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1870, and the duke of Argyll volunteered to resign his patronage in May. Of 1109 livings 319 belong to the crown, and about 600 to private persons.

PAUL'S, ST. (p. 553). A great meeting was held at the Mansion-house to complete the interior of the cathedral according to Wren's design, 13 July, 1870. About 32,000l. had been collected 27 Aug.; and 33,649l. 28 Sept. ; 34,7081. 4 Nov. following.

PEABODY FUND. Mr. George Peabody, an American merchant (born 18 Feb. 1795, died 4 Nov. 1869), who had made his fortune in London, gave on 12 March, 1862, 150,000l., on 21 Jan. 1866, 100,000l., on 5 Dec. 1868, 100,000l., and by his will directed his trustees to pay 150,000l.—in all 500,000l.—to ameliorate the condition of the London poor. An autograph letter, promising her portrait in Bermondsey; they have been found to be self miniature, was sent him by the queen,

supporting

28 March, 1866 Mr. Peabody's statue, at the east end of the [Inscription on the miniature sent :-“V.R. 'Pre- Royal Exchange, was inaugurated by the sented by the Queen to G. Peabody, Esq., the prince of Wales

23 July, 1869 benefactor of the poor of London.”]

Funeral service at Westminster abbey, iz Nov! The first block of buildings for working classes, Funeral at Portland, U. S., Prince Arthur termed

8 Feb. 1870 street, Spitalfields, was opened 29 Feb. 1864; and He also gave large sums, for educational purposes, others since, in Islington, Shadwell, Chelsea, and in the United States.

PEACE PRESERVATION ACT (Ireland), passed 4 April, 1870.
PENSIONS (p. 558). Political Offices Pensions Act, passed 9 Aug. 1869.

PERU (p. 561). President Prado resigned in consequence of an insurrection 7 Jan., and was succeeded by general La Puerta, who confirmed Pezet's treaty, 13 Jan. 1868. Colonel J. Balta became president i Aug. 1868. Peru suffered much by the earthquakes 13–15 Aug. 1868.

PETERBOROUGH. Bishop Francis Jeune died 20 Aug. 1868, and was succeeded by Dr. William Connor Magee, elected 31 Oct.

PHALSBOURG_(Pfalzburg, Palatine city), a strong town of Alsace, department of La Meurthe, N. E. France, was founded in 1570, by the elector palatine George John. It was ceded to France in 1661, and its fortress erected by Vauban, 1679. It checked the progress of the victorious armies of the allies both in 1814 and 1815, and withstood the Germans from 16 Aug. to 12 Dec. 1870, when it capitulated unconditionally.

PHARMACY ACT OF 1868 (amended in 1869) required all sellers of poisons to be registered after 31 Dec. 1868.

PHENOPHTHALMOSCOPE, an apparatus for investigating the movements of the eyeball, invented by Donders, of Utrecht, and announced in 1870.

PLANETS. Nos. 98 to 111 of the small planets discovered between 18 April, 1868 and 15 Aug. 1870.

PLEADINGS were ordered to be in English by 36 Edward III. 1362, and Cromwell extended the rule to all legal proceedings 1650.

PLÉBISCITES : see France, 8 May and 3 Nov. 1870; Rome, 2 Oct. 1870.

POLICE, METROPOLITAN (p. 578). Colonel Henderson appointed commissioner in room of Sir R. Mayne, Feb. 1869. The first annual report of the commissioner issued, The detective police, only 15 men in June, 1869, has 1870 :

been since raised to 266 men and a superintendent, State: Dec. 1869, 8883 police constables for a radius with good effect, Oct. 1870.

of 15 miles from Charing Cross (exclusive of the city of London), including 3,563,410 inhabitants.

PONT À NOYELLES. At this place, near Amiens, took place a fierce indecisive conflict lasting from II A.M. to 6 P.m. between the Germans under Manteuffel and the French army of the north under Faidherbe, 23 Dec. 1870. Both sides claimed a victory; the French general asserted that he remained master of the field.

