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foreign minister, repudiating the clauses of for revision of the treaty of 1856 20 Nov. 1870 the treaty of 30 March, 1856, respecting the Prussian government expresses surprise at Black Sea, 31 Oct. ; received by earl Gran
Gortschakoff's circular, and proposes a conville, 9 Nov., who replies, maintaining the ference
about 26 Nov. force of the treaty
10 Nov. 1870 Firm courteous despatch from earl Granville, Vigorous protest of British and Austrian go- consenting to a conference which shall “ asvernments
semble without any foregone conclusion," Decree for forming military reserves,
28 Nov. about 16 Nov. The other powers agree to a conference in Conciliatory despatch from prince Gortschakoff London
S. SAARBRÜCK, the Roman Augusti Muri or Sarv pons, an open town on the left bank of the Saar, in Rhenish Prussia, founded in the tenth century, long subject to the bishops of Metz, afterwards ruled by counts (about 1237), and by the house of Nassau about 1380. It was captured by the French and retaken by the Germans 1676, reunited to France 1794– 1814, and ceded to Prussia 1815. On 2 Aug. 1870, it was bombarded by the French under Frossard (between 11 and 1 in the daytime), and the Prussians in small force were dislodged, and the town occupied by the French general Bataille. The mitrailleuses were said to be very effective. The emperor Napoleon, who was present with his son, said in a telegram to the empress, “ Louis has gone through his baptism of fire. He has not been in the least startled. We stood in the foremost rank, and the rifle balls were dropping at our feet, and Louis picked up one that fell near him. His bearing was such as to draw tears from the
On the 6 Aug. the Prussian generals Goeben and Von Steinmetz, with the first army, recaptured Saarbrück, after a sanguinary conflict at the village of Spicheren. The heights taken by the French on the 2nd are in Germany, those taken by the Germans on the 6th are in France, and both battles were fought between Saarbrück and the town of Forbach, which was captured and has given a name to the second conflict. The loss was great on both sides. The French general François was killed, and the 2nd corps under Frossard nearly destroyed. The French retreated to Metz. They were greatly superior in numbers at the beginning of the fight, but were badly commanded.
SALISBURY. Bishop W. K. F. Hamilton was succeeded by Dr. George Moberley, elected 9 Sept. 1869.
SALMON (p. 232). The Salmon Acts Amendment act passed, 1 Aug. 1870.
SAMARCAND (p. 649) was occupied by the Russians under Kaufmann 26 May, 1868, after a conflict on the previous day. The garrison left resisted a fierce siege till relieved by Kaufmann, 13-20 June, 1868.
SANITARY LEGISLATION (p. 650). The acts of 1866 amended by act 9 Aug. 1870.
SATIRE MENIPPÉE, a celebrated satirical pamphlet, partly in verse and partly in prose, attacking the policy of the court of Spain and the league, written in the style of the biting satires of the cynic philosopher Menippus. The first part,“ Catholicon d'Espagne," by Leroy, appeared in 1593; the second, “ Abrégé des Etats de la Ligue," by Gillot, Pithou, Rapin, and Passerat, appeared in 1594.-Bouillet.
SAVINGS' BANKS (p. 654) at the end of 1869 in England held 30,574,4731.; in the United Kingdom, 37,554,5571.
SCOTLAND (p. 658). Scottish hospital, London, incorporated 1665 | Commission appointed to inquire into the adSalmon Fisheries act passed
July, 1864 ministration of justice Scotch Reform act passed
13 July, 1868 Municipal elections amendment act passed Land Registers and Titles to Land act passed,
9 Aug. 1870 Act to unite counties for sheriffs' duties passed
SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTION, Bristol, founded by George Müller, Prussian (born 1805), minister of the “ Brethren," on 5 March, 1834. The objects are : 1. Assistance of schools giving instruction on scriptural principles ; 2. Circulation of the scriptures; 3. Assistance to missions; 4. Circulation of tracts; 5. Provision for destitute orphans, see Orphan-houses. It is entirely supported by unsolicited voluntary contributions. 430,000l. had been received up to 1868.
