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METROPOLITAN MEAT MARKET, Smithfield, erected in accordance with an act passed in 1860, was inaugurated by the lord mayor, James Lawrence, 24 Nov. 1868, and opened for business i Dec.


METROPOLITAN SCHOOL BOARD, instituted by the Elementary Education Act, 1870, was elected 29 Nov. 1870. It included Lord Lawrence, Lord Sandon, Professor Huxley, Miss Garrett, M.D., and Miss Davies. At its first meeting, 15 Dec., Lord Lawrence was elected chairman, and Mr. C. Reed, M.P., vice-chairman; and it was decided that the chairman should be unpaid at present.

METZ, a fortified city in Lorraine, now in the department of the Moselle, N.E. France. It was the Roman Divodunum or Meti, capital of the Mediomatrici, a powerful Gaulish tribe, and afterwards of the kingdom of Austrasia, or Metz, in the 6th century. It was made a free imperial city 985. It was besieged by Charles VII. of France for seven months in 1444, and was ransomed for 100,000 florins ; was captured by Henry II. 10 April, 1552, and successfully defended by the duke of Guise against the emperor Charles V. with an army of 100,000 men 31 Oct. 1552 to 15 Jan. 1553. Metz was ceded to France by the peace of Westphalia, 24 Oct. 1648, and was fortified by Vauban and Belleisle. On 28 July, 1870, the emperor Napoleon III. arrived at Metz and assumed the chief command. After the disastrous defeats at Warth and Forbach, on 6 Aug. the whole French army (except the corps oi MacMahon, De Failly, and Douay) was concentrated here, 10, 11 Aug., and by delay was hemmed in by the Germans. Marshal Bazaine assumed the chief command, 8 Aug. The emperor departed with the vanguard, which crossed the Moselle early on 14 Aug. 1. Battle of Pange or Courcelles, gained by

prisoners were made; and enormous the ist army under Von Steinmetz, after

loss was experienced by the imperial several hours' fighting, with great German

guard. The German army

included loss 14 Aug. 1870 Saxons and Hessians)

18 Aug. 1870 Bazaine was censured for not advancing on Bazaine repulsed in a sortie at Courcelles, near 15 Aug. Metz (he claimed a victory)

26 Aug 2. Battle of Vionville or Mars-la-Tour, gained His whole army defeated by gen. Manteuffel

by the 2nd army under prince Frederick of the army of prince Frederick Charles, in
Charles, after twelve hours' fighting. By a battle lasting from the morning of 31 Aug.
the unexpected unmasking of a mitrail-
leuse battery, Henry, prince of Reuss, and Von Steinmetz sent to govern Posen; prince
many German nobles were killed in a

Frederick Charles sole commander before few moments. The victory was at first


21 Sept. » claimed by the French. (This battle, the Three vigorous but ineffective sallies, most sanguinary in the war hitherto, in

23, 24, 27 Sept. » cluded a Balaclava charge of a German About

100,000 soldiers estimated in Metz, regiment of cavalry upon a French bat

30 Sept. »
tery, by which it was decimated, but to Great sortie; the Germans surprised; about
which the victory was greatly due. 40,000 French engaged ; they are repulsed
Twice as many Germans were killed as after a severe engagement from 3 p.m. till
at Königgrätz, the killed and wounded dark; loss about 2000 French and 600 Germans,
being estimated at 17,000. The French
loss was said to have been equally great) About 600 oxen and 500 sheep captured during

16 Aug.
a sortie

8 Oct. Bazaine masses his troops for a decisive General Boyer arrives at Versailles to treat for conflict

17 Aug.

terms of capitulation 3. Battle of Rézonville or Gravelotte, gained Metz surrenders with the army, including

by the combined ist and and armies marshals Bazaine, Canrobert and Le Boeuf; commanded by the king in person,

66 generals ; about 6ooo officers; 173,000 men after twelve hours' fighting.

including the imperial guard : 400 pieces of most desperate struggle took place on artillery ; 100 mitrailleuses ; and 53 eagles or the slopes over Gravelotte, which the



Oct. Germans gained by nightfall, after re- The capitulation was signed at Frescati by peated fatal charges; the fortune of the generals Jarras and Stiehle on behalf of the day being long in suspense.

