First club house here opened

3 May, 1869 at Witton, 17 killed and 53 injured, several Erdington orphan houses, endowed by Josiah dying soon after : noon, 9 Dec.

i 33

dead Mason, begun 1858 ; finished


13 Dec.; 51 up to 26 Dec. National Education League meet

BISHOPS IN SCOTLAND were probably nominated in the fourth century.
The Reformers, styling themselves “the Con- liament, elected by the people (covenanters),

gregation of the Lord,” having taken up which met at Glasgow
arms and defeated the queen-mother, Mary Episcopacy restored; an archbishop (James
of Guise, called a parliament, which set up a Sharp) and three bishops consecrated by Shel.
new form of church polity on the Genevese don, bishop of London

15 Dec. 1661 model, in which bishops were replaced by The Scottish convention expelled the bishops ; “superintendents"

1561 abolished episcopacy; declared the throne Three prelates for Scottish sees consecrated at vacant; drew up a claim of right; and pro

Lambeth (John Spottiswood, Gawin Hamilton, claimed William and Mary · 11 April, 1689 and Andrew Lamb) for Glasgow, Galloway, Episcopacy formally abolished, and the bishops and Brechin

Nov. 1870



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revenues sequestrated Episcopacy abolished, the bishops in a body The Episcopal church was thus reduced to the deposed, and four excommunicated, by a par- condition of a Non-conformist body, at first

barely tolerated.

19 Sept.

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BISHOPS, SUFFRAGAN, to assist metropolitans, existed in the early church. Twenty-six, appointed by Henry VIII. 1534, were abolished by Mary, 1553, and restored by Elizabeth, 1558. The last appointed is said to have been Sterne, bishop of Colchester, 1606. The appointment of suffragan bishops was revived in 1869, and archdeacon Henry Mackenzie, suffragan bishop of Nottingham (diocese of Lincoln) was consecrated 2 Feb. 1870, and archdeacon Edward Parry, suffragan bishop of Dover (diocese of Canterbury), 23 March, 1870.


BLACK SEA (p. 106): by the treaty of Paris, 30 March, 1856, it was opened to the commerce of all nations, and interdicted to any ships of war; and the erection of military maritime arsenals forbidden. The article was repudiated by a Russian circular, dated 31 (19) Oct. 1870, and after some correspondence, the meeting of a conference on the subject, in London, was agreed to by all the powers concerned in the treaty.

BOKHARA (p. 111). The Russians were again victors, 25 May, 1868, and occupied Samarcand the next day. Further conquests were made by the Russians, and Samarcand was secured by treaty, Nov. 1868.

BORDEAUX (p. 116). The French delegate government and the representatives of foreign powers, removed here from Tours, 11 Dec. 1870. M. Gambetta renained with the arıny of the Loire.

BORNEO. Sir James Brooke returned to England, and died in Devonshire 11 June, 1868.

BRAZIL (p. 119). Three monitors pass Curupaity, on the Para- The allies surprise and capture Rosorio and guay, 17 Feb.; 6 ironclads force the passage garrison

8 May, 1869 of Humaitá ; they find Asuncion abandoned, Lopez defeated in severe conflicts, 21 Feb. 1868

12, 16, 18, 21 Aug. Fierce resistance of the Paraguayans; Lopez Lopez defeated and killed near tbe Aquidaban, said to have armed 4000 women June,

1 March, 1870 After several conflicts Lopez is totally defeated The count and countess d'Eu arrive in England, at Villeta, and flies 11 Dec.

13 Sept. » The comte 'd'Eu appointed general of the allied New ministry under viscount St. Vincent,

24 March, 1869 “ BREECHES BIBLE”; a name given to the Geneva Bible published 1570, from the translation of Genesis iii. 7.

