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tioning these changes passed the house of lords, but was dropped in the house of commons
through want of time, Aug. The fourth report of the Ritual Commission disclosed great
difference of opinion amongst the commissioners, Aug. 1870.
COMMONS, HOUSE OF (p. 193) ; past and present constitution :
Old House.

By the Reform Act of 1832. By the Acts 1867 and 1868.
Members.
Members.

Members. 202 Cities or boroughs

187 Cities or boroughs

323

186 Cities or boroughs *. 286 40 Counties

40 Counties
144 40 Counties

171 2 Universities 1 Isle of Wight

í Isle of Wight 2 Universities

3 Universities.

ENGLAND

ENGLAND.

ENGLAND.

*

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WALES. 12 Cities or boroughs 12 Counties

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WALES.
14 Cities or boroughs
12 Counties

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12 Counties

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22 Cities or boroughs
33 Counties
4 Universities

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382
Total 658 376
Total 658 | 381

Total * Disfranchised, 1890: Beverley and Bridgwater, each two members; Cashel and Sligo, each one member: present house, 652 members, Dec. 1870.

COOKERY (p. 201). Three medals were awarded to the Norwegian self-acting cooking apparatus (Sorenson's patent) at the Paris Exhibition, 1867. Cooking is effected by boiling water, the heat of which is maintained by enclosing it in a non-conducting substance.

COPYRIGHT (p. 203). In the case of Routledge v. Low, the house of lords on appeal decided in favour of the copyright of a foreign author, 29 May, 1868.

CORINTH (p. 204). In April, 1870, a concession was granted for 99 years to a French company to cut the isthmus for a canal; to be completed in six years, by MM. E. G. Piat and Chollet.

CORK (p. 204). For a seditious speech in favour of the Fenians on 27 April, 1869, the mayor was compelled to resign, 11 May, an act for his disability having been introduced into parliament. Riots, partially connected with a strike, were suppressed, 26, 28 June, 1870. New Protestant cathedral consecrated, 30 Nov. 1870.

CORNELL UNIVERSITY, Ithaca, New York : for the study of the applied sciences, agriculture, engineering, &c.; partially on a self-supporting system; founded by Ezra Cornell in 1868. He had risen from poverty to wealth by patenting his inventions.

CORONATION (p. 205). Leo I., emperor of the East, was crowned by Anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople, being the first instance of a Christian sovereign receiving his crown from the hands of a priest, 457. Majorian, emperor of the West, is said to have been crowned in the same year in a similar manner. The coronation oath for British sovereigns prescribed by 1 William and Mary, c. 6 (1689), was modified in 1706, and again in 1821, on account of the union of the Churches of England and Ireland.

CORONERS (p. 206). Inquests in England and Wales in 1867, 24,648; in 1868, 24,774; in 1869, 24,709 (17,191 males; 7518 females).

COSTA RICA. Dr. Joseph Castro was deposed and J. Jimenez appointed governor, Nov. 1868.

COTTAGE IMPROVEMENT SOCIETY, founded 12 April, 1861, has a museum in Arundel-street, Strand. Some of the society's models appeared in the International Exhibitions—in London, 1862; in Paris, 1867.

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COTTON (p. 209). A memorial window, the gift of the cotton Raw cotton imported into the United Kingdom : in

operatives of Lancashire, who subscribed for 1866, 1,377,129,936 lbs, ; in 1867, 1,262,536,912 lbs. ; it in order to commemorate the munificence

in 1868, 1,328,084,016 lbs.; in 1869, 1,220, 809,856 lbs. of the metropolis to them during the cotton Cotton yarn and manufactures imported (declared famine (1861–4), was placed in Guildhall and value) : in 1866, 74,613,0461. ; in 1867, 70,836,973l. ; uncovered

15 July, 1868 in 1868, 67,686,7721. ; in 1869, 64,159,0641. COULMIERS, a village ten miles west of Orleans, central France. Here the Bavarians, under general Von der Tann, were defeated by the French army of the Loire, under general D'Aurelle de Paladines, who took about 2000 prisoners, 9 Nov. 1870, and regained Orleans.