SEA-BIRDS PRESERVATION ACT, passed 24 June, 1869.
SEDAN (p. 662), a fortified city in the valley of the Meuse, N.E. France. Around this place a series of desperate conflicts on 29, 30, and 31 Aug. between the French army of the north, under Marshal MacMahon (about 150,000 men), and the greater part of the three German armies under the king and crown-prince of Prussia and the crown-prince of Saxony, (about 250,000 men), was brought a close on i Sept. The battle began with attacks on the French right and left about 5 a.m., and was very severe at 2 p.m. At 4 p.m. the Germans remained masters of the field, and the crown-prince of Prussia announced a complete victory, the chief part of the French army retreating into Sedan. The emperor Napoleon was present during the battle, and, it is said, stood at Iges, near Sedan, exposed for four hours to the German grenades. The impossibility of further resistance was then evident. The Germans had contracted their circle close round Sedan ; their formidable artillery beld all the heights, from which they could at pleasure wholly destroy the town and the army, and only 2000 men were in a condition to respond to their commander's call, and to make a supreme effort to break through the enemy with the emperor and escape to Montmédy. At first general De Wimpffen (called to the command when MacMahon was wounded, ) indignantly rejected the terms offered by the victor, and the emperor had a fruitless interview with count Bismarck to endeavour to mitigate them. On 2 Sept. the emperor wrote in autograph to the king of Prussia, “Mon frère, n'ayant pu mourir à la tête de mes troupes, je dépose mon épée au pied de votre majesté. NAPOLEON." A capitulation of Sedan and the whole army therein was signed by generals von Moltke and De Wimpffen at the château of Bellevue, near Frenois, at 11'30 a.m., and at 2 p.m. an interview took place between the king and the emperor, who was downcast but dignified. The conflict was principally carried on by the artillery, in which (according to the emperor) the Germans had the advantage, not only in number (600 to 500), but also in weight, range, and precision. The carnage was awful, and the field the next day was a mass of shattered bones, torn flesh, and coloured rags. About 25,000 French prisoners were taken in the battle, and 83,000 surrendered the next day, together with 70 mitrailleuses, 400 fieldpieces, and 150 fortress guns. About 14,000 French wounded were found lying in the neighbourhood, and about 3000 escaped into Belgium and laid down their arms. The great army of the north had ceased to exist. Among the killed was lieut. col. Pemberton, a correspondent of the Times, who had approached too near the conflict. The French emperor and his suite arrived at Wilhelmshöhe, a castle near Cassel appointed for his residence, (formerly inhabited by his uncle Jerome, when king of Westphalia), in the evening of 5 Sept.
-On 1 Sept. the village of Bazeilles was stormed by the Bavarians and burnt, it was said, because the inhabitants fired on the ambulances; many women and children perished. The French denied the provocation. The place had been previously twice bombarded and stormed by the maddened combatants.
SEEDS. An act was passed to prevent the adulteration of seeds (a common practice), 11 Aug. 1869.
SERVIA (p. 664). Milan, nephew of the prince Michael (assassinated, 10 June, 1868), was chosen his successor, 22 June; 14 of the murderers were executed, 28 July following.
SHIPPING, British (p. 668). In 1869: 24,187 registered sailing vessels (tonnage, 4,765,304 tons) ; 2,972 steam vessels (948,367 tons).
SILKWORM DISEASE. In 1853 the annual produce of sericulture in South France was estimated at about 4,680,oool. Soon after a disease broke out in the worms, which reduced the value of the silk crop to about one-third that amount. In 1858 a commission was appointed to inquire into the nature of the disease, then termed pébrine; and M. Quatrefages, in 1869, proved that it is hereditary, contagious, and infectious. M. Filippi discovered in the blood of the diseased worms a multitude of cylindrical corpuscles, since named panhistophyton, which Pasteur, who took up the study in 1865, has demonstrated to be parasitical, and the cause of the disease. He has since devised a way by which the organic germs may be got rid of, and the disease extirpated.