BRIBERY AT ELECTIONS. The Parliamentary Elections Act (passed 31 July, 1868) enacted that election petitions should be tried by a court appointed for the purpose. First trials under this act ; Mr. Roger Eykyn (at sentenced to be fined for bribery in parliaWindsor) was declared duly elected, 15 Jan., mentary elections

10 May, 1869 and Sir H. Stracey (at Norwich) was unseated, Mr. Wm. H. Leatham (not Edward) convicted

18 Jan. 1869
of bribery at Wakefield

19 July, Dr. Kinglake, Mr. Fenelly, and others, were Beverley, Bridgwater, Sligo, and cashel dis


1870 BRIDGWATER (p. 122), after a lengthened investigation, was disfranchised for bribery, 1870.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION met at Exeter Aug., 1869; at Liverpool Sept. 1870; to meet at Edinburgh, 1871; at Brighton, 1872.

BROKERS (p. 127) in the city of London were relieved from the supervision of the lord mayor and aldermen by an act passed 9 Aug., 1870.

BULLION (p. 131). Value of bullion imported into Great Britain in 1858: gold, 22,793, 1261 ; silver, 6,700,0641. ; total, 29,493, 190l. ; in 1868: gold, 17,136,1771. ; silver 7,716,4181.; total, 24,852,5951.


29 Sept.

C. CAMPBELL'S ACTS, introduced by John Campbell, lord chancellor. 1. Against libels and slanders, 6 & 7 Vict. c. 96 (1843), and 8 & 9 Vict. c. 75 (1845). 2. To compel railway companies to make compensation for injuries by culpable accidents, 9 & 10 Vict. c. 93 (1846).

9 3. Against obscene publications, prints, &c. 20 & 21 Vict. c. 83 (1857).

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CANADA (p. 143.) Since the union of the British North American Colonies, 1 July, 1867, Canada has been termed The Dominion," see Ottawa. Murder of Mr. Darcy McGhee

7 April, 1868 resistance of some of the settlers (see Sir John Young (now lord Lisgar) appointed Rupert's land), an expedition, under colonel

governor-general in room of lord Monck (re- Wolseley, arrived at Fort Garry, and a consigned), arrives .

ciliatory proclamation was issued 23 July, 1870 A Fenian raid into Canada vigorously repelled Rupert's land formed into a province, named by the militia

about 24 May,

Manitoba ; Mr. Adams G. A. Archibald Visit of prince Alfred

Sept. et seq.

named the first governor Hudson's Bay territories purchased, subject Canada defences loan act passed : 9 Aug. ,

to conditions, for 300,oool., Nov. 1869 (see Disputes with the United States respecting Hudson's Bay); and in consequence of the fishing

Nov. CANDIA (p. 144). The Petropaulakes landed about 2500 men on opposite sides of the isle, 10 Dec. 1868, but failed in their attempt to unite; after several skirmishes, in which they lost about 650 men; all surrendered, 26 Dec., and were sent to Greece. The provisional government surrendered 30 Dec. The new Turkish governor, Omer Fenizi, arrived and the blockade ended 8 March, 1869.

CANNING ADMINISTRATION (p. 145). Mr. Canning was foreign secretary in the Portland Administration 1807, and president of the India Board 1820.

CANNON (p. 145). The first cannon cast in England was by Hug- Continued experiments at Shoeburyness; Plyget, at Uckfield, Sussex, 1543

mouth model fort, with 15-inch solid shieldMons Meg, a large cannon in Edinburgh castle, plates, tried with 23 ton gun of 12-inch bore,

said to have been cast at Mons in Hainault, bearing 600 lb. Palliser shot: exterior of fort in 1486, but more probably forged at Castle destroyed; interior intact;-the 10-inch EngDouglas, Galloway, by three brothers named lish gun shown to be superior to American M‘Kim, and presented by them to James II. and Prussian great guns.

16–24 June, 1868 at the siege of Thrieve castle, 1455. It was re- Capt. Moncrieff's protected barbette gun-car. moved to London, 1754; but, at the request of riage (in which the recoil is utilized for re

Sir Walter Scott, restored to Edinburgh, 1829 loading) tried and reported successful at A cannon of Mahomet II., dated 1464, presented Shoeburyness

to the British government by the Sultan of Contest at Shoeburyness between the WhitTurkey, and placed in the Artillery Museum, worth guns and the iron targets of Brown of Woolwich, 1868

Sheffield (which stand)

2 March, 1870 CANTERBURY. Archbishop Longley died 27 Oct., and was succeeded by Archibald Campbell Tait, bishop of London; elected 4 Dec. 1868.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, discovered by Diaz, 1489. Large tracts of territory were devastated by fire, Feb. 1869. Sir Henry Barkly appointed governor, Aug. 1870. New harbour, breakwater, and docks inaugurated by the duke of Edinburgh, 12 July, 1870. CAPITULATIONS:

: a name given to the judicial rights granted by treaties to foreign consuls in Turkey. After many years' opposition, the sultan addressed a memorial to the sovereigns of Europe, in June, 1869; and modifications were agreed to, April, 1870.