COUNCILS (p. 210). The twenty-first Ecumenical or General Council, summoned by an encyclical letter, 8 Sept. 1868, met at Rome 8 Dec. 1869. Present: 6 archbishop-princes ; 49 cardinals ; 11 patriarchs ; 680 archbishops and bishops ; 28 abbots ; 29 generals of orders803 in all.

There were held four public sessions, and between 90 and 100 congregations. New canons were issued 24 April, 1870, and after much discussion and opposition, the infallibility of the Pope as head of the Church was affirmed by 547 placets against 2 nonplacets, and promulgated 18 July. The council then adjourned to 11 Nov. Many bishops withdrew from the discussion.

CREDIT MOBILIER (p. 213). The high court of appeal decided that MM. Péreire and other directors were responsible to the shareholders for their acts, and that damages should be given. CRIME (p. 214). The important « Habitual Criminals Act” passed 11 Aug. 1869. Convictions.

Capital.

E.cccutions.
1867
1868

15,033
1869

CROATIA (p. 215). The union of Croatia with Hungary was recognized by a Croatian deputation 27 May, 1868, and Croatian delegates entered the Hungarian diet 24 Nov. The emperor and empress visited Agram 9-10 March, 1869.

CROWN LANDS (p. 216). The revenues of the duchy of Cornwall, not those of Lancaster, belong to the prince of Wales.

CRYPTOGRAPH, an apparatus for writing in cypher, invented by sir Charles Wheatstone, and made known in 1868, in which different key-words may be employed, and, it is said, absolute secrecy ensured.

CRYSTAL PALACE (p. 217). The Aëronautical Exbibition opened, 25 June, 1868 | Reception of the vicomte de Lesseps July, 1870 Protestant meeting to defend the Irish Church, Suicide of Mr. Robert K. Bowley, fourteen

17 Aug.

years manager of the company 25 Aug. » CUBA (p. 218). Population in 1870, about 765,000 whites, 250,000 coloured, 368,000 blacks. Immediately after the Spanish revolution, Sept. 1868, an insurrection of the Creoles to expel the Spaniards broke out; and after violent struggles and much bloodshed, was not quelled in June, 1870, when the United States decided not to recognize the insurgents as belligerents. A filibusters' attack on Cuba was repelled 17 May, 1869. About 2000 lives lost by a hurricane, about 14 Oct. 1870. The captain-general De Rodas resigned, and left Cuba, 15 Dec. 1870.

CUMULATIVE VOTE (p. 219), was employed with much effect in electing the metropolitan school board, 29 Nov. 1870.

CUSTOMS (p. 228). Gross annual receipts, 31 March, 1868, 22,650,000l. ; 1869 22,424,000l. ; 1870, 21,529,000l. A Customs and Inland Revenue Act passed i Aug. 1870.

D. DALMATIA (p. 223). An insurrection opposed to the new military law broke out at Bocche di Cattaro, and a conflict with the troops at Dragali took place, 10 Oct. 1869. Several regiments were sent there, but the insurgents obtained several successes during the month. A deputation offered submission, 2 Nov., and the operations against them were suspended about the end of the month.

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DEATH (p. 227). The “ Capital Punishment within Prisons Act" passed May, 1868 ; see Executions, 13 Aug. 1868. The abolition of the punishment of death in Great Britain, proposed by Mr. Gilpin in the commons, was negatived (127 to 23) 21 April, 1868; again negatived (118 to 58) 27 July, 1869. Capital punishment was abolished in Saxony I April 1868.

DEBT (p. 227). By an act passed 9 Aug. 1869, the imprisonment of fraudulent debtors was abolished, with certain exceptions, and nearly a hundred debtors were released by a judge's order in Jan. 1870. An act to facilitate the arrest of absconding debtors, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS. Much new and interesting information respecting the animal life and temperature of the deep sea has been acquired by the dredgings on the coast of Norway by M. Sars, and by those of Dr. W. B. Carpenter and professor Wyville Thomson on our own coasts, near the Faroe isles, in 1868 and 1869, and in the Mediterranean by Dr. Carpenter in 1870. Living animals have been found at a depth of three miles.