SIMONY (p. 674). By the statute of Anne, stat. 2, c. 12 (1713) the Rev. James John Merest was convicted of simony 26–29 Nov. 1869, and deprived.
SMITHFIELD (p. 678). The new metropolitan meat-market was inaugurated by the lord mayor James Lawrence 24 Nov., and opened for trade i Dec. 1868.
SOCIAL SCIENCE (p. 679). The National Association met at Birmingham 30 Sept. 1868; at Bristol 29 Sept. 1869 ; at Newcastle-on Tyne 21 Sept. 1870.
SOISSONS (p. 680). This ancient city, after three weeks' investment and four days'
25, 26 Feb.
28 Sept. »
bombardment, surrendered to the Germans under the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, 16 Oct., 1870. 99 officers, 4633 men, 128 guns, &c., were said to be taken. The Germans also obtained a second line of railway from Châlons to Paris.
SOLFERINO (p. 681). On 24 June, 1870, on the site of the battle, three ossuaries, containing the bones of thousands of the slain, were solemnly consecrated in the presence of representatives of Austria, France, and Italy.
SOLICITOR-GENERAL (p. 681). On sir William Brett being made a judge, sir Richard Baggallay became his successor, 14 Sept. 1868. At the resignation of the Disraeli ministry sir John Duke Coleridge became solicitor-general, 12 Dec. 1868.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (p. 683). Sir James Fergusson became governor Dec. 1868.
SPAIN (p. 688). Law enacted abolishing normal schools, and Peaceful elections for constituent cortes, subjecting education to the priests, 2 June, 1868
19, 20 Dec. 1868 Duke and duchess of Montpensier arrested and Manifesto of the duc de Montpensier, justifying exiled
6 July his recent entry into Spain dated 19 Dec. Marshal Serrano,' general Dolce, and others, Violent insurrection at Malaga suppressed with exiled
about 10 July, much slaughter Insurrection begins in the fleet, 18 Sept. ; joined Election of members for the cortes
17 Jan. 1869 by the garrison and city of Cadiz, 19 Sept. ; The Spanish envoy at Rome not received,
accepted by nearly all Spain, 19–30 Sept. „ Prim arrives at Cadiz, 17 Sept. ; announces Gutierez de Castro, civil governor of Burgos, a provisional government
19 Sept. » murdered in the presence of priests while The ministers resign, 19, 20 Sept. ; José Concha taking an inventory of the artistic treasures becomes president of the council, 22 Sept.;
of the cathedral Bravo Murillo and his colleagues flee to Insurrection in Cuba increasing
Meeting of the cortes, 11 Feb."; Rivero elected [Royalist leaders : José Concha, marquis de president .
Havaña, Manuel Concha, marquis de Duero, The provisional government resign ; Serrano at Madrid ; the marquis de Pezuela at Barce- re-appointed head of the government with lona; Eusebio de Calonge in the north ; Pavia same ministry
y Lacy, marquis de Novaliches in Andalusia.] Riots at Xeres on account of conscription Novaliches, the royalist general, defeated at
16 March Alcolea by Serrano, 27 Sept. ; surrenders, Spanish Protestant religious service at Madrid,
28 March, » The queen flies to Bayonne and thence to Pau, Insurrection in Cuba fomented by Americans, and protests 29, 30 Sept.