CAPTAIN, H.M.S., iron-clad turret ship, capsized during a squall, 12.15 A.M., 7 Sept., 1870. Capt. Hugh Burgoyne, capt. Cowper Coles, who designed the vessel, and 469 persons perished. See under Navy of England. Subscriptions for relief of the widows and orphans of the lost up to 17 Nov., 34,8941. ; 3 Dec., 38,0041.; 31 Dec., about 46,000l.

CARIGNAN, a small town about twelve miles from Sedan, department of Ardennes, N.E. France. At the plain of Douzy, near this place and the encampment of Vaux, a part of Mac Mahon's army, retreating before the Germans, turned round and made a stand, 31 Aug. 1870. After a long severe engagement, in which the same positions were taken and retaken several times, the Germans turned the flank of their enemies, who were compelled to fall back upon Sedan, were they where finally overcome, 1 Sept.

CASSEL, formerly the capital of Hesse-Cassel, Central Germany, acquired importance through becoming the refuge of French protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 1685. It was the capital of Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, 1807-13, and Wilhelmshöhe, a neighbouring castle, became the residence of Napoleon III. after his surrender to the King of Prussia, 2 Sept. 1870, arriving at 9.35 p.m. 5 Sept.

CATTLE (p. 156). Estimated loss by the plague, 1865-7, 5,000,000l. Order of council permitting cattle to be re- Disease appears at Kaiserslautern, rear of the moved from the metropolis

25 July, 1868

German army; cautionary regulations proNew general orders issued

Aug. 1869 mulgated by the privy council .9 Sept. 1870 Prevalence of “foot and mouth disease" in Horned cattle irnported in 1866, 237,739 : in 1867, England

Aug. 1869-Dec. 1870 177,948; in 1868, 136,688; in 1869, 220,190. CENSUS ACTS, for 3 April, 1871, passed 10 Aug. 1370.

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CHAMBERLAIN OF ENGLAND, HEREDITARY GREAT (p. 159). This dignity was for some time held jointly by the lord Willoughby D'Eresby and the marquis of Cholmondeley, descendants of John de Vere, earl of Oxford. Lord Willoughby D’Eresby died without issue 27 Aug. 1870.

CHANCELLOR, LORD HIGH (p. 161). William Page Wood, Lord Hatherley, succeeded Hugh lord Cairns, as lord chancellor of England, and Thomas lord O'Hagan succeeded the right hon. Abraham Brewster as lord chancellor of Ireland, Dec. 1868.


CHARITABLE USES, statute of, 43 Eliz. c. 4 (1601), passed “to redresse the misemploy. ment of landes, goodes, and stockes of money, heretofore given to charitable uses.”

CHASSEPOT (p. 164). The range of the chassepot being 1800 paces, and that of the needle-gun only between 600 and 700, the Germans in all their charges had to traverse 1,200 paces before their arms could be used to purpose.” Many Germans were armed with the chassepot after the surrender of the French army at Sedan, 2 Sept. 1870.

CHATEAUDUN, an old city, N. C. France, the residence of the heroic Dunois, who died 1468. Here were massacred 20 July, 1183, about 7000 Brabançons, fanatic mercenaries who had been hired to exterminate the Albigenses by the cardinal Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, in 1181. They had become the scourge of the country, and the “Capuchons” were organised for their destruction. Châteaudun was captured by the Germans after a severe conflict of about nine hours, 18 Oct. 1870. Barricades had been erected in the town, and the Garde Mobile fought bravely. The town was re-occupied by the French, 6 Nov.