POOR (p. 581). Poor Law Amendment act passed 31 July, 1868 | Charity Organization Society established 1870 Presidents of the Poor Low board : Gathorne The act for more equal distribution of charge Hardy, 9 July, 1866; earl of Devon, May, for relief of in-door poor (passed 20 June) 1867; G. J. Göschen

came into operation

29 Sept. Minute of the poor law board defining limits Circular of poor law board respecting farming

of relief, and recommending organization of out pauper children metropolitan charitable institutions, 20 Nov., Received, for relief of the poor, in 1869, in Engwhich

is adopted by several parishes, Dec. 1869 land and Wales, 11,776,1531.; in Scotland,

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POOR, continued.
892,712l. ; in Ireland, 927,0461. : total, land, 128,339 ; Ireland,

73,921 : total, 13,595,9111.

1,281,681. Estimated number of paupers in relief, 1 Jan., Paupers in the metropolis receiving relief :1870:- England and Wales, 1,079,391 ; Scot- Dec., 1869, 152,557 ; Dec., 1870, about 145,000.

POPLIN (or Tabinet), an elegant rich fabric composed of silk and worsted, introduced by the Huguenot refugees from France about 1693 ; first manufactured in Dublin Irish poplins are still deservedly esteemed.

POPULATION (p. 585). Estimated population of the world in 1869, 1,238,000,000 ; of England and Wales, June, 1865, 20,990,946; June, 1869, 21,869,607 ; June, 1870, 22,090,163 ;-of Scotland, 1866, 3,153,413; June, 1869, 3,205,481; June, 1870, 3,222,837 ;-of Ireland, 1866, 5,582,625; in 1869, 5,546,343 ; June, 1870, 5,525,210; of Great Britain, June, 1870, 30,838,210. The next census to be taken on 3 April, 1871.

PORTE, OR SUBLIME PORTE, official name of the court of the sultan of Turkey. Mostasem, the last of the Abbasside caliphs (1243-58) fixed in the threshold of the principal entrance to his palace at Bagdad a piece of the black stone adored at Mecca, and thus this entrance became the “porte” by eminence, and the title of his court. The sultans, successors of the caliphs, assumed the title. Bouillet.

PORTUGAL (p. 590).
King and queen at the Paris exhibition,

Saldanha heads a military insurrection; seizes

July-Aug. 1867 the royal palace; forms a new ministry, New ministry, under Sá da Bandeira, 21 July, 1868

19 May, 1870 under the duke de Saldanha

Neutrality in the French war proclaimed, July, , under the duke de Loulé.

11 Aug. 1869 Manifestation against Saldanha in Lisbon and Violent opposition of Saldanha; ordered back

Oporto

2 Aug. to Paris as ambassador there, he resigns, The French republic recognized

Dec. New ministry under the bishop of Vizeu,
Cortes dissolved
Jan. 1870

30 Oct. , POST-OFFICE (p. 592). Postmaster empowered to purchase the electric By the Post-office act (passed 9 Aug. 1870) the

telegraphs by act passed 31 July, 1868; work newspaper stamp for posting was abolished; begun

5 Feb. 1869 registered newspapers and pamphlets or patPost-office money order system applied to terns under 2 oz. to be sent for dd. on and France by virtue of a convention signed,

after.

1 Oct. 1870 5 Aug. 1870 PosTMASTER: Spencer, marquis of Hartington, Halfpenny stamped cards issued to the public, succeeded the marquis of Montrose,

9 Dec. 1868 Wm. Monsell appointed

Jan. 1871 PRAIRIAL INSURRECTION at Paris. On 1, 2, 3 Prairial, year 3 (20, 21, 22 April, 1795) the Faubourgs rose against the directory, and were quelled by the military.

PREHISTORIC ARCHÆOLOGY. An international congress for treating prehistorical subjects met at Neuchâtel in 1866, and at Paris in 1867. At the third meeting at Norwich, Aug. 1868, it assumed the name of " International Congress for Prehistoric Archæology," and published its transactions in 1869. See Barrows.