April, The deposition of the queen declared
61st anniversary of the Madrid revolution and 29 Sept.
massacre of the French (1808) 2 May, A national guard organised
30 Sept. , The cortes vote for a monarchy (214 to 71), Don Juan, son of don Carlos, renounces his
21 May, , hereditary rights in favour of his son, Carlos, The new constitution promulgated
Marshal Serrano elected regent by the cortes, Serrano enters Madrid, 3 Oct. ; Serrano, Prim, 15 June; sworn
18 June, and Olozaga constitute a provisional govern- New ministry under Prim, about
18 June, , ment.
Oct. Carlist risings in La Mancha and at Ciudad Prim enthusiastically received' at Madrid,
Real, suppressed about
July-Aug. 7 Oct.
United States' overtures respecting Cuba indigThe education law of 2 June annulled; the nantly rejected
about 18 Sept. Jesuits and other religious orders suppressed; Candidature of the duke of Genoa discussed the laws expelling the Jews abrogated; free
Sept.-Oct. dom of religious worship decreed,
Republican risings at Tarragona, Barcelona,
about 12, 13 Oct. and other places, suppressed with bloodshed, All the local juntas dissolved by manifesto of Sept. ; republicans defeated near Reus, 4 Oct.; the provisional government
Saragossa cannonaded, 8 Oct.; Valencia surThe provisional government recognised by the rendered, 16 Oct. ; tranquillity generally res
United States, 13 Oct. ; by England, France, tored and Prussia, 25 Oct. ; by Austria, Sweden, Warm discussions respecting the election of a and Belgium
about 31 Oct. king ; Topete, minister of marine, resigns, Manifesto of the government declaring for uni
2 Nov. versal suffrage, and free press and education, General Dulce dies
26 Oct. Powerful republican speech of Castelar in the Prim created a marshal
about 6 Nov.
about 18 Dec. The queen arrives at Paris
6 Nov. Resignation of Prim and the ministry on the The joint electoral committee at Madrid declare Italian government opposing the nomination in favour of a limited monarchy
of the duke of Genoa as king of Spain, 4 Jan. 1870 Decree for formation of a citizen force of the Prim resumes office with Topete and Rivero, Volunteers of Freedom 18 Nov.
10 Jan. Loan of 20,000,oool. proposed by Figueroa, Majority in the assembly for Prim against the
minister of finance; 4,000,000l, said to be un- combined unionists and liberals 3 April, 1 dertaken by Rothschilds; about 2,000,oool. Conscription riots at Barcelona ; soon supsubscribed from Spain about 25 Nov. pressed
7, 8 April, , Insurrection against the provisional govern
The duc de Montpensier, after great provocation, ment breaks out at Cadiz, 5 Dec.; murderous kills don Enrique de Borbon, brother of the conflicts, 6 Dec. ; the city invested ; sur- ex-king, in a duel, 12 March ; tried, conrenders; entry of general Caballero de Roda, demned, and fined
12 April, general of the army of Andalusia 12 Dec. The offered crown declined by Espartero, May,
6 June, ,
28 Aug. »
28 Aug. 1
30 Dec. 31 Dec.
colonies presented to the cortes 28 May, 1870 Amadeus, duke of Aosta (born 30 May, 1845), Two Englishmen of Gibraltar seized by bri- accepts the candidature for the crown, 20 Oct.
gands ; ransomed for 52001. ; brigands after- Elected by the cortes by 191 votes: (63 for a wards attacked by the Spanish civil guard ; republic; 27 for the duc de Montpensier) several of them killed, and part of the ran
16 Nov som recovered
Proclaimed king Rojo Arias carries a resolution requiring an The ex-queen, on behalf of her son Alfonso, absolute majority in the cortes for any pro- protests against the election
21 Nov. posed sovereign (179 out of 356); this ex- The duke accepts the crown from a deputation cludes all present candidates
of the cortes at Florence, and says "that his Isabella II. abdicates in favour of her son honesty should rise above the struggle of Alfonso.
parties, and that he had no other object but Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen the peace and prosperity of the nation.” nominated king, accepted by the regent and
4 Dec. ministry, 6 July : this justified by the govern- Stormy session in the cortes respecting arrangement in a circular, 7 July; on the strong oppo- ments for the new king, 19 Dec ; Rivero, the sition of France he resigns
12 July, , president, resigns Renewed agitation for a republic, about 9 Aug. Prim fired' at and wounded in his carriage Amnesty for all political offences since 29 Sept. by six men who escaped ; great indignation 1868, published
10 Aug. at Madrid ; Topete rejoins the ministry ; Irruption of Carlists into Navarre, 27 Aug; „ vote of confidence in it
28 Dec. defeated
Prim dies in the evening; the king received by The Basque provinces put into a state of siege, Topete at Cartagena .
