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5,000,0001., which was necessary his objection to the principle of an for the maintenance of the na- Excise duty, and his admission of tional establishments and the na- many of the evils of this tax, he tional faith?

conscientiously believed that the Mr. Henry Drummond offered Chancellor of the Exchequer could, to exchange this tax for any other after the House had decided upon the Chancellor pleased to name, the expenditure, remit 5,000,0001. and he wished he could muster up a year. Before this remission was courage enough to tax the Man- made, the House must effect, with chester manufacturers. This mo- a due regard to the public credit, tion would be a real test of the a proportionate reduction of the honesty of the plea upon which expenditure. It was, therefore, the repeal of the Corn Laws was his duty to vote against the carried-whether it was to furnish motion. cheap food for the people, or to Mr. Spooner disputed the soundget rid of so much cotton manu- ness of Sir C. Wood's conclusion, factures. He did not advocate the that cheapening an article of genemotion on the ground of justice ral demand did not give an imto the landed interest; he sup- pulse to consumption, which would ported it because it was of essen- overturn the whole of his free-trade tial importance to the labouring theory, to which the malt tax classes to have cheap and whole- and the restrictions prescribed by some beer. Mr. Drummond gave the Excise laws were repugnant. some entertaining details respect. The highest authorities maintained ing the sophistications of this that nothing could justify Excise beverage, which, in its genuine duties but absolute necessity, yet state, he believed was a very 9,000,0001. of Customs had been scarce article.

thrown away, and the malt tax reMr. Bass supported the motion. tained. Though a Free-trader, he sympa- Mr. Hodges, though he had on thised very strongly with the con- a former occasion voted for the redition of the agricultural interest, peal of this tax, could not do so and considered it to be the duty now, when the alternative must of the House, by every legitimate be this tax or an increase of the inmeans, to alleviate their distress. come tax. He hoped, however, that if He believed that the repeal of the the circumstances of the exchequer malt duty would afford such alle- permitted hereafter, the tax might viation, and that a repeal of the be reduced, and he pleaded likewhole duty, which would be a wise for an abatement of the hop relief of 35 per cent. to the con- duty. sumer, would be attended with a Mr. J. Wilson observed that, very different result from the case generally speaking, Excise duties mentioned by the Chancellor of were no infraction of the principles the Exchequer, which was only of free trade, which forbade only that of a diminution of the duty. taxes for protection. There was He was persuaded that even a nothing peculiar in the article of reduction of one-half of the duty malt to call for the relinquishment would be beneficial.

of 5,000,0001., which would only Mr. M. Gibson said, the ques- lead to an increased importation tion was whether, notwithstanding from abroad; for the additional

per cent.

the year

10,000,000 quarters of barley could prosperity of the country, but with not be produced except by dis- reference to recent legislation and placing a quantity of wheat. Malt the condition of the agricultural was not so heavily taxed as other classes. The House should adopt articles-it paid 57 per cent., as a principle, that relief should be whereas coffee paid 100 per cent., sought from the reduction of ExEnglish spirits 333 per cent., tea cise, not Customs duties. On every 200 per cent., and tobacco 1200 ground of policy the motion should

After the finances of be supported, the effect of which

had been settled, to give would be to bring the House to its up 5,000,0001. at one blow, would senses; it would terminate for be a degree of recklessness of ever a series of experiments, make which the House would not be the Government acknowledge their guilty, and a breach of faith with purpose, and strip from them that the public creditor.

convenient veil which had too long Mr. Disraeli could not consider shrouded their features. the proposition before the House Lord John Russell said Mr. apart from the condition of the Disraeli had enunciated a danagricultural classes, which no one gerous principle when he

exdenied was one of great depression. alted the land into a paramount The only difference was, that on interest, and claimed an exemption bis side it was not unexpected, for it from an amount of taxation whereas on the other it was un- which, if not otherwise supplied, expected. He had, then, a right to would disable this country from ask of the Government some dis- fulfilling its obligations. It was tinct view of what they thought satisfactory, however, to him (Lord would be the future condition of John) to find that upon the subject the agricultural classes. They had of the malt tax Mr. Disraeli did been heretofore told that the dis- not represent the sentiments of tress was transient, and that prices Lord Stanley, who had declared were rallying, but the end of the that, if a member of that House, Session was approaching, and the he would oppose the remission of depression was aggravated. Our this tax without a substitute. He taxation was derived from three (Lord John) had never expected sources-duties on imports, inland that the transition from one system taxation, and local contributions. to another could be unaccompanied Great part of the second class of by partial suffering; but when he taxes, and the whole of the third, was asked whether he considered were raised from the land and its low prices a benefit or an evil, he adjuncts. Could such a system answered that, discussing the quescontinue, which diminished the tion as a matter of speculation, means, whilst it increased the bur- low prices might be the result dens of the contributors of the of unusual circumstances, which greatest portion of their revenue ? should not be taken as a rule; The motion must, therefore, be but, as legislators, the Governconsidered, not upon the narrow ment said, be those prices bigh basis of the state of the revenue, or low, they would not legislate for which the Chancellor of the to produce artificial prices for the Exchequer was responsible, and food of the people. Pointing to which was no infallible test of the the successful results of the free. trade policy, he inferred therefrom welfare of the land was bound up that the temporary depression of with that of all the other interthe agricultural interest had been ests, and those were the interests more than made up by the general which the Government had conprosperity of the country. It was sulted. à false and injurious policy to sepa. The House having divided, the rate the land from the other great motion was negatived by 247 interests of the country ; the against 123.