DEISM (p. 229). The “Progressive Brahmins,” theists, opened a place of worship at Calcutta 24 Aug, 1869. Their leader, Baboo Keshub Chunder Sen, was received at a public meeting in London as a reformer, 12 April, 1870, and subsequently preached in a Unitarian chapel,

Finsbury, London.
DENHAM MURDERS, see Trials, 1870.

DENMARK (p. 233). Marriage of the crown prince Frederic to the Denmark remains neutral in the Francoprincess Louise of Sweden

28 July, 1869 Prussian war; fruitless visit of the duc de New ministry formed by M. Holsteinborg, Cadore to Copenhagen

4-11 Aug. 1870 20 May, Birth of a son to the crown prince

27 Sept. DEONTOLOGY, the knowledge of what is right, or the science of duty (from the Greek to deon, that which is proper), an element of the Utilitarian philosophy propounded by Jeremy Bentham in his " Deontology,” published by Dr. Bowring in 1834.

DERBY. The new town-hall was opened 29 May, 1866. The midland counties fine art exhibition was held here, and was opened by the duke of Devonshire 5 May, 1870. The earl of Derby, statesman and scholar, died 25 Oct. 1869.

DIALECTIC SOCIETY, for the philosophical treatment of all questions, especially of those which lie at the root of the differences of opinion which divide mankind, was established early in 1867.

DIAMONDS (p. 236) were discovered in Cape Colony, S. Africa, in March, 1867. A fine one, termed the

"Star of South Africa," brought to England in 1869, was purchased by Messrs. Hunt and Roskell, and valued at 25,000l., in June, 1870. Rich diamond fields recently discovered near the Vaal and Orange rivers, Sept. 1870. Great influx of diggers, and many fine diamonds found, Nov.

DIJON, E. France, the ancient capital of Burgundy, is said to have been founded by Julius Cæsar, fortified by the emperor Marcus Aurelius, and named Divio, about 274. It has been several times captured in war; and a castle was erected here by Louis XI. Dijon became the capital of the dukes of Burgundy about 1180. It was attacked by the Germans, under general Beyer, 30 Oct. 1870. The heights and suburbs were taken by prince William of Baden, and the town surrendered on 31 Oct.

DISRAELI ADMINISTRATION (p. 239) resigned 2 Dec. 1868, as soon as the result of the elections showed a large majority in favour of the Liberal party. Mrs. Disraeli was created viscountess Beaconsfield 28 Nov. 1868.

DISTRICT CHURCHES ACTS. By the one passed in 1865 certain new churches were constituted rectories, and by another act, passed in 1868 (the bishop of Oxford's Act) the new parishes not rectories were ordered to be styled vicarages.

DIVIDENDS OF PUBLIC STOCKS. By an act passed 11 Aug. 1869, these may be paid by post if the recipients desire it, as railway dividends are.

DIVORCE AMENDMENT ACT (p. 240) passed 21 July 1868. Between 1856 and 1867 1279 dissolutions of marriage and 213 judicial separations were decreed.

DOCKS (p. 241). A great floating iron dry dock which cost 250,000l, was launched at North Woolwich, 3 Sept. 1868; and towed from the Medway by two ships of war, 23 June, 1869, and arrived at the Bermudas (in thirty-six days), 30 July.

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DUALIN, a name given to new explosive substances, compounds of nitrogen and woody fibre, by M. Ditman and M. Nobel, 1870.

DUBLIN (p. 248). Sir Benjamin L. Guinness, the restorer of St. Patrick's cathedral, died 19 May, 1868. The Church Congress met here 29 Sept. 1868; and the Irish Church Convention, 25 Oct. 1870. Smith O'Brien's statue publicly unveiled, 26 Dec. 1870.

DUST AND DISEASE. A controversy respecting the connection between them originated with a lecture on the subject by professor Tyndall at the Royal Institution, 21 Jan. 1870, when he demonstrated the presence of organic matters in the dust of the atmosphere in conformity with the experiments of Pasteur and other eminent philosophers. Professor Huxley, at the meeting of the British Association, 14 Sept. 1870, expressed his opinion that contagious diseases are propagated by germs in the atmosphere.

