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guish the seeds of civilization in blockade of the west coast of Africa, replunge that continent in Africa, for the attainment of an the worst horrors of barbarism, Utopian object, was a violation of and give a stimulus to slavery in the law of nations. He concurred Cuba and Brazil. The argument, with Mr. Hutt in the expediency that the exertions of the African of removing the squadron, which squadron had been useless, was in- had increased the exportation of consistent with the difference negroes, and aggravated their sufthat had taken place in the ferings in the passage. prices of slaves, the present high Sir R. Inglis reduced the ancost of a negro at Cuba and Brazil nual expenditure of the blockading proving that a practical limit had squadron to 300,0001., half of been put upon the transport of na- which would be required for the tives of Africa across the Atlantic. protection of commerce, and asked Mr. Labouchere cited the testi- whether the House was prepared, mony of Sir C. Hotham, a witness for this small saving, to set at whose evidence had been invoked nought the solemn obligations we by Mr. Hutt, to the evil effects of had contracted in the face of the withdrawing the squadron without world. The capture of 600 vessels a substitute; drew a very encou- by the blockading squadron had raging picture of the progress made been no slight service rendered to iu civilizing the races on the coast Christian humanity. of Africa, chiefly through the in- Lord H. Vane supported the Auence of the republic of Liberia; motion, not on the ground of ecoand pointed out the inevitable con- nomy, but from a conviction that sequences of the resolution upon the treaties with Spain and Porour sugar-growing colonies, which, tugal had been inoperative, and suffering from a dearth of labour, that to make the blockade effectual would have to contend with foreign it must be upon a vast scale. sugar-producing countries

Mr. Cardwell argued that this manding an unlimited supply of was a question whether we should slave labour at a cheaper rate. at once and for ever surrender the

Mr. Grantley Berkeley, in sup- policy of years, and with it the porting the motion, described the hope of civilizing Africa. The ardepression of our sugar colonies, guments founded upon the alleged and insisted that the only effectual futility of the operations of our mode of putting down the Slave squadron, and its expense, he unTrade was to stop the admission dertook to refute from the eviof slave produce into this country. dence. He acknowledged that by

Sir G. Pechell would not con- a marine guard alone it was imsent to a measure which must possible to command a long line of lower the station which this coun- coast; but there were two other try had always maintained. Though agencies at work— legitimate trade, the squadron had not been efficient and the higher influence of enough, it had effected a large Christianity; and how could these amount of good, and ships must be agencies continue to work if demaintained on the African coast to prived of protection ? He then protect the factories and legitimate showed on how large an extent of commerce.

the coast of Africa the Slave Trade Mr. Anstey maintained that our had ceased ; that the price of

com

slaves had risen at Cuba through squadron conditionally, but absothe interruption of the trade by lutely--was, that if the trade were our cruisers; that the number of stopped at one place, it broke out slaves imported into the Brazils at another. The fact invalidated was not regulated by the demand, the argument founded upon the but by the facilities of escaping statement that parts of the coast our squadron. The question re

were clear.

Had the squadron solved itself into this : make the extinguished the trade? No. Had Slave Trade easy, and it will be it made a progress towards its exin the power of black, or Spanish, tinction ? That was the real issue ; or Portuguese savages, to obtain and Mr. Gladstone read statements better returns in human flesh than of the prices of slaves, and of the in palm oil. Finding such strong percentage of captives in succesevidence of the progress of civi- sive years, contending that the lization and of legitimate com- figures showed that there had been merce in Africa, he could not, as no progress, but rather a retroan honest man, take upon himself gression. Although the burden to paralyze the hands of those who cast upon the people of England had been instrumental in accom- by this charge was not limited to plishing these changes, by con- 700,0001., that was not his main senting to withdraw our squadron, motive; he wanted to grapple with and leave the coasts of Africa to the question on the ground of the horrors of piracy as well as the humanity and philanthropy, and Slave Trade.

he had come to the conclusion, Captain Pelham spoke in oppo- from evidence of which he gave sition to the motion, amidst fre- the details, that the present sysquent manifestations of impa- tem of repression did not diminish, tience.

