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17 June,

16 May»

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INDIA, continued. Act for the better governing India and defining Railway between Calcutta and Bombay comthe governor-general's powers passed,

pleted

April, 1870 1 Aug, 1869 Announced deficiency in the revenire ; increased India visited by the duke of Edinburgh, Dec. taxation proposed ; much opposition to the 1869-April, 1870 income tax

May, Grand durbar at Bhurtpore

10 Oct. INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN. In a war provoked by outrages general Sheridan defeated the Indians, and they surrendered unconditionally Dec. 1868. Negotiations undertaken by the Quakers had no effect, and the war was renewed June, 1869. As a chastisement for murders and other outrages major Baker killed 173 Indians, including women and children, Jan. 1870. In June following a deputation of eminent chiefs was received by the president at Washington, and promises and presents were made to him. Oni Oct. 1869 prince Arthur visited the villages of the Canadian Indians, and was made a chief of the 6. Six Nations."

INSURANCE. The duty on fire insurance was totally repealed 24 June, 1869. The Albert Assurance Company failed for about 8,000,000l., causing much depression, Aug. 1869. An act amending the law respecting life assurance companies was passed 9 Aug. 1870.

IRELAND (p. 396). Irish archbishops and bishops present address 16 Sept. ; county meeting at Kilkenny, to the queen at Windsor, on behalf of the

18 Oct. 1869 Irish Church establishment

14 May, 1868 Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, a Fenian convict, Earl Spencer lord lieutenant .

Dec.
elected M.P. for Tipperary .

25 Nov. Visit of prince Arthur 5 April et seq. 1869 Many agrarian outrages

Jan., Feb. 1870 Many murders : Mr. Anketell

, 3 March ; Mr. O'Donovan Rossa's election annulled, 10 Feb. Bradshaw, J.P., 24 April ; Capt. Tarleton, Irish Church convention met, about 21 Feb.

28 April,

Irish Land bill, read second time in commons Mayor of Cork, for a speech eulogizing Fenians, (442 against 11), 1 A.M., 12 March ; read second 27 April, compelled to resign

11 May, »

time in the lords Address of archbishop Leahy condemning agra- New “ Irish Peace Preservation act” passed, rian murders

4 April, Irish Church bill introduced into the commons, Eight counties placed under this act,

29 April, 1 March ; after much opposition passed,

Reported growth of a “ Nationality" party 26 July, among the Protestants

July, Irish mixed schools denounced by abp. Cullen ; Irish Land act passed

1 Aug. » support for a Catholic university demanded The “Home Government Association,” to inin a circular dated

18 Aug

clude all parties, meet at Dublin, 1 Sept. Great agitation for amnesty to the Fenian con- Aggressive outrages and murders

Nov. victs.

Oct. The Fenian convicts released from prison, Tenant-right agitation ; a conference at Cork;

IRISH SOCIETY, THE HONOURABLE. The name given to a committee of citizens of twelve London companies invited by king James I. to colonize the confiscated lands in the north of Ireland, termed the Ulster plantations, including Londonderry and Coleraine, 1613. The committee received a charter, which was taken away in 1637, and restored after various changes 1670. The affairs of this company and its methods of business were discussed in parliament in 1868 and 1869.

IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE, the duke of Devonshire, president, held its first meeting 22 June, 1869, and a first provincial meeting at Merthyr-Tydvil, 6 Sept. 1870.

IRON CROSS, an order of knighthood established by Frederick William III. of Prussia, 10 March, 1813, to honour patriotic bravery in the war against France, was revived by William I. in the Franco-Prussian war, and awarded by him to his son for his victory at Wissembourg, 4 Aug, 1870.

ITALY (p. 403). Frightful atrocities committed by brigands in Circular of Menabrea against the council at south Italy April, May, 1868 Rome

5 Oct. 1869 Grist tax adopted by the senate June, Victor Emanuel Ferdinand, son of prince HumArrangement made for debt of the late papai bert, born at Naples

II Nov. provinces

Serious illness and recovery of the king, Government tobacco monopoly ordered to be

6-20 Nov. formed; resignation of the ministers, Lanza Offered resignation of Menabrea, about 19 Nov.; and Sella

Cialdini and Sella unable to form a ministry, Long continued rain; dreadful inundations in 10 Dec.; Lanza and Sella succeed, the Alpine regions

Sept. Ecumenical council at Rome (see Rome) opened, Meeting of chamber of deputies; Garibaldi

8 Dec. withdraws

24 Nov. Republican risings in Pavia and other places Ministerial victory respecting the grist tax in quelled .

about 24 March, 1870 the chambers

26 Jan. 1869 Neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war kept, Thomas, duke of Genoa, 'entered å pupil at

July-Dec. Harrow (see Spain, 1870)

Additional armaments ordered.

