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EXCISE (p. 285). Gross annual receipts : 31 March, 1868, 20,162,00ot.; 1869, 20,462,000l. 1870, 21,7631.

EXECUTIONS (p. 288): in England and Wales, in 1867, 10; in 1868, 12; in 1869, 10. O'Farrell, for attempting to assassinate the Wm. Taylor, soldier; murder of his corporal ; duke of Edinburgh; Sydney, N.S. Wales,


11 Oct. 1869 21 April, 1868 Frederick Hinson, murder of his concubine Richard Bishop; murder of Alfred Cartwright; Maria Death, and of Wm. Douglas Boyd, her Maidstone

: 30 April,

paramour, at Wood Green, Middlesex; Old Michael Barrett, Fenian; for Clerkenwelí Bailey

13 Dec, explosion ; THE LAST PUBLIC EXECUTION IN Walter Miller; murder of Rev. Elias Huelin, ENGLAND; Old Bailey.

and Ann Boss (at Chelsea); Old Bailey, 1 Aug. 1870 Thomas Wells, for murder of Mr. Walsh, station- John Owen or Jones, for murder of a family at master at Dover ; (the first private execution), Denham; Aylesbury

13 Aug. , Thomas Ratcliffe ; murder of a warder in PortWm. Mobbs, purposeless murder of a child ; laud prison; Dorchester

15 Aug. Aylesbury

28 Mar. 1869 Margaret Waters; murder of infants, babyWilliam Sherward, for murder of his wife, Nor- farming case; Horsemonger Lane II Oct. wich (see Norwich)

20 April, Patrick Durr; murder of his wife ; Manchester, Josiah Detheridge, murder of warder in Port

26 Dec. land prison; Dorchester

12 Aug. » EXETER (p. 288). Bishop Henry Phillpotts died 18 Sept. 1869, and was succeeded by Dr. Frederick Temple, elected 11 Nov., and enthroned (after much opposition from some of the clergy) 29 Dec. 1869. The Albert Memorial museum, Exeter, was given up to the town council, 21 April, 1870.

EXHIBITIONS. A meeting was held 4 April, 1870, the Prince of Wales in the chair, to promote, annual international exhibitions, to commence 1 May, 1871. The Workmen's International Exhibition, Agricultural Hall, Islington, was opened by the Prince of Wales 16 July, 1870.

EXPORTS (p. 290). Declared real value of British and Irish produce exported from the United Kingdom: in 1866, 188,917,5361. ; in 1867, 180,961,923l. ; in 1868, 179,677,8121.; in 1869,190,045,2301.

EXTRADITION OF CRIMINALS. A new act was passed 9 Aug. 1870.

FACTORY AND WORKSHOP ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

FARADAY MONUMENT. Professor Michael Faraday, natural philosopher and chemist (see Electricity), died 25 Aug. 1867. A public meeting was held at the Royal Institution, 21 June, 1869, the prince of Wales in the chair, to take measures to provide a public monument to him. A sufficient sum having been subscribed, the production of a statue was entrusted to Mr. Foley. The “ Faraday Medal,” to be given to distinguished foreign philosophers by the Chemical society, was awarded to M. Dumas, June, 1869.

FELONY (p. 293). An act to abolish forfeitures for treason and felony, and to otherwise abolish the law relating thereto, passed 4 July, 1870.

FENIANS (p. 295). Consequences of the Clerkenwell explosion, 13 Michael Barrett, (for causing the Clerkenwell December 1867 :-“Six persons were killed explosion), executed

26 May, 1868 Soutright,' six more died from its effects, O'Donovan Rossa and others released, behave according to the coroner's inquests; five, violently

March, 1869 in addition, owe their deaths indirectly The government declines to release others, to this means ; one young woman is in a

18 Oct. madhouse, 40 mothers were prematurely Fenian raid into Canada vigorously repelled confined, and 20 of their babes died from the by the militia, and their general O'Neil effects of the explosion on the women; others captured by the U.S. marshal 26 May, 1870 of the children are dwarfed and unhealthy. Michael Davitt and John Wilson convicted of One mother is now a raving maniac; 120 treason-felony for endeavouring to transmit persons were wounded; 50 went into St.

arms secretly to Ireland

18 July, Bartholoinew's, Gray's Inn-lane, and King's Captured Fenian generals in United States College Hospitals; 15 are permanent

sentenced to imprisonment for breach of jured, with loss of eyes, legs, arms, &c.; neutrality laws .