PRUSSIA (p. 605). 21 Hanoverians convicted of incipient treason consents to become candidate for the throne against Prussia

20 May, 1868
of Spain

about 5 July, 1870 Count von Bismarck's temporary retirement In consequence of the virulent opposition of the through ill-health

French government he, with the king's conNorth German parliament closed by the king, sent, relinquishes the candidature

12 July, is 20 June, »

The French government requiring guarantees Workmen's congress at Berlin, to promote cen

from the king against the future, the king retralisation

26–29 Sept. » pulses and declines to receive the French Prussian chamber opened with a pacific speech minister, Benedetti, 13 July; and issues a from the king

circular to his representatives at foreign Opposition in the chambers ; violent speech of courts

15 July, » the minister, Leonhardt

1 Dec. The emperor of the French declares for war, Bismarck, recovered, returns to Berlin, 8 Dec.

15 July, » The property of the king of Hanover seques- The north German parliament meet, and vote trated for his opposition 15 Feb. 1869 to support Prussia

19 July, , The parliament closed

6 March, Proclamation of the king, granting “amnesty The Prussian army exercised in manoeuvring for political offences,” and “accepting the

at Stettin, Königsberg, &c., in presence of battle for the defence of the fatherland,” 31 the king

Sept. July; and to the army, undertaking the comThe parliament meet

6 Oct.
mand of the whole army

3 Aug. It rejects the proposal for disarmament,

For the events of the war, see Franco-Prussian

War. The crown prince visits Vienna

Order of the “Iron Crown" (distributed in the Prince Leopold, of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, -War of 1813) revived; given to the crown

1 Oct.

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PRUSSIA, continued.
prince for his victory at Wissembourg, on

Restriction on democratic meetings rescinded 4 Aug. 1870 by gen. Von Falckenstein

7 Oct. 1870 Prussian bishops protest against infallibility of Herr Twesten, the liberal opponent of govern

end of Aug.
ment in the chamber dies

14 Oct. Great rejoicing at Berlin, &c., at the surrender Jacoby and other liberals released by royal of the emperor Napoleon

3 Sept. »
decree

about 26 Oct. Municb, Stuttgardt, and other southern cities, Election of new parliament, Nov.; opened with demand union with north Germany

speech promising internal refornis, 14 Dec. ; M. Jacoby arrested at Königsberg by Von Falck

aristocratic address from the peers congratuenstein for speaking against the annexation lating the king as emperor

21 Dec. of Alsace and Lorraine

early in Sept. PUBLIC SCHOOLS ACT, 1868, amended by an act passed 9 Aug. 1870.

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Q. QUADRUPLE TREATY, concluded in London 22 April, 1834, by the representatives of Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal, guaranteed the possession of her throne to Isabella II., the young queen of Spain.

R. RACES (p. 612). The Jockey club, which now chiefly regulates Race-horses. The comte de la Grange's stud (in

races and the betting connected with them, consequence of the war,) was sold for 23,730l. was founded in 1750. Its gradually accumu. Gladiateur fetched 58ool. lating rules were modified in 1828 and revised The Derby in 1869 was won by Pretender (26 in 1857. Alterations recommended by a com

May); in 1870 by Kingcraft (1 June). mittee appointed in April 1870, were adopted by the club 16 July following.

RAILWAYS (p. 615). Southern Railways Amalgamation bill; op- Arch fell in at Bethnal Green (Great Eastern): posed in the lords ; withdrawn June, 1868 coal train passing ; 5 ki

25 Feb. 1869 Mont Cenis railway opened for traffic 15 June, , Eureka, St. Louis, Missouri, u. s. : collision ; New act to amend the laws relating to railways,

killed.

12 May, 1870 30 & 31 Vict. c. 119; (it orders smoking Near Newark (Great Northern): collision ; à compartments, and communication between waggon of a goods train, through the passengers and railway servants in certain breaking of an old axle, went off the rails and trains ; and prohibits trains for prize-fights, met an excursion train ; 19 deaths ; 1'30 A.M., &c.) passed. 31 July, ,

21 June, Midland railway station, si. Pancras, opened, Newcross (London and Brighton): collision ; 2

I Oct.

killed, many injured ; great loss to the comNew route to Liverpool (by a viaduct over the pany by compensation

23 June,,, Mersey at Runcorn), opened 1 April, 1869 Near Carlisle (North Eastern): collision with Pacific railway: from the Atlantic to the Pa- goods train; through reckless driving and cific; opened

12 May »

bad signalling; 5 deaths, about 20 injured ; “Abandonment of Railways act” passed, about I A.M.