but, on the contrary, had a tenMr. Gladstone, declaring his in- dency to increase, the sum of tention to vote in favour of the human wretchedness. Then he motion, observed, that it contem. might be asked, what other course plated only the single treaty with he would suggest? It was an inFrance, which placed this country dispensable condition, that there in a position so anomalous and should be a general belief amongst preposterous as justified a motion other nations of our sincerity; to put an end to it. He joined but, having passed the Sugar Duwith those who stigmatized the ties Act, he defied the Government Slave Trade as a detestable traffic; to re-establish our reputation for but the system of armed repres. sincerity. We must repeal that sion had long ago been pronounced Act, double our squadron, obtain futile by Sir F. Buxton; it had the right of search from France been condemned by Lord J. Rus- and America, with power to punish sell, and by the most responsible foreign crews; and lastly, we must and credible witnesses. Was this force Spain and Brazil to fulfil to be made a permanent system ? their treaties. Without these conor would the House look the sub- ditions—and they were almost ject fairly in the face, and come hopeless — the

of to some decisive resolution? The squadron in Africa would be viopinion of Sir C. Hotham-who sionary. did not counsel the removal of the Lord John Russell said, the

success

our

House was asked, at the end of a it would be absolutely necessary to series of triumphs achieved in the keep up some force upon the coast, cause of humanity, to take a retro- for if there ever was a commerce grade step, proclaiming to the world which deserved protection it was that we no longer meant to take that now springing up in the place measures against the Slave Trade of the Slave Trade. The removal of or to offer a substitute, thereby restrictions from that trade would spreading discouragement through- destroy the hope of civilizing out the world, in which there were Africa, whilst it would so imother nations admiring and imi- mensely increase the importation tating our example. The renun- of slaves into Brazil, that our West ciation of our treaty with France India Islands would be unable to would enable slavers to hoist the stand the competition. In reply French flag, and the effect of the to the question, what should be speeches of the mover and seconder done to suppress the Slave Trade, was, Let us have a free trade in Lord J. Russell said he did not slaves." Lord John questioned the despond. If the cause was good, correctness of Mr. Gladstone's and had gradually enlisted the facts ; in the comparison he had nations of the world in its favour, made between the existing Slave he believed that it was anything Trade and that made under Sirbut hopeless, and that nothing William Dolben's Act, he had for could destroy it but the want of gotten that the latter was a regu- moral courage on our part. lated trade. Sir C. Hotham and Lord R. Grosvenor stated, in a Captain Matson stated that the few words, his reasons for voting sufferings of the slaves in the in favour of the motion ; and Mr. middle passage would be aggra- Hutt having replied, the House vated if the trade were

divided, when the motion was ne. lested. In the matter of economy gatived by 232 against 154.

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CHAPTER IV.