July, besides 20,000l. worth of damage to person President Grant's proclamation against Fenian and property. Such was the horrifying and

raids into Canada pitiable devastation caused by that one barrel Letter from Mr. Gladstone announcing early of gunpowder."-Times

29 April, 1868

release of Fenian convicts Richard Burke, a leader, convicted of treason- The convicts released

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FIRE-ARMS (p. 297). The “Money-Walker” rifle (patented by Mr. Mowbray-Money and lieut.-col. Walker), tried and approved 18 June, 1868. A report in favour of the Martini and Henry rifles was issued in March, 1869. See Mitrailleuse. An act to grant a duty of excise in licenses to use guns, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

FIRES IN LONDON (p. 300): in 1866, 1338 (326 serious); in 1867, 1397 (245 serious); in 1868, 1668 (235 serious); in 1869, 1572 (199 serious). Northumberland house, Strand; valuable pic- Mr. Hill's, upholsterer's, Waterloo-road; 6 chiltures, &c., injured

19 Aug. 1868
dren suffocated

23 July 1870 Mrs. Jago's, Pentonville-hill; 3 perish, 5 June, 1869 Church-street, Rotherhithe; 3 lives lost, 23 Aug. ,,

; 3 Moscow-road, Bayswater; through explosion Cecil house, Cecil-street, Strand; Mr. Forbes of fireworks ; 7 persons perish

1 Oct.

burnt; architectural books, &c., of Mr. G. G. Mr. Mc Micken's, Newington-butts ;:4 lives lost, Scott destroyed

4 Sept.

Mr. Bush's, manufacturing chemist's, LiverpoolOld Star and Garter hotel, Richmond; Wm. street, Bishopsgate; 4 lives lost

27 Sept. , Lever the manager killed

12 Jan. 1870 FOREIGN CATTLE MARKET. The city of London having been required to provide this market before 1 Jan. 1872, by the Contagious Diseases Act (for Animals), 1869, the common council, 7 Nov. 1870, agreed to the expenditure of 160,oool. for the purpose. The site chosen, Deptford dockyard, was much opposed.

FOREIGN ENLISTMENT ACT passed 9 Aug. 1870. It relates to illegal enlisting, shipbuilding, and expeditions.

FOREIGN OFFICE (p. 305) completed, and occupied by lord Stanley, who gave an entertainment 24 June, 1868.

FORGERY (p. 365). Law amended by the “Forgery Act,” passed 9 Aug. 1870.

FRANCE (p. 314). Defeat of an attack on free trade in the Ultra-liberal speech of prince Napoleon Jerome chamber May, 1868 in the senate

. 1 Sept. 1869 New press law put in force; increasing facility New constitution promulgated for publishing new journals

June, Père Hyacinthe (name Loyson), popular CarRochefort's' weekly satirical pamphlet melite preacher at Paris, protests against

Lanterne, suppressed; he and his printer, papal infallibility and encroachments and recondemned to fine and imprisonme escape,

signs by letter

ept Aug. Great excitement at Paris through discovery of M. Berryer, the advocate, died

the murder of the Kinck family at Pantin by Ministerial changes; marquis de la Valette, Tropmann.

about 19 Sept. foreign minister, in room of De Moustier; Proposed meeting of republicans at Paris (did Forcade de la Roquette, minister of the inte- not take place)

26 Oct. rior

Dec. Agitation against free-trade Oct., Nov., Dec. The Moniteur replaced by the Journal officiel Journey of the empress to the East; arrival at

1 Jan. 1869 Constantinople, 13 Oct; at Alexandria, Death of Lamartine, 28 Feb.; of Troplong, president of the senate

1 March, Firm and temperate manifesto of the left (ultra Dissolution of the legislative assembly of 1863, republican opposition) issued about 16 Nov.