But the

French and German commanders right of the French had been outflanked, General order to the army issued by marshal they fell back fighting to the last, and Bazaine, saying that they were conquered retired under cover of Metz. The French

by famine are said to have lost 19,000; and the Order to the army issued by prince Frederick Germans, 25,000." (The king, on the Charles, recognising their bravery, great obedi19th, had not undressed for thirty hours. ence, calmness, cheerfulness, and devotion, The carnage is considered to have been


Oct. unexampled ; a large number of French The Germans enter Metz

MEXICO (p. 484). Hasty blockade of Mazatlan by capt. Bridge of Treaty with United States adopted Dec. 1868 H.M.S. Chanticleer, 20 June; raised by adml. Insurrection at Puebla suppressed

Feb. 1869 Hastings July, 1868 | General Almonte dies at Paris

March, MICHAEL, ST., AND GEORGE, ST. This order of knighthood, founded for the Ionian Isles and Malta, 27 April, 1818, was reorganized in March, 1869, in order to admit servants of

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the crown connected with the colonies. Among the first of the new knights were the earl of Derby, earl Russell, and earl Grey.

MIDLAND RAILWAY STATION, St. Pancras, N. London, possessing the largest known roof in the world (245 feet 6 inches wide, and 698 feet long), was opened for traffic i Oct. 1868. The engineer was Mr. H. W. Barlow.

MINES (p. 487). Estimated value of coal and metals produced in the United Kingdom : in 1866, 40,345,9457. ; in 1868, 41,521, 7051.

MINT (p. 488). Professor Thomas Graham, the master of the mint, died 16 Sept. 1869. By the Coinage Act, passed 4 April, 1870, the office was combined with that of the chancellor of the exchequer, the duties being transferred to the deputy-master (Mr. T. Fremantle).

MITRAILLEUSE, OR MITRAILLEUR, a machine-gun in which 37 or more large-bored rifles are combined with breech-action, by means of which a shower of bullets may be rapidly projected by one man. It was invented in Belgium, and adopted by the French emperor soon after the Prusso-Austrian war in 1866, and was much used in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. Its peculiar “dry, shrieking, terrible sound” was described in the bombardment of Saarbrück, 2 Aug. 1870. Modifications of the mitrailleuse bave been made by Montigny and others. The Fosbery mitrailleuse was tried and approved at Shoeburyness 11 Aug. 1870. It is mentioned in Grose's Military Antiquities (1801) that in England, in 1625, a patent was granted to William Drummond for a machine composed of a number of muskets joined together, by the help of which two soldiers can oppose a hundred, and named, on account of its effect, “thunder carriage,” or more usually, "fire carriage.”

MOABITES, descendants of Lot, a people living to the south-east of Judæa. They were frequently at war with the Israelites, and were subdued with divine help by Ehud about 1336, by David about 1040, and by Jehoshaphat 895 B.C., but often harassed the Jews in the decay of their monarchy. The discovery of a stone with inscription in Phænician characters, said to relate to Mesha, king of Moab, referred to in 2 Kings, iii., was announced in Jan. 1870, and impressions were exhibited soon after, which caused much discussion among orientalists.

MONITEUR UNIVERSEL, a French newspaper, was established in Paris by C. J. Panckoucke, 24 Nov. 1789; and became the organ of the government in 1799. It was superseded by the Journal Officiel, 1 Jan. 1869; but resumed its official position about 23 Sept. 1870.

MUSKETRY SCHOOLS (p. 498) at Hythe and Fleetwood were established in 1854 under the superintendance of major-general C. C. Hay. He resigned in 1867. The school at Fleetwood was closed the same year.



NANCY (p. 500), on the retreat of MacMahon's army, and expecting the German army, surrendered to four Uhlans, 12 Aug. 1870.

NATAL (P. 503). Attempts to depose bishop Colenso for unsound doctrine having failed, the Rev. W. R. Macrorie was sent out as bishop of Maritzburg, to act with the clergy opposed to their bishop, Dec. 1868.

NATIONAL DEBT (p. 504), 31 March, 1867: Funded debt, 769,541,004..; 1868, 741,190,328l. : 1869, 740,418,032l.; 1870, 740,789,5481. Unfunded debt, 31 March, 1867, 7,956,800l. ; 1868, 7,911,100l. ; 1869, 8,896,100l. ; 1870, 6,761,500l. The National Debt Act, passed 9 Aug. 1870, consolidates the law relating to the debt.

NATIONAL PORTRAIT EXHIBITIONS (p. 505). The third exhibition opened 13 April, closed 22 Aug. 1868.

NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY (p. 505). The collection was removed from Great George-street, Westminster, to South Kensington Dec. 1869, and re-opened 28 March, 1870.

NATIONAL SOCIETY for promoting the Education of the Poor in the principles of the established chi of England, founded 1811, incorporated 1817. About 13,000 schools and a million scholars are connected with it. Office : Sanctuary, Westminster.