Jan. 1871

13 Dec.

April, »

4 Aug. 10

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ITALY, continued.
Mazzini arrested at Palermo and sent to Gaëta,

14 Aug. 1870 Fruitless mission of prince Napoleon to obtain help for France

21-25 Aug. Circular note from the government recounting the failure of all attempts to conciliate the pope since 1860; and proposing favourable terms

29 Aug. Respectful letter from the king to the pope,

8 Sept. The Italian troops enter the papal territories (see Rome); occupy Viterbo and other places,

12 Sept. General Bixio marches towards Rome,

18, 19 Sept. After a short resistance, the Italians under general Cadorna enter Rome

(For details see Rome.) Plébiscite in papal territories : for union with the

kingdom of Italy (out of 167,548 voters) 133,681 ; against, 1507

2 Oct. The king at Florence receives the result of the plébiscite

8 Oct. Rome incorporated with Italy by royal decree,

general La Marmora governor Arrival of La Marmora at Rome as viceroy ;

reported agitation in Nice for reunion with Italy or autonomy

Oct. 1870 Capture

and death of Pilone, à great Bourbonist Mazzini arrives at Florence (appointed to reside brigand chief

at Leghorn) Amnesty to political offenders proclaimed, 10 Oct. ; including Mazzini

16 Oct. Diplomatic circular announcing the occupation

of Rome as the capital of Italy 18 Oct. Roman provinces united into one, with five

sub-prefectures Ministerial changes completed Ricasoli retires into private life ; about 14 Nov. Amadeus, duke of Aosta, the king's second son, elected king by the Spanish cortes,

16 Nov. Elections favourable to the government: all the ministers elected

about 28 Nov. Parliament meets ; the king declares Rome to

be the capital of Italy Bills introduced for the transfer of the capital and the preservation of the pope's rights,

about 10 Dec. The Cenis tunnel completed The king visits Rome :

19 Oct. 30 Oct.

20 Sept. »

5 Dec.

9 Oct

.

25 Dec. 31 Dec.

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JAPAN (p. 406). Insurrection of the Daimios; rivalry of the Majority of the mikado proclaimed, Nov. 1868 mikado and the tycoon

Dec. 1867 His marriage, 9 Feb.; another rebellion of the Japanese outrages on French sailors ; culprits tycoon's partizans

Feb. 1869 executed, 16

March ;

further outrages Visit of the duke of Edinburgh, 29 Aug. : repunished 23 March, 1868 ceived by the mikado

22 Sept. The mikado's troops defeat the tycoon's, who The tycoon submits to the mikado Dec. flies, 26–30 Jan. ; the mikado's defeated near Progress of internal improvements reported, Jeddo 10-17 May,

22 Sept. 1870 After long war and varying success the rebellion ends; the mikado re-established

JARGONIUM, a new metal discovered by professor A. Church in combination with the zircon of Ceylon. The spectrum was shown by Mr. H. Sorby 6 March, 1869.

JERSEY (p. 407) became a place of refuge for MM. Rouher, Baroche, Drouyn de Lhuys, and other distinguished French imperialists, Sept. 1870.

JERUSALEM (p. 408) was visited by the prince of Wales 31 March, 1862; by the crown-prince of Prussia 4 Nov. 1869, and by the emperor of Austria 9 Nov. 1869.