10 July, » 11 Aug. »

Near Barnet

(Great Northern): collision ; 1 man Railway Companies' Powers act (1864) and Con. burnt to death struction Facilities act (1864) amended by

Tamworth (London and North Western): Irish act passed

20 June, 1870 mail (late), sent into a siding ; broke down a “ Railway Association” established: (it consists buttress and ran into the river Anker (error

of directors and representatives of share- of a pointsman); 3 deaths 4'7 A.M. 14 Sept. » holders, to watch legislation, &c.,) inaugural Plessis near Tours : collision; between two dinner 21 July, trains ; several killed

4 A.M. 20 Sept.

Whitmore, near Crewe (London and NorthRAILWAY ACCIDENTS. Abergele, N. Wales, Western), collision; many injured, 4

Oct. (London and North-western,) collision be- Long Eaton Junction (Midland); collision; 7 tween Irish mail train and luggage train ;

killed barrels of petroleum ignited; 33 persons Near Welwyn (Great Northern): 'collision ; 3 burnt to death

20 Aug. 1868 killed Near Birlingbury station (Rugby and Leaming- Harrow (London and North-Western): collision ton): carriages went over Draycot embank

with coal waggons, 7 killed

26 Nov. ment; 2 persons killed

Brockley Wbins (North-Eastern), collision, Near Bull's Pill, S. Wales (Great Western): mail through mistake of Hedley, a pointsman ; 5 train ran into a cattle train; 1 person and killed; many injured

6 Dec. much cattle killed

6 Nov. Cradley (Great Western): collision ; 1 killed, Near Copenhagen tunnel, Holloway (Great

8 Dec. Northern): coal train ran off the line; 2 Barnsley (Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnkilled.

18 Jan. 1869 shire railway): collision; goods trucks broke Near Khandalla, Bombay (Great Indian Penin- loose ; 14 killed; many injured sula): train ran off the line; about 18 killed, Bell-bar, near Hatfield (Great Northern), tire of

wheel broke; break and carriages overturned; 8 killed

26 Jan.

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RECIPROCITY ASSOCIATION, founded at Manchester Sept. 1869, in consequence of the restrictions on the importation of British manufactures into their territories imposed by foreign governments.

RECREATIVE RELIGIONISTS, a name given to an association of gentlemen for diffusing a knowledge of natural religion by the aid of science, formed in Dec. 1866. In Jan. 1867 lectures were given on Sunday evenings at St. Martin's Hall, London, by professor Huxley, Dr. W. B. Carpenter, and others, sacred music being performed at intervals during the evening. This was decided not to be an infraction of the Sunday act, 21 Geo. III. C. 49, in the trial, Baxter v. Baxter Langley, 19 Nov. 1868. See Sunday Lecture Society.

REFORM IN PARLIAMENT (p. 620). The Scotch and Irish Reform acts were passed 13 July, 1868. The Reform League was dissolved 13 March, 1869.

REFUGEES BENEVOLENT FUND instituted in consequence of the war, at a great meeting held at the Mansion-house, London, 21 Oct. 1870.

REGIUM DONUM (p. 622). By the Irish Church act, passed 26 July, 1869, the pay. ment of the Regium Donum was ordered to cease, and compensation to be made.

REPORTING. By the verdict for the defendant the case of Wason v. The Times (for libel) reports of parliamentary debates were decided to be privileged, Nov. 1868.