Henri Rochefort (of La Lanterne) elected a deDifference with Belgium respecting the Luxem- puty for Paris

22 Nov. bourg railway settled

April, The chambers opened by the emperor with a Fierce election riots at Paris, 9 June; the em

liberal speech peror and empress ride boldly through the Resignation of ministers announced . Boulevards

Tropmann condemned The new legislative chamber meets; the oppo- New liberal ministry formed by Emile Ollivier sition to the government more than trebled, (justice); Daru (foreign); Le Boeuf (war)


Jan. 1870 Message from the emperor announcing import- Resignation of M. Haussmann, prefect of the ant political changes; introducing ministerial


about 6 Jan. responsibility, &c., read 12 July; resignation Victor Noir, a journalist, killed by Pierre Bonaof ministers

13 July, parte during an interview at Auteuil respectNew ministry: Forcade de la Roquette (inte- ing a challenge sent to M. Rochefort, 10 Jan.

rior); La Tour d'Auvergne (foreign); Chasse- Tropmann, the murderer, executed, Jan, loup-Laubat, president, c.

Great excitement amongst lower orders ; proM. Rouber made president of the senate, 20 July, , secution of Rochefort for libel in his paper, French Atlantic telegraph completely laid,

the Marseillaise; he is sentenced to fine and 23 July, » imprisonment

22 Jan. Marquis de la Valette appointed ambassador in Barricades erected in Paris, and riots after the London

July, apprehension of Rochefort, 7 Feb. ; soon The political changes announced to the senate, quelled

8, 9 Feb. 5 Aug. »

Jules Favre's attack on the ministry' in the Marshal Niel, war minister, aged 66; dies,

chamber defeated (236 to 18)

13 Aug. » Charles, comte de Montalembert, eminent Centenary of the birth of Napoleon I.; amnesty author, dies granted to political offenders ; increased pen

Trial of Pierre Bonaparte at Tours; acquitted sions to survivors of the grand army; troops (but ordered to pay 1000l. to Noir's family); reviewed by the imperial prince (the empe

21–27 March, ror ill)

15 Aug.
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FRANCE, continued. fication of the constitution of the senate, The Orleans princes, (the duc d'Aumale, prince

22 March, 1870 de Joinville, and duc de Chartres), proffer Senatus consultum communicated to the senate, their services in the army: declined Aug. 1870 28 March ; adopted

20 April, Extraordinary sitting of the corps législatif Ministerial crisis: resignation of Daru and respecting the new levies Sunday, 14 Aug. »

other ministers opposing the proposed plé- Great disturbances at La Villette, a suburb of biscite

· 10 April,

Paris : about 200 armed men attack the Proclamation of the emperor respecting changes police, crying “Vive la république!” soon in the constitution

24 April,
suppressed, and many arrested

14 Aug. 15 Conspiracy against the emperor's life detected; The government declare against any negotiaBaurie (aged 22) and others arrested,

tions for

14 Aug. about 30 April, Atrocious murder of M. Allain de Moneys, Plebiscite to ascertain whether the people ap- suspected of republicanism and Germanism;

prove of these changes,-yes, 7,527,379; no, he was half killed by blows and then burnt 1,530,909

8 May,

to death by infuriated peasants at Hautefaye, Ollivier ministry reconstructed, 13 April; duc de Dordogne, not far from Bordeaux

Grammont foreign minister about 15 May, General Trochu (Orleanist), energetic and able Rioting and barricades in Paris, 9, 10 May ; author of “ L'Armée Française en 1867," apabout 100 arrested, many sentenced to im

pointed governor of Paris, 17 Aug. : issues a prisonment 14. May, » stirring proclamation

18 Aug, Speech by the emperor on receiving result of A loan of 750 million francs announced, 21 Aug. ” the plébiscite

23 May,

Frequent diplomatic conferences at the British The Orleans princes address the legislative as- embassy respecting mediation about 22 Aug. »

sembly, demanding their return to France, Confident statement of the national position by 19 June ; opposed by 173 to 31 2 July, the ministry.