JEWS (p. 411). Jews permitted to return to Spain Oct. 1868 | Congregation of British Jews, formed in 1840 and Jewish congress at Pesth opened by the minister 1841 by certain families of Spanish and Gerof public worship, Eotvos

man Jews, for uniting two sections of the It closes and presents the new statutes to the community, diminishing the influence of minister

25 Feb. 1869 Jewish reform convention at Philadelphia, U.S.,

Talmudism, and simplifying the rituals-re

cognising the Mosaic scriptures as the only alterations in rituals, &c., resolved on, Oct.

authority for faith and practice, and rejecting Alfred Davis, a Jew, a munificent benefactor the oral law, or Talmudic rabbins, as not

of education, Jewish and Christian, died 7 Jan. 1870 binding on the consciences of reformed Jews. New central synagogue in Great Portland-st., Their West London Synagogue in Burton

W., founded by baron Rothschild, 18 March, street, opened 1 Jan. 1842; removed to Mar1869; consecrated

7 April, garet street, Regent street, 1849 ; superseded “Hebrew Literature Society” established in by a magnificent synagogue, Berkeley street, London

29 June,
consecrated

22 Sept. 1870

• 14 Dec.

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JOHN, KNIGHTS OF ST. (Johanniter Ritter) a Lutheran order of high rank, founded by Frederick William III. of Prussia, 23 May, 1812, and reorganised 15 Oct. 1852. These knights co-operated with the knights of St. John of Malta and various other bodies in rendering energetic assistance to the wounded during the Franco-Prussian war, 1870, and it had an office in London; the duke of Manchester being a prior of the order.

JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, and Judge Martial of all the forces, an ancient office, held by patent from the crown. He is the legal adviser of the commander-in-chief in military cases, and by his authority all general courts-martial are held. An advocate-general accompanied the army to France in 1625, and the office was constituted soon after the restoration. Dr. Samuel Barrowe was appointed 1666. Sir Colman O’Loghlen, who succeeded Mr. John Robert Mowbray, Dec. 1868, resigned Nov. 1870. Mr. John R. Davison, Q.C., was appointed Dec. 1870.

JUPITER'S MOONS were all invisible on 21 Aug. 1867, a very rare occurrence.

JURIES (p. 413). A new act respecting juries, regulating their payment, &c., was passed 9 Aug. 1870; to come into effect 2 Nov.

JUSTICES IN APPEAL, LORDS (p. 414). Sir Charles Selwyn died 11 Aug. 1869. Sir W. Page-Wood became lord chancellor Dec. 1868. Sir George M. Giffard was appointed Dec. 1869, died 13 July, 1870. The present justices are Sir William M. James, appointed June, and Sir William Mellish, appointed July, 1870,

K. KHEDIVE, LORD, a title said to signify a position inferior to an absolute sovereign, but superior to a mere viceroy, was given to the viceroy of Egypt during the disputes between him and the sultan in 1869.

KNIGHTHOOD, see Holy Sepulchre, John, and Michael.

L.

LAKE-DWELLINGS (p. 424). The artificial fortified islands termed “Crannoges" discovered in some Irish lakes are attributed to the oth and ioth centuries. They have been frequently used as places of refuge.

LANDLORD AND TENANT ACT (Ireland), passed 1 Aug. 1870.

LAON (p. 427). This town surrendered to the Germans 9 Sept. 1870. As the last man of the garde mobile left the citadel, a French soldier, in contravention of the capitulation, blew

up the powder magazine, causing great destruction in the town and fortress. Grandduke William of Mecklenburg Schwerin was bruised, and 95 German riflemen and 300 French gardes mobiles were either killed or wounded; general Theremin Du Hame, the commander, was wounded. The French attributed the explosion to accident.

LAW (P. 429). The judicature commission (appointed 1867) recommended the consolidation of all the superior courts into one supreme court divided into chambers, April, 1869. The High Court of Justice Bill introduced into the house of lords 18 March 1870, was dropped near the end of the session.

LECTIONARY, the Romish"service-book containing lessons from the Bible : see Common Prayer.

LEONINE CITY (Cittd Leonina or Borgo), formerly a suburb, now included in the city of Rome, was founded by Leo IV., pope 847–55, and named Leopolis. It comprehends the castle of St. Angelo, the hospital of San Spirito, the Vatican palace and gardens, and St. Peter's. Its possession was allotted to pope Pius IX. when the Italian royal troops entered Rome, 20 Sept. 1870. About 1500 inhabitants of the Leonine city voted for union with the kingdom of Italy, 2 Oct. 1870.