NATIONAL UNION was formed in 1869 to combine a number of associations supporting the Conservative party. Lecturers were employed and pamphlets circulated.

NATURALIZATION OF FOREIGNERS. A new act for this purpose was passed 12 May, 1870.


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NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. A scientific committee of fifteen appointed to consider the present state of naval architecture, and the requirements of naval warfare; 6 naval officers, 9 scientific men; lord Dufferin chairman; about 19 Dec. 1870.

NAVY OF ENGLAND (p. 510). Sums voted for it: 1867, 10,676,1011.; 1868, 11,168,9491., 1869, 11,366,5452. ; 1870, 9,757,6901. The Monarch, our first armour-clad turret ship, 472 lives were lost, including the captain, Hugh launched at Chatham

25 May, 1868

Burgoyne, Capt. Cowper Coles, the designer of 47 armoured vessels afloat, with 598 guns; 66 the ship, Mr. Childers (a son of the first lord), and

efficient unarmoured vessels; and a large other officers, the élite of the service; 18 men of the number of vessels of the old type, constitute crew were saved. “She capsized in a heavy squall present navy

April, 1869 shortly after midnight, and went down in three Satisfactory trial trip of the Navy Reserve

minutes."- Gunner's report. Her destruction was squadron

attributed to too low free-board, heavy top-weight, Explosion of the boiler of the Thistle gun-boat, masts, and hurricane deck. She cost 440,000l. . on trial trip; 10 killed

She was built by Messrs. Laird at Birkenhead. Devastation, iron turret ship, keel laid by Mr. A court-martial for the nominal trial of James Childers at Portsinouth

May, the gunner, and 17 other survivors, was Resignation of Mr. E. J. Reed, chief constructor,

held 27 Sept. to 4 Oct. ; Mr. E. J. Reed and

July, 1870 other eminent authorities were examined; Adm. sir T. M. C. Symonds reports in favour of the verdict was, that the loss of the ship was the Monarch and the Captain turret ships,

due to instability from faulty construction; Aug.

grave departure from her original H.M.S. iron-clad frigate, Triumph, launched at design having been coinmitted” 8 Oct. 1870 Jarrow

27 Sept.

Report on the Monarch that her reserve of The Captain' founders near Finisterre about

energy to prevent upsetting by a squall, is 16 12.15 A.M. . 7 Sept. , to i of that of the Captain.Times.

10 Nov. NEPHOSCOPE (nephos, Greek, a cloud). An apparatus for ineasuring the velocity of clouds, invented by Karl Braun, and reported to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, 27 July, 1868.

NEUTRALITY LAWS. A commission, in a report issued in May, 1868, recommended changes. An act to make better provision for the preservation of neutrality was passed 9 Aug. 1870. John P. McDiarmid, apprehended for breach of neutrality laws, at Bow-street, 28 Oct. 1870.

NEW GRENADA (p. 515). Mosquera, the ex-president, was exiled i Nov. 1867, General Santos Gutierrez Vergara, the president, was deposed and imprisoned, and general Ponce made provisional president July, 1868. He was compelled to abdicate, and was succeeded by Correoso, 29 Aug., who defeated his opponents 12 Nov. 1868.

NEW SOUTH WALES (p. 516). The Intercolonial Exhibition opened at Sydney, by the governor-general lord Belmore, 30 Aug. 1870. It consisted of two departments, agricultural and non-agricultural.

NEWSPAPERS (p. 517). The stamp duty on them was imposed in June, 1712, to check seditious papers. In 1724, a penny was charged for every sheet, and a halfpenny for every half sheet; in 1761, the duty was made id. or 41. 18. 8d. the 1000. The duty was raised to Idd. in 1776 ; to 2d. in 1789; to 2¢d, in 1794 ; to 3£d. in 1797; to 4d. in 1815. It was reduced to id., and £d. for a supplement, in 1836, and was abolished in 1855; the compulsory stamp being retained only for postal purposes. This also ceased on 30 Sept. 1870. On i Oct. they were first sent with a id. stamp affixed to the cover.

NEW ZEALAND (p. 519). Act relating to the government of New Zealand withdrawal of the British troops (18th regipassed in the British parliament

1868 ment) causes much dissatisfaction 7 Oct. 1869 Te Kooti, a chief, and about 150 Maori convicts Friendly interview between Mr. McLean and escape from Chatham island to the main

the Maori king's minister

8 Nov. land, 4 July, they repulse troops sent against Increased demand for the New Zealand fibrous them, 7 Sept.; massacre the whites at Poverty plant, phormium tenax .