23 Aug. » Discovery of a plot against the emperor's life, M. Thiers placed on the defence committee

5 July,

26 Aug. Great excitement tbrough the nomination of Decree of m. Trochu 'for the expulsion from

prince Leopold of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen Paris of all foreigners not naturalized, 28 Aug. » for the Spanish throne; warlike speeches of Death of count Flahault de la Billarderie, chanthe ministers

5, 6, 7 July, cellor of the legion of honour, aged 85 (served The prince Leopold withdraws from candida- under Napoleon I., Louis Philippe, and ture; guarantees required by France from Napoleon III.)

31 Aug. Prussia refused; France decides to declare Deputation from 10,000 persons call on Trochu war against Prussia, 15 July; declaration to assume the government : he declines, signed 17 July »

8 p.m., 3 Sept. , (For the events of the war, see Franco-Prussian The news of the final defeat of MacMahon

near War.]

Sedan, and the surrender of the emperor and

the remainder of MacMahon's army (90,000) The empress appointed regent

23 July,

to the King of Prussia announced by comte The emperor joins the army

28 July, de Palikao to the legislative assembly. Jules Publication of the Marseillaise of Rochefort

Favre declares for defending France to the end of July, ,

last gasp, attacks the imperial dynasty, and The government declare that they are only “at proposes concentration of all power in the

war with the policy of Bismarck". 2 Aug. hands of general Trochu, amid profound Great excitement in Paris through the false


3'35 a.m. 4 Sept. announcement of a great victory

6 Aug.

The ruin of MacMahon's army announced State of siege proclaimed in Paris after the

in the Journal Officiel great defeat of MacMahon at Werth,

7 Aug.

At the proposition of Tbiers the chamber apDecrees for the enlargement of the national points a commission of government and guard, appealing to patriotism and depre

national defence, and orders the convocation cating discord

7, 8 Aug. of a constituent assembly, and adjourns, At Blois, the conspirators against the em

3.10 p.m. 4 Sept. peror's life sentenced to long imprisonments, At the resumption of the sitting of the

assembly it is invaded by the crowd, demandEnergetic measures taken for the defence of ing a republic; most of the deputies retire.

Paris ; Changarnier offers his services to the Gambetta and other liberal members of the emperor; well received

“left” proclaim the deposition of the imThe government appeals to France and Europe perial dynasty and the establishment of a against Prussia


4.15 p.m. 4 Sept. Stormy debate in the corps legislatif ; (M. de Last meeting of the senate ; 'it declares adKératry called on the emperor to abdicate;

hesion to the emperor

4 Sept. , M. Guyot Montpeyroux said that the army Proclamation of a government of defence" were “ lions led by asses;”) ending with the General Trochu, president; MM. Léon Gamresignation of Ollivier and his ministry,

betta (interior), Jules Simon (public instruc

9 Aug. tion), Jules Favre(foreign), Crémieux (justice), New ministry formed : General Cousin-Montau- Jules Picard (finance), general Le Flo (war),

ban Count de Palikao (distinguished in the Fourichon (marine), Magnin (agriculture), war with China), minister of war, chief: M. Dorian (public works), Etienne Arago (mayor Chevreau, minister of the interior; M. Magne, of Paris), Kératry (police)

4 Sept. » minister of Finance; M. Clement Duvernois, An informal meeting of the legislative asminister of commerce and agriculture ; Ad- sembly held, M. Thiers, president. M. Jules miral Rigault de Genouilly, minister of Favre reports to it the formation of the marine; Baron Jerome David, minister of provisional government; some protest; Thiers public works; Prince de la Tour d'Auvergne, recommends moderation, and the meeting minister of foreign affairs ; and others


evening 4 Sept.