LICENCES (p. 436) for the sale of tea, coffee, chocolate, and pepper were abolished and other licences modified by acts passed in 1869–70.

LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES ACT, passed 9 Aug., 1870, requires the companies to publish annual returns of receipts, expenditure, &c.

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LIFE-BOATS ON BRITISH COASTS IN 1870, 264. See Wrecks.

LIFE-PEERAGES. A bill for creating them was read a second time in the lords 27 April, 1869, but afterwards rejected.

LIFE SHIPS. To promote the construction and use of these the Hans Busk Life Ship Institute was founded, Oct. 1869.

LIMITATIONS, STATUTE OF, 21 James I. c. 16, 1623. By it actions for trespass or debt, or simple contract, must be commenced within six years after the cause of action, and actions for assault, menace, or imprisonment within four years.

! LINCOLN. Bishop John Jackson, on his translation to London, was succeeded by Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, consecrated 24 Feb. 1869.

LIVERPOOL (p. 442). Reverdy Johnson, the United States' minister, Stanley park, 100 acres (cost 42,000l.), opened, warmly received 22 Oct. 1868

7 May, 1870 A Greek church consecrated by the Greek arch- Stanley hospital; foundation laid by the earl of bishop of Syra 16 Jan. 1869 Derby

6 June, Fire at št. Joseph's Catholic chapel, is lives lost, British Association meets here 3rd time 14 Sept.

Equestrian statue of the queen unveiled, 3 Nov. » 'LIVRET D'OUVRIER, a species of workman's passport, introduced into France by Turgot about 1781; abolished 23 March, 1869.

LONDON (p. 448). Western approach street, Holborn Valley, Columbia market, Bethnal-green, erected by opened

25 June, 1868

Miss Burdett Coutts ; opened by her, 28 Apl. 1869 Part of the Albert (southern) embankment of Statue of Mr. Peabody uncovered, prince of the Thames opened

30 July,
Wales present

23 July, King's Cross market opened

7 Aug. Inauguration of the Holborn viaduct and the Midland Counties railway station opened, 1 Oct. new Blackfriars bridge by the queen, 6 Nov. Great meeting to relieve sufferers by South Inauguration of the Victoria (northern) Thames American earthquake

embankment by the prince of Wales, 13 July, 1870 New meat market, Smithfield, inaugurated by International workmen'sexhibition at Islington, the lord mayor, 24 Nov.; opened to the public, opened by the prince of Wales

16 July, 1 Dec. London ratepayers' school-board association Mr. Peabody gives another 100,000l. to the poor

established

8 Oct. of London

5 Dec.

New city library and museum founded near London Association for prevention of poverty Guildhall and crime founded

London education board elected South London industrial exhibition opened,

1 March, 1869 LONDON, BISHOPRIC OF. Bishop A. C. Tait, translated to Canterbury 1868, succeeded by John Jackson, bishop of Lincoln, elected 14 Jan. 1869.

LONDON UNIVERSITY. The university was enfranchised by the Reform act of 1867, and Robert Lowe was elected the first M.P. 17 Nov. 1868. The new buildings in Burlingtongardens, erected by Mr. Pennethorne, were inaugurated by the queen 11 May, 1870.

LORRAINE (p. 451) was nearly all conquered by the Germans in the war of 1870, and the acquisition of part of it made a condition of peace by the conquerors.

LUNATICS (p. 453) in England in charge : 1 Jan. 1867, 33,123 ; 1868, 33,213 ; 1869, 34,681 ; 1870, 35,913.

LUTHERANISM (p. 455). The Luther memorial at Worms was unveiled in presence of the king of Prussia and other sovereigns, 25 June, 1868.

LUXEMBURG (p. 454. The people protest against absorption into Germany, 21 Oct. 1870. They are accused of violating neutrality, and the abrogation of the treaty is mooted by Prussia early in Dec. 1870. The king of Holland, their sovereign, declared that he would maintain the treaty 15 Dec., and the government protested against the charge, 19 Dec.