CHAUVINISM, a term derived from Chauvin, the principal character in Scribe's “Soldat Laboureur," a veteran soldier of the first empire, filled with intense admiration for Napoleon and for all that belonged to him. Scribe was born 24 Dec. 1794, died 20 Feb. 1861.

CHEMISTRY. Henry Watts's great Dictionary of Chemistry was completed May, 1868. The publication of M. Ad. Wurtz's equally great “ Dictionnaire de Chimie,” began in 1868.

CHICAGO, a flourishing town of Illinois, United States; settled 1831; incorporated 1837. Population above 200,000, 1867.

CHICHESTER. Bishop Ashhurst Turner Gilbert, who died 21 Feb. 1870, was succeeded by Dr. Richard Dornford soon after.

CHINA (p. 171). Chinese embassy (Mr. Anson Burlingame, Chin tsin, Roman Catholic priests, sisters of mercy

Kang, and Sun Chia Su) received by Presi- (22 persons), besides many native converts, dent Johnson at Washington, 5 June; they and above 30 children in the orphanage, by a sign a treaty, 4 July; arrivo in London, mob, with, it is said, the complicity of the

Sept. ; received by the Queen . 20 Nov. 1858 authorities; the missionaries were accused The rebels seize Ningpo

of kidnapping children

21 June, 1870 The people at Yang-chow, incited by the “lite- Increased hatred of the people to foreigners at

rati” (learned classes) destroy the Protestant Tien-tsin ; lukewarm proceedings of the gomission-houses, 22 Aug.; redress not obtained; vernment against the murderers; reported, a British squadron proceeds to Nankin, 8

July, Nov.; the viceroy is superseded, and the Ma, a viceroy of Nankin, favourable to EuroBritish demands acceded to

peans, assassinated

about 23 Aug. Chinese embassy received by the emperor at Chapels destroyed at Fatshan

21 Sept. Paris

Jan. 1869 The French ultimatum refused ; the murderers Pekin visited by the duke of Edinburgh, in- of the nuns unpunished; Chinese warlike cognito

preparations reported

26 Sept. Supplementary convention to the treaty of Tien- Judicious mandate from the mandarin Tseng

tsin (June, 1858) for additional commercial kwo-fan, exculpating the missionaries, and freedom, signed

condemning their massacre

Oct. Burlingame dies at St. Petersburg 22 Feb. 1870 16 coolies beheaded, 15th Sept.,

and Successful rebellion of Mahometans in north

indemnity to the sufferers by the outrage west provinces reported

ordered ; reported Cruel massacre of the French consul at Tien- End of the difficulty announced

CHLORALUM, or chloride of alumina, a compound of chlorine and alumina, a new antiseptic disinfectant, recently invented by Dr. Gamgee. It is said to be safe and efficacious, and useful in medicine for gargles, washing wounds, &c.

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (p. 172). The Rev. G. C. Bell succeeded Dr. Jacob, 12 Aug. 1868. In March, 1870, great changes were proposed in the application of the funds, including the removal of the principal school to the country, which were negatived at a meeting of the governors, 26 April

, 1870. The annual income in 1870 was about 70,000l. for 300 boys in London, and 200 boys and 20 girls at Hertford.


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CHRONOSCOPE (p. 174). Capt. Andrew Noble (engaged by sir William Armstrong), invented an apparatus for determining the velocity of a projectile in a gun; a second of time is divided into millionths, and the electric spark is employed in recording the rate of the passage. The apparatus was exhibited at Newcastle-on-Tyne in Aug. 1869, and in London in April, 1870.

Great meeting at St. James's Hall, in defence Church conference at Sheffield

24 May, 1869 of the Irish Church establishment; 23 bishops Church Congress meets at Liverpool present

6 May, 1868 Martin v. Mackonochie : defendant censured District Churches Act, constituting vicarages for erading sentence

Dec. (Bishop of Oxford's Act), passed

1868 Bishop of London's Fund :-411,8391. received, Sharp party contests at a special meeting of the

July, 1870 Christian Knowledge Society

8 Dec. “Clerical Disabilities Act" passed Martin v. Mackonochie: appeal case; verdict Church Congress meets at Southampton, 11 Oct.

for plaintiff, declaring certain ritualistic prac- Christian Knowledge Society votes 10,000l. to tices illegal

support Church schools Warm meeting at St. James's Hall 12 Jan. 1869 Rev. Mr. Mackonochie suspended from duty First meeting of a Church Reform Society ; for three months by decree of Privy Council Lord Ebury chairman.