4 10 Aug. The empress,

the comte de Palikao, and other Decree for the great augmentation of the army ministers secretly leave Paris and enter during the war and appointing a “defenco Belgium

evening, 4 Sept. ,, committee" for Paris

10 Aug. »

Legislative chamber dissolved; senate abolished;


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FRANCE, continued.

Regular troops and national guard fraternise.
“ Perfect order reigns"

5 Sept. 1870 M. Favre calls on the United States of America for moral support

5 Sept. » The emperor Napoleon arrives at Wilhelmshöhe, near Cassel

9.35 p. m. 5 Sept. The republican deputies in the Spanish cortes greet the republic

5 Sept. » Henri Rochefort added to the government,

5 Sept. » The red republican flag raised at Lyons, 5 Sept. , Victor Hugo and Louis Blanc arrive in Paris, Jules Favre, in a circular to French diplomatic

representatives, while professing desire for peace, says, “We will not cede either an inch

of our territories or a stone of our fortresses,” Proclamation of general Trochu, saying that

the defence of the capital is assured, 6 Sept. The police dismissed, and replaced by national

guards Proffered services of the Orleans princes again

declined The imperial correspondence seized, about

7 Sept. » The government proclaim that to-day, as in

1792, the republic signifies the hearty union
of the army and people for the defence of the

7 Sept. » The republic recognized by the United States, The defence committee summon the king of

Prussia to quit French territory without loss

of time
Reappearance of the Marseillaise : Rochefort

resigns editorship, and disclaims connection
on account of a violent article; the paper

ceases to appear soon after
Decree convoking the constituent assembly, to
be composed of 750 members (to be elected on

16 Oct.). The imperial prince at Hastings, 7 Sept., joined by the empress

8 Sept. Victor Hugo publishes an address to the Germans, appealing to their fraternal sentiments

9 Sept. » Cattle plague began in Alsace and Lorraine, Sept. The republic recognized by Spain, 8 Sept. ; by

Switzerland M. Thiers arrives in London on a mission from the government.

13 Sept. » Lyons said to be ruled by a “committee of safety; " red flag raised ; reign of terror,

13 Sept. Letter from M. Pietri, private secretary to the

emperor, stating that “his master has not a
centime in foreign funds'

15 Sept. » Elections for constituent assembly ordered to take place on 2 Oct.

16 Sept. The academies of the institute protest against

the bombardment of the monuments, mu-
seums, &c., in Paris

16 Sept. Diplomatic circular from M. Jules Favre : he

admits he has no claim on Prussia for dis-
interestedness; urges that statesmen should
hesitate to continue a war in which more
than 200,000 men have already fallen; an-
nounces that a freely elected assembly is
summoned, and that the government will
abide by its judgment, and that France, left
to her free action, immediately asks the
cessation of the war, but prefers its disasters
a thousand times to dishonour. He admits
that France has been wrong, and acknow-
ledges its obligation to repair by a measure
of justice the ill it bas done

17 Sept. A government delegation at Tours under M.

Crémieux, the minister of justice ; the foreign ambassadors proceed there, 18 Sept. „

Manifesto of the red republicans signed by general Cluseret, placarded in Paris, about

18 Sept. 1870 Bronze statues of Napoleon ordered to be made into cannon.

about Stern proclamation of Trochu respecting the

cowardice of the Zouaves on 19 Sept., 20 Sept. M. Duruof in a post-balloon quits Paris with

mailbags, arrives at Evreux, and reaches Tours

23 Sept. The Journal Officiel replaced by the Moniteur Universel as the organ of the government,

about 23 Sept. » Esquiros struggles to maintain order at Mar

seilles Failure of the negotiations for peace between

count Bismarck and Jules Favre; manifesto of the government at Tours, calling on the people to rise and either disavow the ministry or “fight to the bitter end"; the elections for the assembly suspended