REVENUE. The weekly instead of the quarterly publication of the public revenue and expenditure was begun by Mr. Robert Lowe, the chancellor of the exchequer, 16 Feb. 1870. By an act passed 31 July, 1868, revenue officers are permitted to vote for the election of members of parliament. Above 100 statutes relating to inland revenue fall into disuse I Jan. 1871. Gross annual Revenue to 31 March :-1868, Gross annual Expenditure to March :-1868, 69,600,2181. ; 1869, 72,591,9921. ; 1870,

66,346,132l.; 1869, 69,944,6071. ; - 1870, 75,434,2521.

63,924,0431. REZONVILLE, battle of, 18 Aug. 1870, see Metz.

RHINE (Latin, Rhenus; German, Rhein ; French, Rhin), a river, about 760 miles long, rising in Switzerland, receiving the Moselle, Marne, Necker, and other rivers, terminating in many arms in Holland, and falling into the German ocean. On its banks are Constance, Basel, Strasburg, Spires, Mannheim, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Utrecht, and Leyden. The possession of the banks of the Rhine has been the cause of many wars, and it has been crossed by the French above twenty times in a century. In the beginning of the revolutionary war, Custine invaded Germany by crossing it in 1792, and at the close of the war in 1815, France retained the left bank, which she will probably lose in consequence of the war declared 15 July, 1870. A navigation treaty with other powers was signed by France, 17 Oct. 1868.

RICHMOND, Virginia, U.S. (p. 626). By the fall of the flooring in the state capital building, about 60 persons were killed, 27 April, 1870.

RIOTS (p. 628). Fierce riots against a colliery manager at Mold, Sheffield; quelled by intervention of lord Flintshire, put down by the military; 4 Wharncliffe and others

21 Jan. 1870 deaths

2 June, 1869 Rioting at Armathwaite, near Carlisle, beViolent rioting at a colliery' at Thorncliffe, near tween English and Irish navvies, 15, 16 Oct.

RITUALISTS (p. 628). At a general convocation of the American episcopal church at Philadelphia, 27, 28 Oct. 1868, after a warm discussion on ritualism, the discussion was adjourned to. 1871.

ROAD STEAMERS. Mr. R. W. Thomson, of Edinburgh, in 1868, by adding indiarubber to the tires of the wheels of locomotives is considered to have solved the question of steam traction on common roads. Road-steamers have been successfully employed in Edinburgh and Leith for drawing heavy waggons up inclined planes, and are adaptable to any draught work. They were tried at Woolwich, 1 Oct. 1870, and reported successful by eminent authorities.

ROMAN CATHOLICS. A proposal of the Derby government to endow a catholic university for Ireland, Oct. 1867, failed through the Catholic bishops claiming the entire practical control, 31 March, 1868. Mr. Justice Thomas (now lord) O'Hagan, appointed lord chancellor of Ireland Dec. 1868, is the first Roman Catholic who has held that office since the revolution of 1688.9.

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ROME (p. 634). Sudden death of cardinal Andrea 15 May, 1868 | Cardinal Antonelli issues a diplomatic protest The pope, in his allocution, censures the against the Italian occupation of Rome, Austrian new civil marriage law 22 June,

20 Sept. 1870 Arrangement respecting the papal debt made After a brief resistance from the foreign papal with Italy

30 July,

troops, stopped by order of the pope, the Encyclical letter of the pope, summoning an Italian troops under Cadorna 'make a breach

ecumenical council at Rome on 8 Dec., 1869, and enter Rome amid enthusiastic acclamaand inviting ministers of the Greek and other tions of the people

20 Sept. churches

13 Sept.

[Reported Italian loss, about 22 killed, 117 The patriarch of the Greek' church declined to

wounded; papal troops, 55 killed and attend

about 3
Oct.

wounded) Monti and Tognetti (for complicity in the ex- The papal troops surrender arms; about 8500

plosion of the Zouave barracks, 22 Oct. 1867), foreigners march out with honours of war; executed

they insult the Italians; the native troops The pope celebrates a jubilee 11 April, 1869 retained.