LYONS (p. 455). After the revolution in Paris, 4 Sept. 1870, a committee of public safety was appointed here and the red flag raised. On 28 Sept. M. Saigne, calling himself president, gen. Cluseret (expelled from Paris), and other extreme republicans, were defeated in their endeavours to depose M. Challemel Lacour, the prefect of the Rhone, and extraordinary commissioner of the government, who was well supported by the national guard. General Mazure, the military commander, accused of treacherous inaction, was arrested. Arnaud, commandant of the national guard, was murdered by the nob, after a mock trial, for resisting them, 20 Dec.

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MADAGASCAR (p. 458). The queen died in March, and her cousin, Ranavalona, a Christian, succeeded April, 1868. Paganism is tolerated. Alfred Willis was nominated missionary bishop of Madagascar Jan. 1870.

MADDER, the root of the Rubia tinctoria, highly valued for dyeing properties. 305,758 cwts. (valued at 848,932l.) were imported into this country in 1868. See Ālizarine.

MAGDALA (p. 459). British loss at the capture, 2 killed, 20 wounded; Abyssinian loss, about 500 killed and wounded, out of about 5000. Magdala was burnt to the ground by the British 17 April, 1868.

MAGIC (p. 460). See Godwin's " Lives of the Necromancers," 1834, and Ennemoser's “ History of Magic,” translated by W. Howitt, 1854.

MALINS’ ACT, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 57, relating to the powers of women in regard to property, was passed in 1857.

MANCHESTER (p. 466). False alarm of fire at Lang's music-hall, 23 Bishop James Prince Lee died, 24 Dec. 1869; 31 July, 1868 succeeded by James Fraser

Jan. 1870 Manchester Reciprocity Association founded, Alexandra park (provided by the corporation)

Sept. 1869 opened

Owens college new buildings founded, 23 Sept. ". MANOMETER (Greek, manos, thin), an instrument for measuring the rarity of the atmosphere, gases, and vapours. One is said to have been made by Otto von Guericke about 1660, and the "statical barometer" of Robert Boyle was a simple manometer. Various forms of the apparatus were devised by Ramsden (about 1773), by Roy (1777), by Cazalet (1789), and by Bourdon and others. A manometer was constructed for the investigation respecting the elasticity of steam conducted by Prony, Arago, Dulong, and Girard, 1830.

MARITIME EXHIBITION at Havre opened by representatives of the government I June, 1868.

MARRIAGE (p. 469). A commission appointed to inquire into the working of the marriage laws of Scotland, 22 March, 1865, reported strongly in favour of changes being made to insure uniformity, simplicity, and certainty, July, 1868. The Consular Marriage Act, enabling acting British consuls abroad to solemnize marriages, was passed 16 July 1868. Marriages in England and Wales, 1868, 176,962; in 1869, 175,629. The Married Women's property act passed 9 Aug. 1870. The Marriage Law of Ireland was amended by an act passed 10 Aug. 1870.

MARTYRS' MEMORIAL, Smithfield, erected by the Protestant Alliance, was inaugurated 11 March, 1870.

MASSACRES (p. 472), see China, 1870; Indians, 1870.

MATHEMATICS (p. 373). The London Mathematical Society founded 16 Jan. 1865; professor Augustus de Morgan, president.

MAYNOOTH COLLEGE (p. 474). By the Irish Church act, passed 26 July, 1869, the annual parliamentary grant was to cease after 1 Jan. 1871.

MAYORS OF LONDON (p. 475), 1868-9, James Lawrence; 1869–70, Robert Besley ; 1870-1, Thomas Dakin.

“MESSIAH,” Handel's greatest oratorio, composed by him in twenty-three days (22 Aug. -14 Sept. 1741), was first performed at Dublin 13 April, 1742, the receipts being given by him to the charities of that city.

METROPOLITAN BOARD OF WORKS (p. 482). Sir John Thwaites, the chairman, died 8 Aug. 1870, aged 55. Much discussion ensued respecting the appointment of his successor; Mr. Bruce, the home secretary, having intimated the probability of the office being abolished by parliament, with other changes, 11 Aug. Col. James Macnaghten Hogg, a member of the board, was elected chairman for one year, 18 Nov. 1870.

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT ASYLUM BOARD, instituted by parliament in 1867, proceeded to erect hospitals at Haverstock-bill, Caterham, &c., 1868, causing much discontent in several parishes. The asylum for idiots at Leavesden, near Watford, Herts, inaugurated 27 Sept., 1870.

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