24 Sept. » All Frenchmen between 20 and 25 years of age prohibited leaving France.

about 26 Sept. » Great enthusiasm in the provinces on the failure

of the negotiations ; *“ war to the knife" and levée en masse proclaimed by the prefects; efforts made to excite warlike ardour in Britanny by M. Cathelineau 26, 27 Sept. » The duc d'Aumale consents to become a candi

date for the representative assembly, and promises submission to the de facto government for defence

about 27 Sept. » Attempted insurrection of the red republicans

at Lyons : order restored by national guards; general Cluseret disappears

28 Sept. » Great order in Paris maintained by the national guard; report from surgeon-major Wyatt,

28 Sept. All between 21 and 40 to be organised as a

national garde mobile; all men in arms placed at the disposal of the minister of war,

30 Sept. » The empress and her son residing at Čamdenhouse, Chiselhurst, Kent

Sept. The elections for the constituent assembly ( 153

members) ordered by the delegates at Tours

to take place on 16 Oct. 29 Sept.-1 Oct. Proclamations of general Trochu for maintaining order in Paris

about 1 Oct. Marseilles said to be unsettled : many arrested,

1 Oct. The elections deferred till they can be carried

out throughout the whole extent of the republic, by order of the government at Paris,

I Oct. M. Crémieux becomes delegate minister of war

at Tours in room of admiral Fourichon (re

signed), still minister of marine Gustave Flourens, heading five battalions of

national guards, marches to the Hôtel de Ville

and demands chassepots (not to be had), Suppression of the schools of the “brethren of

the Christian doctrine" by the republicans : much dissatisfaction

8 Oct. All Frenchmen under 60 years of age forbidden to quit France

8 Oct. M. Gambetta escapes from Paris in a balloon,

7 Oct.; arrives at Rouen and declares for “a pact with victory or death,” 8 Oct.; arrives at Tours and becomes minister of war as well

as of the interior Address from the comte de Chambord, saying

that his whole ambition is to found with the

people a really national government, 9 Oct. Battalions of amazons forming in Paris, 12 Oct. Blanqui, Gustave Flourens, Ledru Rollin, Felix

Pyat, and other red republicans defeated in their attempts to establish a commune at Paris to supersede the government, 10, II,

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FRANCE, continued.
Oct. : reconciliation effected by Rochefort, The government proclaim a plébiscite in Paris

about 14 Oct. 1870 on 3 Nov. to ascertain whether the people Riots at Honfleur: the people oppose the em

maintain the power of the government of barkation of cattle to England, 120ct. ; similar

national defence

1 Nov. 1870 riots at St. Malo

M. Rochefort, member of the defence governM. Edmond Adam, prefect of police ; replacing ment, resigns M. de Kératry, sent on a foreign mission, Result of the plébiscite :-for the defence

about 16 Oct. government, 557,976; against, 62,638, 3 Nov. M. de Kératry quits Paris in a balloon, 12 Oct.; Resignation of M. Esquiros at Marseilles, suc

at Madrid fails in obtaining assistance from ceeded by M. Alphonse Gent Prim

The ex-empress has returned to Chiselhurst, Marseilles disturbed by red republicans ; Esquiros still in office

Mobilization of all able-bodied men between Publication of the imperial correspondence 20 and 40, ordered

Nov. seized in the Tuileries .

Oct. Failure of the negotiations for an armistice, Decree for a loan of 10,000,0001, issued on be

6 Nov. half of the French government

Felix Pyat and others arrested for the affair of The imperial guard suppressed by decree,

6 Nov. 26 Oct. “France can do nothing now but carry on with Circular of Gambetta stigmatizing the sur- such courage and strength as remain to her render of Metz (on 27 Oct.) as a crime, 28 Oct. a war à outrance."-Guizot.