13 May,

for evading former sentence CHURCH OF IRELAND (p. 175). An act to put an end to the establishment of others rejected; received royal assent,

the Church of Ireland,” introduced into the [came into effect, 1 Jan. 1871] 26 July, 1869 House of Commons by Mr. Gladstone, 1 Mar., Address of bishops to the clergy and laity, vote for second reading, 368; against, 250;

dated 18 Aug; 2 A.M., 24 March; for third reading, 361; Meeting of the general synod of the Irish

31 May, 1869 Church in St. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin, Introduced into the House of Lords by eari

for re-organisation of the general council, Granville, 1 June; read third time, 12 July;

14 Sept. » some amendments ty the lords accepted, Conference of the laity ; Duke of Abercorn

chairman CIVIL SERVICE (p. 179). By an order of council, 4 June, 1870, the system of competitive examination was made general after 1 Oct. 1870.

CLERICAL DISABILITIES ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870, relieves persons who have been admitted priests or deacons of certain clerical disabilities upon their resigning their ecclesiastical offices and preferments, and declares them incapable of officiating henceforward.

CLINICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, for the cultivation and promotion of practical medicine and surgery, was established in Dec. 1867, sir Thomas Watson, first president.

CLOUD, ST. (p. 182). The palace here, long the property of the dukes of Orleans, was bought by Marie Antoinette in 1785. It was a favourite residence of the empress Josephine, of Charles X. and his family, and of the emperor Napoleon III. It was burnt during the siege of Paris, having been fired upon by the French themselves, 13 Oct. 1870.

COAL (p. 185) ACCIDENTS. 1868. Explosions : at Green pit, near Ruabon, 11 about 33 persons perished, 1 April ; at Ferndale

persons killed, 30 Sept. ; at Arley mine, Hindley- colliery, Glamorganshire, about 60 lost, 10 June ; green, near Wigan, 62 killed, 26 Nov.;'at Norley Haydock pit, St. Helen's, about 58 lost, 21 July; mine, near Wigan, about 7 killed, 21 Dec. ; at Moss Coal Company's pit, near Hindley, about 30 Haydock colleries, near St. Helen's, 26 deaths, lost, 22 Nov.

1870. Explosions—at Silverdale colliery, Stafford1869. Brierly pit, near Stourbridge, inundated 17 shire, 19 killed, 7 July; Llansamlet, near Swan

March, many lost;—some rescued, 20, 21 March; sea, 19 killed, 23 July ; Brynn-hall, near Wigan, Explosions at Highbrooks colliery, near Wigan, about 20 killed, 19 Aug.

COFFEE (p. 186). Imported into Great Britain in 1867, 137,729,716 lbs.; in 1869, 173,416,332 lbs.

COINAGE (p. 187). In 1869; gold, 7,372,2041. ; silver, 76,4281. ; copper, 20,8321. Total value, 7,469,4647. The new Coinage Act was passed 4 April, 1870, see Mint.

COLONIAL SOCIETY, established to promote the interests of the colonies, Lord Bury, president, held its first meeting 26 June, 1868, and first annual meeting 28 June, 1869, when it assumed the title “ Royal.” On 7 March, 1870, it became “ The Royal Colonial Institute." The first volumes of its “Proceedings” have been published. The formation of a National and Colonial League was resolved on at a meeting held at Cannon street, London, 5 Jan. 1870.

COMETS (p. 191). The thirteenth return of Encke's comet was observed at Copenhagen by M. D'Arrest 20 July, 1868. Biela's comet has not appeared since 1852.

COMMON PRAYER (p. 193). Changes in the Lectionary or calendar of lessons were recommended in the third report of the Ritual Commission, i2 Jan. 1870. A bill for sanc


30 Dec.

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