AFFAIRS OF IRELAND.-Statement of Lord John Russell respecting Irish Distress, and the proposed mode of dealing with the distressed Unions and repayments of Advances-After some debate, the Ministerial Resolutions are agreed to-Bill founded thereon brought in and passed. ExTENSION OF THE IRISH PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE.-Origin and progress of the Measure-Bill brought in by the Secretary for IrelandIts general features-Debate on the Second Reading-Remarks of Mr. Napier, Mr. Hume, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. M. J. O'Connell, Mr Bright, and other Members-The Bill is read a Second Time nem. con.-It encounters a good deal of opposition in Committee-Various Amendments proposed, but, with slight exceptions, rejected-The proposition to reduce the Standard of Franchise according to rating from 81. to 51. is defeated by 142 to 90-On the Third Reading being moved, an animated opposition is manifested, but it is carried by 254 to 186-In the House of Lords the Earl of Desart proposes to raise the Standard of Franchise from 81. to 151.-Speeches of the Bishop of Down, Lords Stanley, Wharncliffe, Mountcashell, and Brougham, the Earls of Shrewsbury and Carlisle, Earl Fitzwilliam, and the Marquess of Lansdowne-The Amendment is carried against Ministers by 72 to 50-Lord Stanley then proposes and carries an Amendment affecting the Registration Clauses, by a majority of 16—On the Amendments coming down to the House of Commons for consideration, Lord John Russell moves the House to accede to a 121. Franchise as a compromise, and to reject the Registration Amendment-The House after a debate adopts that course— -The Lords eventually consent to the alteration fixing the Franchise at 121. and to restore the Registration Clauses as before-The Bill passed. ABOLITION OF THE LORD LIEUTENANCY OF IRELAND.-Lord John Russell moves to introduce a Bill for that purpose-His Speech-Remarks of Mr. Grattan, Mr. Grogan, Mr. Fagan, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. B. Osborne, and other Members-Leave givenDebate on the Second Reading-Several Irish and other Members vehemently oppose the Bill-The Debate is adjourned, and important Speeches are delivered by Sir Robert Peel, Sir George Grey, Mr. Sheil, Mr. Disraeli, Sir R. Inglis, and other leading Members-The Second Reading is carried by a majority of 225, but the measure is ultimately thrown over to the following Session. CONFLICT AT CASTLE WEllan.Lord Stanley brings forward a Motion in the House of Lords demanding an investigation into this affair, and arraigning the Irish Policy of the Government-His Speech - The Earl of Clarendon defends his own Administration at great length-Speeches of the Earl of Roden. Earl of Winchilsea, Lord Brougham, and other Peers-The Motion for Papers is acceded to without opposition.

IN
N the present chapter we pro- great dangers: one, of allowing

pose to give a summary of the the people to perish by famine; principal matters of discussion and the other, of imposing burdens legislation with respect to Ireland upon the land which it was unable which engaged the attention of Par- to sustain. As evidence that there liament during this Session. They was a cheering hope that a beneincluded the Ministerial proposi- ficial change was taking place, Lord tion for advances for the relief of John referred to official reports the distressed Unions, the Bill for from Ireland, which bore testithe extension of the Elective Fran- mony to the facts of a growing chise in Counties and Boroughs, the desire to cultivate the land, of the proposed measure for the abolition adoption of better modes of culof the Lord Lieutenancy, and the ture, and of the satisfactory state motion of Lord Stanley for an in- of the fisheries on the coast. But vestigation of the circumstances the most remarkable change was attending the conflict at Dolly's perceived in the very great dimiBrae, of which an account has been nution of the pressure of the poorgiven elsewhere. On the 16th of rates, the decrease of expenditure February the House of Commons, for the poor between 1848-9 at the commencement of public and 1849-50 being no less than business, having resolved itself 180,0001. The decrease in the into a committee upon the dis- amount of out - door relief was tressed Unions, and repayment of more remarkable still. This diadvances to Ireland,

minution was attributable partly Lord John Russell rose to state to the cheapness of food, and the general view taken by the Go- partly to increased vigilance in vernment of the existing state of watching cases of imposture, and Ireland, and their proposal with the determination of Boards of respect to the advances which had Guardians to restrict relief to the been made for its relief. After a really destitute. It was, however, few preliminary remarks upon the a prevailing opinion amongst officondition of Ireland during the cial persons in Ireland that the last few years, and the important loans of former years imposed a change now going on in its social heavy burden upon the proprietors state -- upon the disorganization of land ; that although they might arising from the anomalous po- bear the rates for the relief of the sition of the labouring classes sub- poor, they would be unable to sussisting upon potato-land instead tain, in addition, the charge necesof wages, which created a compe. sary for repayment of the loans. tition for land and provoked out- His Lordship then read an acrage and murder, this state of count of the advances made to things, he observed, had nearly Ireland, from the workhouse loan ceased. But, on the other hand, in 1839 (of which 1,130,0001. rea great pressure had fallen on all mained unpaid), the grand total of who were connected with landed debt for unliquidated advances in property in Ireland, and it was the ten years being 4,483,0001. the duty of the Legislature to The Government proposed to conafford temporary aid in this tran- solidate all these various debts, sition from one state to another. and to extend the period of repayIn furnishing this aid the Legis- ment to forty years, subject to the lature must steer between two same conditions of interest or no

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