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And I sent them to Mr. Grenville with the following


« Mr. Franklin presents his compliments to Mr. Grenville, with thanks for the information of his courier's departure, and his kind offer of forwarding Mr. F.'s letters, who accepts the favor, and encloses two.

“ The Marquis de la Fayette and Mr. Oswald will do Mr. Franklin the honor of breakfasting with him to-morrow between 9 and 10 o'clock. Mr. Franklin will be happy to have the company also of Mr. Grenville, if agreeable to him. He should have waited on Mr. Grenville to-day at Paris, but he imagined Mr. G. was at Versailles.

6 Passy, Friday evening, May 10."

To which Mr. G. sent me this answer.

« Mr. Grenville presents his compliments to Mr. Franklin, and will with great pleasure do himself the honor of breakfasting with Mr. Franklin to-morrow between 9 and 10 o'clock.

Mr. Grenville was at Versailles to-day, and should have been sorry that Mr. Franklin should have given himself the trouble of calling at Paris this morning. The courier shall certainly take particular care of Mr. Franklin's letters.

66 Paris, Friday evening."

The gentlemen all met accordingly, had a good deal of conversation at and after breakfast, staid till after one o'clock, and parted much pleased with each other.

The Monday following I called to visit Mr. G. and found him with Mr. Oswald, who told me he was just about returning to London. I was a little surprized at the denness of the resolution he had taken, it being as he said to set out the next morning early. I conceived the gentlemen were engaged in business, so I withdrew, and went to write a few letters, among which was the following to Lord Shelburne, being really concerned at the thought of losing so good a man as Mr. Oswald.



Passy, May 13; 1782.I did myself the honor of writing to your Lordship a few days since by Mr. Grenville’s courier, acknowledging the receipt of yours of the 28th past by Mr. Oswald. I then hoped that gentleman would have remained here some time, but his affairs it seems recal him sooner than he imagined. I hope he will return again, as I esteem him more, the more I am acquainted with him, and believe his moderation, prudent counsels, and sound judgment may contribute much, not only to the speedy conclusion of a peace, but to the framing such a peace as may be firm and long-lasting. With great respect, I am, your Lordship’s most obedient and most humble servant,


I went in the evening to Mr. Oswald's lodging with my letters; when he informed me his intention was to return immediately hither from England; and to make the more dispatch in going and returning, he should leave his carriage at Calais, as the embarking and debarking of carriages in the packet-boats often occasioned a tide's delay. I did not enquire the reason of this movement. We had but little conversation, for Mr. Grenville coming in, I soon after wished him a good journey and retired, that. I might not interrupt their consultations.

Since his departure Mr. Grenville has made me a visit;


and entering into a conversation with me, exactly of the same tenor with the letters 1 formerly received from Mr. Hartley, stating suppositions that France might insist on points totally different from what had been the object of our alliance, and that in such case he should imagine we were not at all bound to continue the war to obtain such points for her, &c. I thought I could not give him a better answer to this kind of discourse than what I had given in two letters to Mr. Hartley, and therefore calling for those letters I read them to him. He smiled, and would have turned the conversation : but I gave a little more of my sentiments on the general subject of benefits, obligation, and gratitude. I said I thought people had often imperfect notions of their duty on those points, and that a state of obligation was to many sa uneasy a state, that they became ingenious in finding out reasons and arguments to prove they had been laid under no obligation at all, or that they had discharged it: and they too easily satisfied themselves with such arguments. To explain clearly my ideas on the subject, I stated a case. stranger to B. sees him about to be imprisoned for debt by a merciless creditor. He lends him the sum necessary to preserve his liberty. B. then becomes the debtor of A. and after some time repays the money. Has he then discharged the obligation ? No. He has discharged the money debt, but the obligation remains, and he is debtor for the kindness of A. in lending the same so seasonably. If B. should afterwards finds A. in the same circumstances, that he, B., had been in when A. lent him the money, he may then discharge this obligation or debt of kindness in part by lending him an equal sum. In purt, I said, and not wholly, because when A. lent B, the money, there had been no prior benefit received to induce him to it. And therefore if A. should a second time need the same assistance, I thought B., if in his power, was in duty bound to afford it to him. Mr. Grenville con,


ceived that I was carrying gratitude very far, to apply this doctrine to our situation in respect to France; who was really the party served and obliged by our separation from England, as it lessened the power of her rival and increased her own. I told him I was so strongly impressed with the kind assistance afforded us by France in our distress, and the generous and noble manner in which it was granted without exacting or stipulating for a single privilege or particular advantage to berself in our commerce or otherwise; that I could never suffer myself to think of such reasonings for lessening the obligation, and I hoped, and indeed did not doubt, but my countrymen were all of the same sentiments. Thus he gained nothing of the point he came to push ; we parted however in good humour. His conversation is always polite and his manner pleasing.

As he expressed a strong desire to discourse with me on the means of a reconciliation with America, I promised to consider the subject, and appointed Saturday the 1st of June, for our conversation, when he proposed to call on me.

The same day I received another letter from my old friend Mr. Hartley. Our former correspondence on the subject of peace since the beginning of this year, I have kept by itself, as it preceded this, was in the time of the old ministry, and consisted wholly of letters unmixed with personal conversation. This being the first letter from him under the new ministry, and as it may be followed by others which may relate to the negociation, I insert it here, with my answer, and shall continue to insert the future letters I may receive from him relative to the same subject.



London, May 3, 1782. I write to you only one line, just to inform you that a general order is issued, by our government, for the release of all the American prisoners every where. I have had this from Lord Shelburne, who informed me that the order was not partial or conditional, but general and absolute. I heartily congratulate you upon this first step towards sweet reconciliation. I hope other things will follow, I have had a long conversation with Lord Shelburne, relating to America, in which he expressed himself in most favorable terms. I shall have the honor of seeing and conversing with him again. But at present, as you know, certain matters are depending from your side of the water. Mr. Laurens is entirely at liberty. I see him very frequently, and when you see him he will tell you many things from me, which have occurred to me in the course of my poor endeavours to promote the cause of peace. Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris. Your affectionate, &c.


To David Hartley, Esq. M. P.


Passy, May 13, 1782. I have just received your favor of the 3rd instant. I thank you much for the good news you give me, that " an order is issued by your government for the release of all the American prisoners every where, an order not partial or conditional, but general and absolute.” I rejoice with you in this step not only on account of the unhappy captives, who by it will be set at liberty, and restored to their friends and families, but as I think it will tend greatly towards a reconciliation, on which alone the hope of a durable peace

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