Funeral of Prim The French republic warmly recognised Sept. ,, The king enters Madrid, visits the body of Prim, Ministerial crisis 15 Sept. , and takes the oath
2 Jan. 1871 SPANISH REFORMED CHURCH, constituted at Gibraltar 25 April, 1868. mission of general Prim its missionaries entered Spain soon after the revolution, in Sept. following.
SPICHEREN, see Saarbrück.
STAMPS (p. 693). By the Stamp Acts, 10 Aug. 1870, newspaper stamps were abolished after 1 Oct. 1870. The new stamp duties imposed came into effect 1 Jan. 1871. Annual revenue received from stamps 31 March, 1868, 9,475,1776. ; 1869, 9,241,450l. ; 1870, 2,288,5531.
STOCKS (p. 700). Average price of 3 per cent. consols in 1866, 88; in 1867, 93; in 1868, 93}; in 1869, 92}; on 10 Oct., 1870, 923. During the greatest crisis ever developed in the history of the world, the funds remain day after day without a fractional movement.” —Times, 11 Oct. 1870.
STRASBURG (p. 702). The cathedral, an epitome of Gothic art, was founded by Clovis, and reconstructed by Pepin and Charlemagne. After destruction by lightning 1007, it was principally rebuilt by Erwin de Steinbach and his son in the 14th century. The lofty tower was completed in 1439. The celebrated astronomical clock, after a long stoppage, was repaired by M. Schwilgué, and inaugurated 1 Jan. 1843. Strasburg was invested by the Germans, principally from Baden, during the Franco-Prussian war, 10 Aug. 1870. Gen. Von Werder assumed the command of the besiegers, and the bombardment gan 14 Aug. and a vigorous sally was repulsed 16 Aug. Gen. Uhrich, the commander, declared that he would not surrender except upon a heap of ashes. After a heroic resistance, and when a breach had been made and an assault was impending, notice was given, 27 Sept. and the place surrendered at 2 A.M. 28 Sept.; at 8 A.M. 17,150 men and 400 officers laid down their arms. The German loss was said to be 906 men, of whom 43 were officers. The Germans entered Strasburg 30 Sept., the anniversary of its surrender to the French in 1681 by a surprise. Uhrich received the grand cross of the legion of honour, Oct. 1870. The invaluable library was destroyed and the cathedral much injured. About 400 houses were destroyed, and 8000 persons rendered homeless.
STREET RAILWAYS, see Tramroads.
SUEZ CANAL (p. 704). French and English vessels enter the canal, The works visited by the prince and princess
Nov. 1868 of Wales Mr. John Fowler, the engineer, reported the
The canal successfully opened in the presence
23 Mar. 1869 canal as suitable for steamers and mail of the emperor of Austria, the empress of traffic, but not for vessels requiring tugs, the French, the viceroy of Egypt, and others, 5 Feb. 1869
17 Nov. Water of the Mediterranean admitted to the M. de Lesseps entertained in London 4 July, 1870 salt lakes
SUGAR (p. 704). The duty was considerably reduced by the customs act, 1 Aug., 1870. Quantity of raw sugar imported into the united kingdom in 1867, 10,545,315 cwt. ; in 1868, 11,796,161 cwt. ; in 1869, 11,033,653 cwt.