CHAPTER VI.

MISCELLANEOUS MEASURES :-ECCLESIASTICAL APPEALS Bill-Occasion

of this MeasureThe Bishop of London introduces a Bill for creating a new tribunal in lieu of the Judicial Committee of the Priry Council on Church Questions-Speech of the Bishop on moving the Second ReadingThe Bill is opposed on the part of the Government by the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Brougham, the Bishop of St. David's, Lord Campbell, the Earl of Harrowby, and the Earl of Car- . lisle, and supported by the Duke of Cambridge, Lord Lyttelton, and the Bishop of Oxford - The Second Reading is negatived by 84 to 51. ReFORM OF THE UNIVERSITIESMr. Heywood moves an Address to the Crown, to issue a Commission of Inquiry into the State of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and DublinSir R. H. Inglis opposes the Motion on behalf of Oxford, and Mr. Napier on behalf of Trinity Colleye, Dublin-Lord John Russell surprises the House by intimating the intention of Government to concede the Commission— Remarks of Mr. Goulburn, Mr. Roundell Palmer, and other MembersThe Debate is adjourned— Incidental discussions on the subject in the House of LordsDeclaration of the Duke of Wellington-Remarks of Lord Monteagle, and assurance given by Lord Carlisle, as to the intended constitution of the Commission--Resumption of the Debate on Mr. Heywood's Motion - Speeches of Mr. Roundell Palmer, Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Law, and Lord John Russell-A division takes place, which results in a majority of 22 in favour of the Commission. ALTERATION of the LAW of Marriage—Mr. Stuart Wortley revives his Bill of the preceding session for legalising Marriages within certain degrees of affinity— The introduction of the Bill is opposed, but without success— Debate on the Second ReadingSpeeches of Mr. A. B. Hope, Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Roebuck, Mr. Roundeil Palmer, Lord Mahon, Mr. Cockburn, Mr. Sheil, Mr. Cobden, and Mr. GoulburnThe Second Reading is passed by a majority of 52— The committal of the Bill is opposed by Mr. Divett, and carried by a majority of 2 only— Various Amendments are proposed without success - The Bill is passed, but is ultimately withdrawn in the House of Lords, at the End of the Session, by Earl St. Germans. SUNDAY LABOUR IN THE Post OFFICE-Motion by Lord Ashley, to discontinue the delivery of letters on Sunday, is carried against the Government by 93 to 68The alteration is soon after carried into effect, but excites much controversy and dissatisfactionAfter it has been in operation a few weeks, Mr. Locke moves an Address to the Crown, praying for a reconsideration of the Order— Mr.

Roebuck seconds the Motion-Lord Ashley strongly opposes itAfter a Debate, the Motion, as amended on the proposition of Lord John Russell, is carried by 195 to 112—The new regulations of the Post Office are shortly afterwards rescinded. AMENDMENT OF THE FACTORY ACTCircumstances which led to further legislation on the subject-Lord Ashley moves for leave to bring in a Bill to give effect to the objects of the Act of 1847Various discussions on this MeasureSir George Grey, on the part of the Government, proposes an arrangement by way of compromise between the Millowners and Operatives-Lord Ashley accedes to the proposal with some conditions-Amendments are moved during the progress of the Bill by Lord Ashley, Lord John Manners, and other Members, for the purpose of enforcing further limitations upon the hours of labour, but ultimately the Bill is passed in the shape proposed by the GovernmentThe Duke of Richmond and Earl of Harrouby propose similar Amendments in the House of Lords, but with

out success, and the Bill is passed. A

MEASURE of great import- these objections ; but that of the

ance in its bearings upon the Bishop of London, now referred constitution of the Church of Eng- to, was the only one which came land was introduced in this Session in a practical shape before Parliaby the Bishop of London, for the ment. On moving the Second establishment of a new tribunal for Reading of his Bill, on the 3rd of Ecclesiastical Appeals. Public June, the Bishop began by a very opinion had of late been forcibly earnest expression of his opinion directed to this subject, in conse- that it was impossible to overrate quence of the recent decision in the important issues depending on the Judicial Committee of the the adoption or rejection of the Privy Council upon the baptismal measure, involving not only the controversy on the Appeal of Mr. present peace, but the future inteGorham-a decision which, while it grity of the Church of England, quieted the apprehensions of a nu- and he might even add, the tranmerous section of members of the quillity of the empire itself. The. Church, occasioned great offence necessity for some modification in and exasperation to the High the principles on which ecclesiastiChurch party. The circumstance cal tribunals of appeal are founded that vital questions of doctrine had long been seen. In 1847, he might possibly depend for their ad- introduced a Bill to regulate crimi. judication upon persons, not even nal proceedings against clergymen, professing to be members of the which would in point of fact have Anglican Church, was considered created a new ecclesiastical court : as involving a risk and disad- that Bill was reintroduced, as vantage to which no other com- amended in Select Committee, in munion was subjected, and as a 1848 and 1849; and at last he dear price to pay for the benefits of brought it under the consideration State connection. Many and vari- of his reverend brethren in full asous schemes were propounded for sembly: out of the twenty-seven Bithe organization of a Church shops of England and Wales, twentyLegislature or Court of Appeal five were present; and though they which should be exempt from differed on the details of the Bill,

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