1869-70 Bay

10 Nov. Departure of the last British troops 22 Jan. 1870 Te Kooti and the rebels defeated by col. Whit- Te Kooti, refusing to surrender at discretion, more; 130 Maoris killed

5 Jan. 1869 24 Jan., narrowly escapes Massacre of settlers at Taranaki

12 Feb. Te Kooti's party attacked and dispersed; his Change of ministry: hon. Mr. Fox's proposal to speedy capture anticipated

31 July, pay for British troops declined by the home The Duke of Edinburgh, in the Galatea, at government


27 Aug. » Te Kooti, thrice defeated by the colonists and Increase of prosperity reported; loan of friendly natives, a fugitive.

4,000,000l. proposed

Aug. Dospatch from earl Granville, insisting on the Political union of the islands effected :

Aug. NICOBAR ISLES, Indian Ocean, S. of Bay of Bengal, given up by Denmark and occupied by Great Britain to suppress piracy : announced June, 1869.

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NITRO-GLYCERINE (p. 522). Mr. Alfred Nobel's nitro-glycerine manufactory, near Stockholm, blown up; 15 persons killed, many injured, 10 June, 1868. An act prohibiting its importation for a time, and regulating its transmission, was passed in 1869.

NITROUS OXIDE (laughing gas) was discovered by Dr. Joseph Priestley in 1776. Its use as an anæsthetic began in North America in 1864, in Paris 1866, in London March, 1868.

NORTH-EAST AND WEST PASSAGES (p. 524). Captain Buchan's and lieut. Franklin's expe- 1847-8.” Lady Franklin received a medal from dition, 1818; Franklin's second expedition, the Royal Geographical Society.]

1819-22 A German arctic expedition (the Germania and [The north-west passage was discovered by sir John the Hansa) sailed, 15 June; arrived at Pendu

Franklin and his companions, who sailed down lum bay, Greenland, 18 July, 1869; the vessels Pecl and Victoria Straits, since named Franklin parted; the Germania arrived at Bremen, Straits. On the monument in Waterloo-place is 1 Sept. 1870 ; the Hansa was frozen and sank, inscribed,—“To Franklin and his brave com- Oct. 1869; the crew escaped with provisions, panions, who sacrificed their lives in completing and reached Copenhagen

1 Sept. 1870 the discovery of the north-west passage, A.D.

NORWICH (p. 526). Mutilated remains of a human body discovered was tried and condemned, and executed, near Norwich, 21-25 June, 1851 ; William

20 April, 1869 Sherward, a publican of the place, confessed National crown bank stopped ; much distress that they were the remains of bis wife mur- occasioned ; Sir Robert H. J. Harvey, the dered by him, 1 Jan. 1869; he recanted, but chief partner, commits suicide : died 19 July, 1870

NOVA SCOTIA (p. 527). On the agitation for secession Mr. John Bright presented a petition in the commons 15 May ; his motion for a royal commission of inquiry negatived 16 June, 1868. The agitation soon subsided.

NUITS. A small fortified town, near Dijon, in Burgundy, N.E. France, chartered in 1212; frequently captured and ravaged, specially in 1569, 1576, and 1636. It was taken by the Badenese under Von Werder, 18 Dec. 1870, after five hours' conflict, in which above 1000 French are said to have been killed and wounded, and 700 prisoners taken. The German loss was also heavy. A depot of arms and ammunition was gained by the victors.

0. OATH (p. 528). New oath of allegiance provided by the 31st and 32nd Vict. c. 72 (1868), to be taken by the members of the new parliament:-"I do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to her majesty queen Victoria, her heirs and successors, according to law, so help me God.”

OCEANA, an imaginary republic, described in a book written by James Harrington, dedicated to Oliver Cromwell, and published in 1656.

OMNIMETER, a new surveying apparatus (combining the theodolite and level, and comprising a telescope and microscope), invented by Eckhold, a German engineer, to supersede chain measuring : announced Sept. 1869.

OPÉRA COMIQUE, a new theatre, 299 Strand, opened 29 Oct. 1870, by Malle. Déjazet and a French company.

ORDNANCE SURVEY (p. 534), by the Survey Act, passed 12 May, 1870, was transferred to the board of works.