SUICIDES in England and Wales in 1867, 987 males, 371 females; in 1868, 1138 males, 408 females ; in 1869, 1165 males, 397 females. Mr. Stephenson, better on races; the “levia- minister at Washington, formerly a corres9 Feb. 1869 pondent for the Times
19 July 1870. G. H. Townsend, historical scholar
Mr. Robert K. Bowley, 14 years manager of Lord Cloncurry 3 April, the Crystal palace company
25 Aug. » Sir Robert H. J. Harvey, Norwich banker, Dr. Augustus Matthiessen, eminent chemist, 15 July ; died
19 July, 1870 professor at St. Bartholomew's hospital, 6 Oct. M. Prévost-Paradol, the accomplished French
SUNDAY LECTURE SOCIETY was founded 25 Nov. 1869. It began its proceedings by a lecture delivered by Dr. W. B. Carpenter at St. George's hall, Regent-street, 16 Jan. 1870. Its success was reported at the first annual meeting, 7 July, 1870. See Kecreative Religionists.
SURVEY ACT, passed 12 May, 1870. See Ordnance Survey.
SUSPENSORY BILL, relating to the Irish church (p. 708), rejected by the house of lords 30 June, 1868.
SWEDEN (p. 710). Princess Louisa was married to Frederic, crown-prince of Sweden, 28 July, 1869. Neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war was proclaimed 4 Aug. 1870. Prince born 27 Sept. 1870.
SYLLABUS OF ERRORS in modern times ; 80 paragraphs divided into 10 chapters , issued by pope Pius IX., with an encyclical letter, 8 Dec. 1864. It condemned heresy, modern philosophy, and liberalism in politics ; was forbidden to be read in French churches, and was generally opposed, but was adopted by the council at Rome 1870.
TAXES (p. 717). Gross amount of assessed taxes for year ending 31 March, 1868, 3,509,000l.—1869, 3,494,000l.-1870, 4,500,000l.
TEA (p. 717) imported in 1867, 128,028,726lbs.; in 1868, 154,845,863 lbs. ; in 1869, 139,223,298 lbs.
TELO-DYNAMIC TRANSMITTER, invented by M. Hirn, is an arrangement of waterwheels, endless wires, and pulleys, for conveying and using the power of water-falls at a distance, and has been much used since 1850. The apparatus was shown at Paris in 1862.
TENANT-RIGHT. Bills to amend the position of Irish tenants in relation to their landlords were brought into parliament by Mr. Sharman Crawford, 1835, Sir Joseph Napier, 1852, Mr. Cardwell, 1860, Mr. Chichester Fortescue, 1866, Lord Naas, 1867. The Irish land bill settling the question passed 8 July, 1870. See Ulster.
THAMES (p. 721). New bye-laws to protect the fish in the Upper The Thames embankment-Victoria or northern
Thames passed by the Conservators, 14 June 1869 side: the footway was opened to tbe public, The Thames tunnel, transferred to the East 30 July, 1868; the roadway was opened by London railway company, was closed 21 July, the prince of Wales
13 July, 1870 The Tower subway, an iron tube tunnel beneath The proposal to build public offices upon the
the Thames, constructed by Messrs. Barlow, reclaimed land negatived by the house of was begun 16 Feb. 1869, and privately opened,
July, April, 1870. It was said to have cost only 16,000l.
THEATRES (p. 724). New ones opened: the Globe, Strand, 28 Nov. 1868; the Gaiety, Strand, 21 Dec. 1868; Charing Cross, 19 June, 1869; Vaudeville, 16 April, 1870. Opéra Comique, 299, Strand, opened 29 Oct, 1870, for Mlle. Dejazet.
THIONVILLE, the ancient Theodonis villa, a fortified city on the Moselle, N. E. France. It was the occasional residence of Charlemagne and his successors, and on the extinction of his race, it was successively held by private lords, the counts of Luxemburg, the dukes of Burgundy, the house of Austria, and the kings of Spain. It was taken by the duke of Guise,