22 Sept In his allocution he deplores the opposition to About 10,000 persons assemble in the Coliseum, the church in Austria and Spain

25 June,

choose 44 names for a provisional governHe declares, in a letter to archbishop Manning, ment (giunta)

22 Sept. that no discussions on disputed points can Castle of St. Angelo occupied by Italian troops take place at the council

4 Sept.
at the pope's request

28 Sept. The council opened, see Councils xxi. 8 Dec. Circular letter from the pope to the cardinals An exhibition of objects of Christian art opened complaining of the invasion and of his loss of by the pope :

7 Feb. 1870 liberty, and interference with his private post British and American bishops protest against bag

29 Sept. discussing the dogma of papal infallibility in A giunta of i4 (the duke Gaetani chief) selected the council, 11 April; the discussion begins, from the 44 names chosen ; approved by

14 May,

Cadorna Count Arnim, on behalf of the north German

General Masi in command of Rome and the

30 Sept. confederation, protests against the dogma, provinces; S.P.Q.R. appears on the pro

May,
clamations

30 Sept. , Papal infallibility adopted by the council and Plébiscite : out of 167,548 votes, 133,681 for promulgated (533 for; 2 against; many retire);

union with the kingdom of Italy; 1507 against; the council adjourns to 11 Nov. 18 July

the remainder did not vote

2 Oct. Rome completely evacuated by French troops Cardinal Antonelli issues a protest; published,

in consequence of the war; 8 mortars and
15,000 shells said to be ceded to the pope, The pope said to have accepted 50,000 crowns
8 Aug.; the troops sent from Civita Vecchia, (his monthly civil list) from the Italian go-

21 Aug.
vernment

Oct. Conciliatory letter from Victor Emmanuel to The result of the plebiscite sent to the king, 8

Oct. ; Rome and its provinces incorporated Agitation in the papal provinces; the Italian with the kingdom by royal decree, 9 Oct. troops invited to enter

about 10 Sept.

General La Marmora enters Rome as viceroy ; The pope refuses terms offered him by the king he proclaims that the pope shall be guaranteed

of Italy (sovereignty of the Leonine city and in his sovereign powers as head of the church, retention of his income),

about 12 Sept. » Gen. Cadorna crosses the Tiber at Casale ; sends The Roman provinces united into one by decree,

flags of truce to gen. Kanzler, commander of the Zouaves, who refuses to surrender ; baron The pope issues an encyclical letter suspending Arnim in vain negotiates between them

the meeting of the council 17 Sept.

Antonelli protests against the occupation of Skirmish with papal Zouaves; several killed, the Quirinal by the king

Io Nov. 14 Sept.

Bill introduced into the Italian parliament reThe Italians occupy Civita Vecchia without re

specting the transfer of the seat of governsistance

about 15 Sept.

ment to Rome in about six months, and the Letter from the pope to gen. Kanzler, directing preservation of the spiritual and temporal

that a merely formal defence be made at sovereignty of the pope about 12 Dec. Rome, and that bloodshed be avoided,

Sudden arrival of the king at Rome; the city

19 Sept. , illuminated ROUEN (p. 637), after slight conflicts, 4, 5 Dec. 1870, surrendered to General Von Gröben, 6 Dec. It was ordered to pay a contribution of 17,000,000 francs.

ROYAL ACADEMY (p. 637) held its first exhibition in the new building 3 May, 1869. An exhibition of pictures by the old masters, with some British, was opened 3 Jan. 1870, and 2 Jan. 1871.

RUPERT'S LAND, see Hudson's Bay, and Canada.

RUSSIA (p. 643). Decree for the use of the Russian language in The Government Messenger, official journal pubthe Baltic provinces 7 July, 1867 lished at St. Petersburg

13 Jan. 1869 A Romanist college, to replace the authority of Socialist conspiracy among the students supthe pope, established at St. Petersburg,

pressed; the informer assassinated,

Jan. 1870

Russia neutral in the Franco-Prussian war, Aug. The separate interior government in Poland Said to be arming, 20 Sept. ; contradicted suppressed

29

Feb. 1868 Samarcand taken by Kaufmann

Burlingame, Chinese envoy, arrives, Amnesty for political offences granted, 6 June, Dies at St. Petersburg Polish language interdicted in public places in Fruitless visit of M. Thiers at St. Petersburg on Poland

July,

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