DYNAMITE, a new explosive compound, consisting of 75 parts of silica saturated with 25 parts of nitro-glycerine. It is suitable for mining purposes, and was tried and approved at Merstham 14 July 1868.

a

E. EARTHQUAKES (p. 254). The cities of Arequipa, Iquique, Tacna, and Slight earthquake in W. England and S. Wales ; Chencha, and many small towns in Peru felt at Bath, Swansea, &c..

30 Oct. 1863 and Ecuador destroyed; about 25,000 lives In Santa Maura, an Ionian Isle, the town Santa lost, and 30,000 rendered homeless; loss of Maura destroyed; about 17 persons perished, property estimated at 60,000,000l. 13-15 Aug. 1868

28 Dec. 1869 [About 11,000l. collected in London to relieve At Quebec, not much damage

20 Oct. 1870 the sufferers.]

In Calabria; several villages destroyed, early in

Oct. ECLIPSES (p. 257). During the solar eclipse, 18 Aug. 1868, as observed in India, M. Janssen invented a method of studying the phenomena of the sun at any time, by employing several spectroscopes, whereby the spectrum is lengthened and the dazzling brilliancy diminished. Mr. Joseph Norman Lockyer had suggested a similar method of observation in 1866, but did not use it till 20 Oct. 1868, being then not aware of M. Janssen's discovery. The solar eclipse, 7 Aug. 1869_was well observed in North America. Two expeditions to observe the solar eclipse of 22 Dec. 1870 were sent out by the British government (not very successful).

ECORCHEURS (Flayers). A name given to bands of armed adventurers who desolated France and Belgium during the 15th century, beginning about 1435. Amongst their leaders were Chabannes, comte de Dainmartin, the bastard of Armagnac, and Villandras; and they at one time numbered 100,000. They are said to have stripped their victims to their shirts, and flayed the cattle. They were favoured by the English invasion and the civil wars.

EDINBURGH (p. 259). The prince of Wales was installed as patron of the Freemasons of Scotland, 12 Oct.; and laid the foundation of the new royal infirmary, 13 Oct. 1870. The annuity-tax abolition act passed 9 Aug. 1870.

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY. Dr. Lyon Playfair was elected the first M.P. for this and St. Andrew's university, 4 Dec. 1868.

EDUCATION (p. 260). Foundation of the first new building for a mid- Elementary Education Bill introduced by Mr.

dle class school in London laid by the lord W. E. Forster, 17 Feb. ; after much discusmayor, Lawrence

15 Dec. 1868

sion, and opposition from the dissenters, it Public Schools Act (modifying the government passed, and received the royal assent 9 Aug. 1870

of Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charter- 10,000l. voted by the Christian Knowledge house, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury Society in aid of Church of England schools, schools) passed 31 Juls', 1868; amendment

20 Oct. acts

9 Aug. 1869–70 Order for first election of Metropolitan schoolNew statutes for them issued Oct.-Nov. 1869 board on 29 Nov. National Education League (advocating com- National university for industrial and technical pulsory education by the state,) first met at training proposed

Oct. Birmingham

L2, 13 Oct. Metropolitan school-board elected National Education Union for supplementing Regulations for school-boards issued, 21 Dec. the present system, first met at Manchester, Primary schools in Great Britain : in 1855,

4800 ; in 1860, 7272; in 1869, 10,337. Conference at the Society of Arts to reconcile Annual grant for primary schools in Great the League and the Union.

7 Feb. 1870 Britain : in 1861, 813,4421. ; in 1865, 636,806l. ; Scientific instruction and advancement com

in 1869, 820,827l. mission appointed

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EGGS (p. 260). Number imported into Great Britain : in 1861, 203,313,360 ; in 1865, 364,013,040; in 1869, 442,175,040.

EGYPT (p. 262). The viceroy (now termed the Khedive) visited England 22 June1 July, 1869. He was present at the inauguration of the Suez canal, 17 Nov. The differences between the sultan and himself respecting prerogatives were arranged in Dec. 1869, the viceroy giving up the power of imposing taxes and of contracting loans.