8 Nov. Death of M. Baroche in Jersey

Decree for melting some of the church-bells to M. Thiers arrives in Paris with news of the sur

make cannon

ov. render of Metz and the proposals for an Alexander Dumas, novelist and dramatist, dies, armistice

Io Dec. Riots in Paris: general Trochu threatened; the The delegate government removed from Tours principal members of the defence govern

to Bordeaux

11 Dec. ment imprisoned in the Hôtel de Ville; Ledru Murder of lieut. Arnaud at Lyons by the people Rollin, Victor Hugo, and Gustave Flourens, for resisting them

20 Dec. and others, established as a committee of Trial of 21 peasants for murder of M. Moneys public safety and of the commune of Paris, (see 16 Aug.); 4 condemned to death; others under the direction of M. Picard; the national to imprisonment

about Dec. guard releases the government, and order is restored

Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte: declared General Boyer, replying to Gambetta, says, president of the French republic by the “We capitulated with hunger”

national assembly, 19 Dec. ; proclaimed, 20 The empress arrives at Wilhelmshöhe; inter- Dec. 1848; coup d'état, 2 Dec. 1851; elected view of Bazaine with the emperor.

president for ten years, 21, 22 Dec. 1851 ; Etienne Arago and other mayors of Paris resign, elected emperor, 21, 22

Nov. 1852 ; pro1 Nov.

claimed emperor, 2 Dec. 1852 ; surrendered Marshals Canrobert and Le Boeuf and many himself a prisoner to the king of Prussia at generals at Wilhelmshöhe.

1 Nov.

Sedan, 2 Sept. 1870; deposed at Paris, 4 Sept. Proclamation of Gambetta calling on the army arrives at Wilhelmshöhe, near Cassel, to avenge the dishonour at Metz 1 Nov.

9:35 p.m. 5 Sept. » FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR. The origin of this dreadful series of sanguinary conflicts is ascribed to the jealousy of the emperor of the French of the greatly increased power of Prussia, in consequence of the successful issue of the war with Denmark in 1864, and more especially of that with Austria in 1866. By these events the German Confederation was annulled, and the North German Confederation established under the supremacy of the king of Prussia, whose territories were also enlarged by the annexation of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Frankfort, and other provinces. This great augmentation of the power of Prussia was mainly due to the energetic, unscrupulous, and unconstitutional policy of count Bismarck-Schönhausen, prime minister since Sept. 1862. In March, 1867, a dispute arose through the emperor's proposals for the purchase of Luxemburg of the king of Holland, which was strongly opposed by Prussia, as that province had formed part of the dissolved Germanic Confederation; but the affair was eventually settled by a conference of the representatives of the great powers in London, 7-11 May, when the perfect neutrality of Luxemburg was determined, together with the withdrawal of the Prussian garrison and the destruction of the fortifications. On 25 July, 1870, the Times published the draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, drawn up in 1866, whereby it appeared that the emperor was willing to enter into an offensive and defensive alliance with the king for making certain territorial changes on the continent for their mutual aggrandizement, such as the annexation of Luxemburg by France, &c.* The authenticity of this document was admitted after some discussion, but count Bismarck asserted that it emanated wholly from the emperor, and had never been entertained by himself. Both governments had prepared for the impending struggle, and the crisis came when prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (connected with the Prussian dynasty, and brother of Charles, prince Roumania), consented to become a

* By this proposed treaty, 1. The emperor recognizes the acquisitions which Prussia has made in the last war; 2. The king of Prussia promises to facilitate the acquisition of Luxemburg by France; 3. The emperor will not oppose a federal union of the northern and southern states of Germany, except Austria ; 4. The king of Prussia, in case the emperor should enter or conquer Belgium, will support him in arms against any opposing power; 5. They enter into an alliance offensive and defensive.

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