ORLEANS (p. 536). The princes' demand for permission to return to France, 19 June, was refused by the legislative assembly 2 July, 1870. Their requests to serve in the army after the disastrous defeats and the fall of the empire, Sept., were also declined.-After nine hours' severe fighting, the city of Orleans was captured by the Germans, under general Von der Tann, 11 Oct. 1870. More than 4000 prisoners were taken. The loss on both sides was heavy. About 35,000 on each side were engaged. The city was made to pay a war contribution of 60,000l. On 9, 10 Nov. following, Von der Tann and the Bavarians were defeated by generals D'Aurelle de Paladines and Pallières, and Orleans was re-taken. The Germans acknowledged the loss of about 700 men and 1000 prisoners, chiefly wounded. The French asserted the numbers of both to be higher, and were much cheered with their victory. The French loss was heavy. The chief conflict took place between Coulmiers and Bacon or Baccon. Orleans was again occupied by the Germans at 3 a.m. 5 Dec., after severe conflicts on 2, 3, 4 Dec. at Bazoche and Chevilly, near Orleans, between a part of the army of the Loire and prince Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Mecklenburg. On 4 Dec. a battle took

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place, during which the suburbs were stormed; and about 10,000 unwounded prisoners, 77 guns and 4 gunboats taken. The gallant duc de Luynes was killed, 2 Dec., and Charrette, com

4 mander of the Pontifical zouaves, was struck down. The French assert that their army retired in good order.

ORPHAN-HOUSES (p. 536). The Orphanotropheon at Halle, established by tirely by voluntary contributions. (He began August Francke

1698-9 in a bouse in ristol, 11 April, 1836.) 1616 British Orpban Asylum, Clapham-rise, esta- orphans were maintained blished 1827, removed to Slough, Bucks; re- Erdington orphanage and alms houses, near opened

25 June, 1863 Birmingham, erected and endowed (with Orphan-houses, Ashley-down, Bristol, founded 250,000l.) by Josiah Mason, a manufacturer of by George Müller, a Prussian, supported en- Birmingham

1860-69 OWENS COLLEGE, Manchester, founded by means of a bequest of 100,000l. by John Owens, merchant, who died in 1846. A new constitution was obtained in 1870, and the duke of Devonshire, president, laid the first stone of the new building 23 Sept. 1870.

OXFORD (p. 539). Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, translated to Winchester Nov. 1869, was succeeded by Dr. John Fielder Mackarness.

OZONE (p. 266). Generated by a current produced by Wilde's magneto-electric machine employed to bleach sugar, by Edward Beane's patent, Aug. 1868.

P. PACIFIC RAILWAY, North America, from Omaha city, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, 1700 miles, opened 12 May, 1869. By a collision near San Francisco, about 15 persons were killed, 14 Nov. 1869.

PANAMA (p. 544). A treaty for the construction of a ship canal through the isthmus by the United States was signed by representatives of that government and that of Colombia 26 Jan. 1870.

PAPAL INFALLIBILITY. This dogma, maintained by one party in the Roman church, tolerated by another, and utterly rejected by a third, was adopted and promulgated at the general council at Rome 18 July, 1870, a great many bishops having withdrawn. The dogma was inculcated by the false decretals of Isidore and others, but not adopted by the council of Trent. See Councils XXI.

PARAGUAY (p. 547), see Brazil. A provisional government was installed, Lopez being then proclaimed an outlaw, 17 Aug. 1869. He was killed near the Aquidaban, 1 March, 1870; see Brazil.

PARIS (p. 548). M. Haussmann, the prefect of the Seine, reported the budget of the city to exceed 9,200,000l. He resigned Jan. 1870. For recent events, see France and Franco-German War.

PARKS. An act for the establishment of public parks in England was passed 12 July, 1869.

PARLIAMENT (p. 550). Reform acts for Scotland and Ireland, and Par- The commons sat from 2 P.M. 15 July, to 5.30 liamentary Boundaries act passed, 13 July, 1868

16 July, 1870 Parliamentary Elections act passed, 31 July, , Meeting of parliament, in six days after proclaParliament dissolved

11 Nov.

mation, legalised by act passed New parliament met

Death of the earl of Onslow, father of the house Reporters excluded from the

commons during of lords, aged 93 debates on the Contagious Diseases act,

24 May and 20 July, 1870 PARTITION ACT, relative to the division of property sold by direction of the court of chancery, passed 25 June, 1868.

PASSIONISTS, a congregation of clerks of the holy cross, founded by St. Paul of the Cross, who died 1775, and was canonized by the pope 1867. A home was set up in England in 1841, and others since.

PATRONAGE OF LIVINGS by laymen in Scotland was opposed by the books of discipline 1560 and 1578, abolished 1649, restored 1660. The system led to the disruption of the established church, and the foundation of the free church, 18 May, 1843. The abolition of lay patronage was earnestly advocated by the authorities of the established church in March,


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