ELECTION PETITIONS. The laws respecting them were consolidated in 1828, 1839, and 1844. A new act passed 1848 was amended 1865. By the act passed 31 July, 1868, these petitions are to be tried before judges, and the punishments of candidates and their agents for bribery are enacted. Three additional judges were appointed in consequence : justices Willes and Blackburn and baron Martin were the first to act, Nov. 1868.

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS ACT, enabling the postmaster-general to acquire, work, and maintain electric telegraphs, was passed 31 July 1868, and the work began 5 Feb. 1869. The French Atlantic Telegraph, from Brest to Duxbury, Massachusetts, was laid 17 June23 July, 1869.

ELECTRICITY (p. 264). C. F. Varley's “reciprocal electrophorus” in- Mr. Apps' great inductorium, or induction coil,

giving the largest sparks ever seen, exhibited Sir William Thomson's “electric replenishers at the Royal Polytechnic Institution, 29 Mar. 1869 described

Jan. 1868
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT, 33 & 34 Vict. c. 75, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

EMIGRATION (p. 268). From the United Kingdom ; in 1866, 204,882 ; in 1867, | To Australia and New Zealand : in 1866, 24,097 ; in 195,953 ; in 1868, 196,325; in 1869, 258,027.

1867, 14,466 ; in 1868, 12,809 ; in 1869, 14,901. To North American Colonies : in 1866, 13,255 ; in 1867, 15,503 ; in 1868, 21,062 ; in 1869, 33,891.

ENDOWED SCHOOLS ACT, containing the “ Conscience Clause," passed 1860; another similar act passed 2 Aug. 1869.

ENGINEERS' AMALGAMATED SOCIETY in 1867 consisted of above 30,000 members; annual income 86,00ol.; disbursed to disabled workmen, &c., about 50,000l.; amassed capital about 125,000l.

ENGLAND (p. 274). Michael Faraday, natural philosopher (nearly Charles Dickens died (aged 58) 9 June, 1870

25 Aug. 1867 Earl of Clarendon died (aged 70). 27 June, , Death of lord Brougham,

aged 89 . 7 May, 1868 Irish land bill brought in, 15 Feb., received Arrival of the duke of Edinburgh from Aus

royal assent tralia.

Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war proclaimed, Irish and Scotch reform acts passed 13 July »

19 July, , Mr. Gladstone's resolution for disestablishing 2,000,000l. voted to increase the army by 20,000 the Irish church; adopted by the commons,

30 April,

Foreign enlistment act passed; stringent proNearly 21,000 extra deaths attributed to the clamation of neutrality issued

9 Aug. hot summer (23 July said to be hottest), Parliament prorogued

10 Aug. 1 July-30 Sept. » Treaty with Prussia and France for neutrality Parliament dissolved in Nov., new parliament of Belgium signed

9, 11 Aug. , meets

10 Dec. Long drought: bad hay harvest : good wheat Resignation of Disraeli ministry, 2 Dec.; Glad

harvest

Mar.--Aug. stone ministry take office

The queen's consent to the marriage of the Convention with United States respecting the princess Louise to the marquis of Lorne anAlabama claim signed (afterwards rejected nounced by the States)

14 Jan. 1869 Foot and mouth disease prevalent among New parliament meet for business . 16 Feb.

cattle

Aug.-Nov. Irish Church bill introduced into the commons,

Election of elementary school-boards

Nov. 1 March ; royal assent

26 July,

Kesignation of Mr. Bright announced, 20 Dec. The earl of Derby dies (aged 70)

[See Russia, Nov., 1870.7 Parliament meets

8 Feb. 1870 ENLISTMENT, see Army, and Foreign Enlistment.

EQUATOR or ECUADOR (p. 279). Geronimo Carrion resigned in consequence of disputes with the chambers. Dr. Xavier Espinosa was elected president 13 Sept. 1867. See Earthquakes, 1868.

EVANGELICAL CHURCH in Germany began with a fusion of the Lutherans and Calvinists in Nassau in 1817; followed by similar movements in different parts of Germany, 1818–22.

EXCHEQUER, CHANCELLOR OF (p. 284). Mr. Robert Lowe succeeded Mr. Ward Hunt, 9 Dec. 1868.

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